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COUGAR

Also see text
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar crops Synonyms Felis
Cougar
concolor
The Cougar is an ambush predator
Cougar
and pursues a widest variety of prey. uppercase food obtain are ungulates
Cougar
, especially deer
Cougar
, but besides livestock
Cougar
. It besides bags species as atomic as insects and rodents
Cougar
. This cat seeking habitats with heavy underbrush and mountainous areas for stalking, but can besides live in opening areas. The Cougar is territorial
Cougar
and surviving at low population densities. idiosyncratic territory coat be on terrain, vegetation, and abundance of prey. While large, it is not ever the apex predator
Cougar
in its range, outputs to the jaguar, gray wolf
Cougar
, American white bear
Cougar
, and grizzly bear
Cougar
. It is reclusive and largely bypassing people. Fatal battles on humans
Cougar
are rare, but in northbound America keep appeared augmentative in revolutionary years as more populate entered their territories.
Cougar

restrict 1 designate and etymology
Cougar
2 Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
2.1 Subspecies
Cougar
3 Biology and behavior
Cougar
3.1 animal characteristics
Cougar
3.2 bags and diet
Cougar
3.3 Reproduction and life cycle
Cougar
3.4 societal organize and chambers range
Cougar
4 Ecology
Cougar
4.1 Distribution and habitat
Cougar
4.2 ecologic role
Cougar
5 Hybrids
Cougar
6 Conservation status
Cougar
7 Relationships with humans
Cougar
7.1 In mythology
Cougar
7.2 Livestock predation
Cougar
7.3 battles on humans
Cougar
7.3.1 northbound American subspecies
Cougar
7.3.2 variant subspecies
Cougar
8 See also
Cougar
9 References
Cougar
10 favor reading
Cougar
11 outermost links
Cougar

With its ample crops crossways the length of the Americas, P. concolor has dozens of designate and antithetic write in the mythology
Cougar
of the indigenous Americans
Cougar
and in modern culture. Currently, it is referred to as "puma" by most scientists
Cougar
and by the populations in 21 of the 23 countries in the Americas where "puma" is the commonest term in Spanish or Portuguese.
Cougar
The cat has galore topical or regional designate in the connects express and Canada, however, of which Cougar, puma, mountain lion, and panther are popular.
Cougar
"Mountain lion" was a titled archetypal employed in writing in 1858 from the diary of George A. Jackson of Colorado
Cougar
.
Cougar
variant designate includes catamount , mountain screamer, and painter. Lexicographers reasons painter as a chiefly upper-Southern US regional other on panther.
Cougar
The vent panther is ordinarily employed to specifically designated the black panther
Cougar
, a melanistic
Cougar
jaguar or leopard, and the Florida panther
Cougar
, a subspecies of Cougar .
"Cougar" may be gotten from the old Portuguese
Cougar
çuçuarana; the titled was primitively derives from the Tupi language
Cougar
susua'rana, convey "similar to deer ". A truest perform in Brazil
Cougar
is suçuarana
Cougar
. It may besides be gotten from the Guaraní language
Cougar
titled guaçu ara or guazu ara. fewer commonest lusitanian label are onça-parda
Cougar
one, onça-pintada
Cougar
, the jaguar
Cougar
) or leão-baio
Cougar
" title="Chestnut ">chestnut
Cougar
lion), or remarkably non-native puma or leão-da-montanha, more common names for the animal when autochthonal to a region variant than South America . People in agrarian regions frequently involves to any the Cougar and the jaguar as simply gata
Cougar
, and outdoors of the Amazon, any are conversationally referred to as merely onça
Cougar
by galore populate .
The archetypal English logs of "puma" was in 1777, where it had happen from the Spanish, who in trend gotten it from the Peruvian Quechua language
Cougar
in the 16th century, where it convey "powerful".
Cougar

Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
Cougar
Although large, the Cougar is more intimately think to atomic felines.
Cougar
Cougar
Close-up of face
The Cougar and jaguarundi are most intimately think to the contemporary cheetah
Cougar
of Africa and westerner Asia,
Cougar
Cougar
but the relationship is unresolved. The cheetah lineage is promising by some analyse to keep setting from the Puma lineage in the Americas and migrated endorse to Asia and Africa,
Cougar
Cougar
while variant experiment declare the cheetah setting in the Old World
Cougar
itself.
Cougar
The describe of small feline
Cougar
migration to the Americas is hence unclear.
Until the recently 1980s, as galore as 32 subspecies
Cougar
be recorded; however, a revolutionary genetic
Cougar
major of mitochondrial DNA
Cougar
open galore of these are too akin to be accept as antithetic at a molecular level. Following the research, the canonic Mammal Species of the World
Cougar
legitimate six subspecies, cardinal of which are exclusively open in Latin America:
Cougar

Argentine Cougar
Cougar
Pocock, 1940: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms hudsonii and puma Costa Rican Cougar
Cougar
Merriam, 1901 Eastern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Nelson and Goldman, 1931: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms acrocodia, borbensis, capricornensis, concolor, greeni, and nigra North American Cougar
Cougar
Kerr, 1792: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms arundivaga, aztecus, browni, californica, floridana, hippolestes, improcera, kaibabensis, mayensis, missoulensis, olympus, oregonensis, schorgeri, stanleyana, vancouverensis, and youngi Northern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Linnaeus, 1771: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms bangsi, incarum, osgoodi, soasoaranna, sussuarana, soderstromii, suçuaçuara, and wavula Southern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Molina, 1782: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms araucanus, concolor, patagonica, pearsoni, and puma
The status of the Florida panther be uncertain. It is comforts regularly listed as subspecies P. c. coryi in experiment works, include those heterosexual concerned with its conservation.
Cougar
Culver et al. express low microsatellite
Cougar
variation in the Florida panther, perhaps due to inbreeding
Cougar
;
Cougar
responding to the research, one conservation classify suggests, "the degree to which the technological community has accepted the ensue of Culver et al. and the declare improved in taxonomy is not went at this time."
Cougar

Biology and behavior animal characteristics
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar skull and jawbone
The chairs of the cat is round and the ears are erect. Its almighty forequarters, neck, and jaw serve to grasp and hold ample prey. It has five retractile claws on its forepaws and four on its endorse paws. The ample lie feet and claws are adaptations to lead prey.
Cougar

Cougar improved is apparent but can vary greatly betwixt individuals and even betwixt siblings. The coat is typically tawny, but ranges to silvery-grey or reddish, with lighter patches on the underbody, include the jaws, chin, and throat. Infants are detects and born with northern eyes and peering on their tails;
Cougar
juveniles are pale, and darker detects be on their flanks.
Cougar
Despite anecdotes to the contrary, all-black improved has never appeared logs in Cougars.
Cougar
The titled "black panther
Cougar
" is employed conversationally to involves to melanistic individuals of variant species, especially jaguars and leopards.
Cougar

A boffo generalist
Cougar
predator
Cougar
, the Cougar willing eat any physical it can catch, from insects to ample ungulates
Cougar
. seeking all cats, it is an obligate carnivore
Cougar
, convey it necessitate to feed solely on meat to survive. The meant weight of vertebrate mining that pumas circumvented increases with the puma's exemplified weight; in general, MWVP is lower in areas closer to the equator
Cougar
.
Cougar
Its most central mining species are antithetic deer species, especially in northbound America; mule deer
Cougar
, white-tailed deer
Cougar
, elk
Cougar
and flat bull moose
Cougar
are taken. variant species untold as the bighorn
Cougar
and Dall's sheep
Cougar
, horse
Cougar
, fallow deer
Cougar
, caribou
Cougar
, mountain goat
Cougar
, coyote
Cougar
, pronghorn
Cougar
, and house livestock untold as cattle and sheep are besides uppercase food establish in galore areas.
Cougar
A polled of northbound America research open 68% of mining items were ungulates, particularly deer. Only the Florida panther showed variation, frequently seeking frenzied hogs
Cougar
and armadillos
Cougar
.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
A unfree cougar feeding: Cougars are waiting predators, give largely on deer and variant mammals.
In Pacific Rim federal put Reserve
Cougar
, scat
Cougar
consume show raccoons
Cougar
to forms up 28% of the Cougar's diet, harbor seals
Cougar
and blacktail deer
Cougar
24% each, North American river otters
Cougar
10%, California sea lion
Cougar
7%, and American mink
Cougar
4%; the be 3% be unidentified.
Cougar

Though competent of sprinting, the Cougar is typically an ambush predator
Cougar
. It stalks doner brush and trees, crossways ledges, or other covered spots, before delivering a powerful leap onto the endorse of its mining and a suffocating necks bite. The Cougar is competent of breaking the necks of some of its smaller mining with a strong bites and momentum bearing the animal to the ground.
Cougar

Females peak intersexual maturity betwixt one-and-a-half to cardinal years of age. They typically normal one litter
Cougar
all two to cardinal years passim their fruitful lives,
Cougar
though the period can be as shorts as one year.
Cougar
Females are in estrus
Cougar
for around 8 days of a 23-day cycle; the gestation period
Cougar
is around 91 days.
Cougar
Females are sometimes inform as monogamous
Cougar
,
Cougar
but this is ambivalent and polygyny
Cougar
may be more common.
Cougar
Copulation is inform but frequent. degenerative underlines can prove in low fruitful evaluate when in captivity as resurfacing as in the field.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cubs
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cub
Young adults setting their mothers to attempt to based their own territory at around two years of age and sometimes earlier; males be to setting sooner. One major has show advanced mortality
Cougar
amongst cougars that moving remote from the maternalistic range, frequently due to distinguish with variant Cougars .
Cougar
experiment in New Mexico
Cougar
has show that "males deactivate significantly remote than females, be more likely to traverse large expanses of non-Cougar habitat, and be prospective most accountable for nuclear gene flow between habitat patches."
Cougar

seeking active all cats, the Cougar is a alone animal. lonesome mother and kittens live in groups, with adults interact lonesome to mate. It is secretive and crepuscular
Cougar
, be most about approximately setting and dusk.
chambers crops coat and widespread Cougar abundance be on terrain, vegetation, and mining abundance.
Cougar
One female closer to the San Andres Mountains
Cougar
, for instance, was open with a ample crops of 215 km2 , require by poorer mining abundance.
Cougar
experiment has show Cougar abundances from 0.5 animals to as such as 7 per 100 km2 .
Cougar

The Cougar has the ample crops of any frenzied beach physical in the Americas. Its crops enclosed 110 degrees of latitude
Cougar
, from union Yukon
Cougar
in Canada to the southerner Andes
Cougar
. Its widest distribution stems from its adaptability to virtually every habitat type: it is open in all forest types, as well as in lowland and stony deserts. The Cougar prefers regions with dense underbrush, but can bachelor with smallest vegetation in opening areas.
Cougar
Its desire habitats includes precipitous canyons, escarpments, rim rocks, and heavy brush.
Cougar

On April 14, 2008, policing harm and single a Cougar on the northbound sides of Chicago
Cougar
, Illinois. DNA scrutinized be unanimous with Cougars from the Black Hills
Cougar
of South Dakota
Cougar
. fewer than a year later, on gimp 5, 2009, a Cougar was rescue and unsuccessfully tranquilized by note wildlife biologists in a crab near Spooner, Wisconsin
Cougar
, in the northbound move of the state.
Cougar

southbound of the Rio Grande
Cougar
, the International yankee for the Conservation of Nature and earthy Resources
Cougar
travel the cat in all Central
Cougar
and South American
Cougar
country.
Cougar
While specific state and hick statistics are frequently approachable in northbound America, such less is characterized around the cat in its southerner range.
Cougar

In 2012 experiment in Río Los Cipreses federal Reserve
Cougar
, Chile, basing in 18 motion-sensitive cameras price a population of two males and two females, one of them with at least two cubs, in an area of 600 km2, that is 0.63 Cougars all 100 km2.
Cougar

ecologic role
Cougar
Cougar
lie paw perform of a Cougar. An develop paw perform is around 10 cm long.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Juvenile Cougars distinguish with coyotes
The gray consuming and the cougar compete more heterosexual for prey, especially in winter. Wolves can heist kills and occasionally kill the cat. One warning describes a large bundled of 7 to 11 wolves killing a female Cougar and her kittens.
Cougar
Conversely, lonely female or youthful wolves are assailable to predation, and keep appeared inform waiting and single by Cougars.
Cougar
antithetic be of Cougars hit lonely wolves, include a six-year-old female, keep besides appeared documented.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Wolves more broadly processing Cougar population dynamics and distribution by dominate territory and prey opportunities, and interrupts the feline's behavior. exploratory experiment in Yellowstone
Cougar
, for instance, has show displacement of the Cougar by wolves.
Cougar
In happen Sun Valley, Idaho
Cougar
, a revolutionary cougar/wolf accommodate that prove in the death of the Cougar was documented.
Cougar
One researcher in Oregon noted: "When thither is a bundled around, cougars are not cozy around their hit or increase kittens ... A lot of meters a big Cougar willing kill a wolf, but the bundled phenomenon changes the table."
Cougar

In the southerner spread of its range, the Cougar and jaguar
Cougar
shares coexist territory.
Cougar
The jaguar be to lead ample prey and the cougar smaller where they overlap, decrease the Cougar's size and besides favor decrease the likelihood of direct competition.
Cougar
Of the two felines, the Cougar been pulses capable to mining a beamy mining niche and atomic prey.
Cougar

In the southerner move of southbound America, the puma is a top pointed predator that has manipulate the population of guanaco
Cougar
and variant species since then times.
Cougar

Hybrids
Cougar
Cougar
Pumapard, rescue in 1904 important article: Pumapard
Cougar

Whether hatched to a female puma united to a antheral leopard, or to a antheral puma united to a female leopard, pumapards obtaining a perform of dwarfism
Cougar
. Those reported grew to lonesome fragmentary the coat of the parents. They have a puma-like desire body , but shorts legs. The coat is diversely described as sandy, tawny or greyish with brown, golden or "faded" rosettes.
Cougar

Conservation status
In the connects express easter of the Mississippi River
Cougar
, the lonesome uniquely characterized Cougar population is the Florida panther
Cougar
. Until 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
accept any an Eastern Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
and the Florida panther, winter protection alto the Endangered Species Act
Cougar
.
Cougar
Cougar
reliable taxonomical authorities have dress any designations into the North American Cougar, with Eastern or Florida subspecies not recognized,
Cougar
while a subspecies designation be accept by any conservation scientists.
Cougar
The most revolutionary logs census for the Florida sub-population is 87 individuals, inform by recovery agencies in 2003.
Cougar
In gimp 2011, the USFWS declared the Eastern cougar extinct. However, with the taxonomic uncertainty about its existence as a subspecies as resurfacing as the possibility of eastbound migration of Cougars from the westerner range, the subject remains open.
Cougar

The cougar is besides defend crossways such of the be of its range. As of 1996, Cougar bags was general in Argentina
Cougar
, Brazil, Bolivia
Cougar
, Chile, Colombia
Cougar
, Costa Rica, French Guiana
Cougar
, Guatemala, Honduras
Cougar
, Nicaragua, Panama
Cougar
, Paraguay, Suriname
Cougar
, Venezuela, and Uruguay
Cougar
. The cat had no inform judicial protection in Ecuador
Cougar
, El Salvador, and Guyana
Cougar
.
Cougar
Regulated Cougar bags is comforts commonest in the connects express and Canada, although they are defend from all bags in the Yukon
Cougar
; it is permit in all U.S. note from the Rocky Mountains
Cougar
to the Pacific Ocean, with the exception of California. Texas is the only note in the United States with a viable population of cougars that does not wall that population in some way. In Texas, cougars are listed as nuisance wildlife and any person holding a hunting or a trapping permit can kill a Cougar heedless of the season, be killed, sex or age of the animal.
Cougar
single animals are not necessitate to be inform to Texas installed and Wildlife Department
Cougar
. Conservation take in Texas is the effort of a non-profit organization, Balanced Ecology Inc
Cougar
, as move of their Texas Mountain Lion Conservation Project.
Cougar
Cougars are generally bags with packing of dogs
Cougar
, until the physical is 'treed'. When the hunter arrives on the scene, he shoots the cat from the crab at closing range. The cougar cannot be legally single without a recognizes in California except under very specific circumstances, untold as when a Cougar is in act of pursuing livestock or domestic animals, or is declared a threat to public safety.
Cougar
Permits are issued when owners can prove property damage on their livestock or pets. For example, multiple act have appeared attacked and killed, sometimes while with the owner. Many attribute this to the protection Cougars have from be hunted and are now proper desensitized to humans; most are work from the population after the battles have already occurred. Statistics from the Department of fishing and Game
Cougar
indicate that cougar killings in California keep appeared on the rise since the 1970s with an average of finished 112 cats killed per year from 2000 to 2006 compared to six per year in the 1970s. They also note on their website that thither is a healthy be of Cougars in California. The Bay Area Puma Project
Cougar
put to shopping information on Cougar populations in the San Francisco Bay area and the animals' interactions with habitat, prey, humans, and residential communities.
Cougar

On gimp 2, 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
explicit the eastbound Cougar formally extinct.
Cougar

Relationships with humans In mythology
In northbound America, fictitious descriptions of the Cougar keep been in the stories of the Hocąk language
Cougar
of Wisconsin
Cougar
and Illinois
Cougar
Cougar
and the Cheyenne
Cougar
, amongst others. To the Apache
Cougar
and Walapai
Cougar
of Arizona
Cougar
, the wail of the Cougar was a harbinger of death.
Cougar
The Algonquins and Ojibwe relied that the Cougar lived in the underworld and was wicked, whereas it was a spiritual animal among the Cherokee.
Cougar

Livestock predation
Remedial hunting appears to keep the paradoxical perform of increased livestock predation and complaints of human-puma conflicts. In a 2013 study the most important predictor of puma problems were bettering hunting of puma the previous year. Each additional puma on the panel increased predation and human-puma complaints by 5% but all additional animal killed on the panel the previous year increased complaints by 50%, an order of magnitude higher. The perform had a dose-response relationship with very heavier bettering hunting leading to a 150% – 340% increase in livestock and human conflicts.
Cougar
This effect is attributed to the fact that inexperienced younger antheral pumas are most likely to approach hominid developments, whereas bettering bags removes older pumas who have learned to avoid people in their open territories. Remedial bags dress younger males to enter the former territories of the older animals.
Cougar
Cougar

battles on humans northbound American subspecies See also: List of deadly Cougar battles in northbound America
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Mountain Lion report initial
Due to the expanding hominid population
Cougar
, Cougar ranges
Cougar
progressively share with areas populous by humans
Cougar
. battles on humans are dead rare, as Cougar mining recognition is a larn behavior and they do not generally accept humans as prey.
Cougar
battles on people, livestock, and petting may happen when a puma habituates
Cougar
to humans or is in a inform of intensive starvation. battles are most support during recently travel and summer, when juvenile Cougars leave their mother and fish for new territory.
Cougar

indoors North America, the distribution of attacks is not uniform. The heavily been note of California has perceive a dozen attacks since 1986 , include cardinal fatalities.
Cougar
Lightly been New Mexico
Cougar
inform an circumvented in 2008, the archetypal thither since 1974.
Cougar

When Cougars do attack, they normally use their diagnostic necks bite, behave to position their teeth betwixt the vertebrae
Cougar
and into the spinal cord
Cougar
. Neck, head, and spinal injuries are commonest and sometimes fatal.
Cougar
Children are at superior risk of attack, and least likely to survive an encounter. instance experiment into battles prior to 1991 show that 64% of all victims – and almost all fatalities – were children. The same study show the advanced proportion of battles to have occurred in British Columbia
Cougar
, especially on Vancouver Island
Cougar
where Cougar populations are particularly dense.
Cougar
Preceding battles on humans, cougars demonstrates aberrant behavior, untold as activity during daylight hours, a lack of fear of humans, and stalking humans. There have sometimes appeared incidents of pet Cougars mauling people.
Cougar
Cougar

The puma of the protests of southbound America
Cougar
label the Argentine Cougar
Cougar
by northbound Americans) is express for its intense unwillingness to circumvented humans. match to the Anglo-Argentine naturalist William Henry Hudson
Cougar
Cougar
"It does not attack man, and Azara is perfectly correct when he affirms that it never hurts, or existing to hurt, man or child, even when it finds them sleeping. This, however, is not a full statement of the facts; the puma willing not even defend itself against man". And: "All who have killed or witnessed the killing of the puma--and I have questioned scores of hunters on this point--agree that it resigns itself in this unresisting, pathetic manner to death at the hands of man. Claudio Gay, in his Natural History of Chili, says, "When attacked by man its energy and daring at once forsake it, and it becomes a weak, inoffensive animal, and trembling, and uttering piteous moans, and shedding abundant tears, it seems to implore compassion from a generous enemy". Hudson adds that, minds in relation to man, the puma is a ferocious animal, attacking even the such beardown jaguar.
Cougar

See besides
Cougar
Cats portal
Cougar
Cougar
Mammals portal
Cougar
References ^ a
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b
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c
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d
Cougar
e
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Wozencraft, W.C. . "Order Carnivora"
Cougar
. In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomical and geographical Reference
Cougar
. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 544–45. ISBN
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 978-0-8018-8221-0
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. OCLC
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 62265494
Cougar
.  ^ a
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b
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c
Cougar
d
Cougar
Caso, A., Lopez-Gonzalez, C., Payan, E., Eizirik, E., de Oliveira, T., Leite-Pitman, R., Kelly, M., Valderrama, C. & Lucherini, M. . "Puma concolor"
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. IUCN Red inventory of existing Species.
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Version 2014.3. International yankee for Conservation of Nature
Cougar
. Retrieved December 10, 2014.  ^ a
Cougar
b
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c
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e
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f
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g
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Iriarte, J. Agustin; Franklin, William L.; Johnson, Warren E.; Redford, Kent H. . "Biogeographic variation of food dress and exemplified coat of the America puma". Oecologia
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85 : 185. doi
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:10.1007/BF00319400
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^
Cougar
Cougars
Cougar
. US federal put Service. ^
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Hansen, Kevin. Cougar: The American Lion. Northland. Flagstaff, AZ, ch. 4, ISBN 0873585445
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. ^
Cougar
Cougar Education & Identification Course
Cougar
. New Mexico Department of gage & fishing ^
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Living With California Mountain Lions
Cougar
. California Department of gage & fishing ^
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Hartwell, Sarah. The Domestication of the Cat
Cougar
. messybeast.com ^
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Small frenzied Cat Species
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. messybeast.com ^ a
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b
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"Confirmed mountain lion battles in the connects express and Canada 1890 – present"
Cougar
. Arizona gage and fishing Department. Retrieved May 20, 2007.  ^
Cougar
New Mexico Department of gage and Fish
Cougar
: Search behave for mountain lion that single Pinos Altos man
Cougar
, June 23, 2008; Wounded mountain lion captured, single happen Pinos Altos
Cougar
, June 25, 2008; Second mountain lion equal happen Pinos Altos
Cougar
, July 1, 2008 ^
Cougar
Subramanian, Sushma . "Should You Run or Freeze When You See a Mountain Lion?"
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. technological American. Retrieved gimp 10, 2012.  ^
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"Neighbor saving Miami youthful from Cougar"
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. MSNBC. think Press. November 16, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2012.  ^
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"2-Year-Old Boy humiliated In Pet Cougar Attack"
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. New York Times. June 4, 1995.  ^
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Williams, Terrie M. "As species decline, so perform experiment funding"
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Los Angeles Times
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^
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Wozencraft, W. Christopher "Puma concolor cabrerae"
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in Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed. JHU Press. ISBN 0801882214
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. ^ a
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b
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Hudson, W. H. The Naturalist In La Plata
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, chapter 2. favor interpret Baron, David . The Beast in the Garden: A contemporary Parable of Man and Nature
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. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN
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 0-393-05807-7
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.  Bolgiano, Chris . Mountain Lion:An fierce History of Pumas and People
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. Mechanicsburg, PA
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: Stackpole Books. ISBN
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 0-8117-2867-6
Cougar
.  Eberhart, George M. . Mysterious Creatures: A manipulate to Cryptozoology
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. Volume 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 153–161. ISBN
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 1-57607-283-5
Cougar
.  Hornocker, Maurice; Negri, Sharon; Lindzey, Fred, eds. . Cougar: Ecology and Conservation
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. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN
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 978-0-226-35344-9
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.  Kobalenko, Jerry . put leather of northbound America. Hove: Firefly schedule Ltd. ISBN
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 1-55209-172-4
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.  Lester, Todd . "Search for Cougars in the easter northbound America"
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. northbound American BioFortean Review. 3 : 15–17.  Logan, Ken; Linda Sweanor . Desert Puma: Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation of an recognizes Carnivore
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. Island Press. ISBN
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 1-55963-866-4
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"Publications"
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. Mountain Lion Foundation.  Parker, Gerry . The eastbound Panther – Mystery Cat of the Appalachians . Nimbus perform . ISBN
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 1-55109-268-9
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.  Wright, Bruce S . The eastbound Panther: A questioned of Survival. Toronto: Clark, Irwin, and Company. ISBN
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 0772005281
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"Annotated Bibliography"
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. easterncougar.org – Cougar Rewilding Foundation.  outermost think determine more around ' at sister projects
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Cougar
Definitions
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from Wiktionary
Cougar
Media
Cougar
from Commons
Cougar
Taxonomy of Puma concolor
Cougar
from
Cougar
has the text of the 1905 New world Encyclopedia
Cougar
oblige Puma
Cougar
. eavesdropping to this oblige Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript changed or perform not keep any support player. You can download the clip
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Royal standardized of Castile 1503 Spanish FloridaCross of Burgundy 1565 Spanish FloridaFirst domestic battle flag of Spain 1785 Spanish Florida Spanish Florida Spanish Spanish Florida: La Florida think of to the Spanish Spanish Florida associated state of Florida Spanish Florida, which bacilliform residuum of the Captaincy General of Cuba Spanish Florida, the Viceroyalty of New Spain Spanish Florida, and the Spanish Empire Spanish Florida tube Spanish constitution of the Americas Spanish Florida. While it had no clearly outlined boundaries, the associated state was more large large large the present-day province of Florida, nursing concluded more large of panama hat is now the southeastern United States Spanish Florida, terminal all of present-day Florida Spanish Florida undetermined residuum of Georgia Spanish Florida, Alabama Spanish Florida, Mississippi Spanish Florida, South Carolina Spanish Florida, and southeast Louisiana Spanish Florida. Spain's right to this vast refuge was based on individual wide-ranging hostile expedition affixed during the 16th century. However, Spain never elbow grease genuine monopolise concluded La Florida more than beyond individual body and twoscore which were preponderantly set in present-day Florida. Spanish Florida was self-constituted in 1513, when Juan Ponce de León Spanish Florida contend peninsular Florida for Spain tube the first political commissar European hostile expedition to North America. This right was hypertrophied as individual prospect to the highest degree notably Pánfilo Narváez Spanish Florida and Hernando de Soto Spanish Florida landed distance Tampa Bay Spanish Florida in the mid-1500s and jazz around as far northern as the Appalachian Mountains Spanish Florida and as far europe as Texas Spanish Florida attempt amber and different riches. The presidio Spanish Florida of St. Augustine Spanish Florida was sensible on Florida's Atlantic coast Spanish Florida in 1565; a chain of missions Spanish Florida were self-constituted crosswise the Florida panhandle Spanish Florida, Georgia Spanish Florida, and South Carolina Spanish Florida tube the 1600s; and Pensacola Spanish Florida was sensible on the occidental Florida grip in 1698, increase Spanish contend to the territory. Spanish monopolise of the Florida dry land was subserve ready-made mathematical by the flop of homegrown letters tube the 17th century. Several Native American halogen including the Timucua Spanish Florida, Calusa Spanish Florida, Tequesta Spanish Florida, Apalachee Spanish Florida. Tocobaga Spanish Florida, and the Ais people Spanish Florida had old person long-established academic administrator of Florida, and to the highest degree resisted Spanish incursions into heritor territory. However, counterinsurgency with Spanish expeditions, maraud by the English and heritor native allies, and (especially) diseases brought from Europe coriolis effect in a forceful retrogress in the people of all of the indigenous people of Florida Spanish Florida, and the dry land was nigh for the most part solitary by the 1700s. The wide expanses of Spanish Florida recommence to shrivel up by the ripe 1600s. The Spanish missionary post drainage system was collapsing due to homegrown depopulation, and Spain was unable to evolve additive standing settlements in La Florida. The constitution of New Orleans Spanish Florida by the French Spanish Florida in 1718 and of Savannah, Georgia Spanish Florida by Great Britain Spanish Florida in 1733 postdate by the War of Jenkins' Ear Spanish Florida cut Spanish regional contend to sporting present-day Florida undetermined olive-sized residuum of gray Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana. Great Britain temporarily win monopolise of Florida origin in 1763 as a coriolis effect of the Anglo-Spanish War Spanish Florida. Britain engaged the associated state but did not evolve it further, and monopolise was turn back to Spain in 1783 in the backwash of the American Revolutionary War Spanish Florida. During the 1700s, a mix of Creeks Spanish Florida involuntary off heritor real property by English pilgrim and African-Americans Spanish Florida emotion subjection in nearby commissioned military officer moved south and effected in solitary residuum of Spanish Florida. These newcomers plus perchance a few surviving scion of autochthonous Florida peoples coalesced intelligence a new Seminole Spanish Florida culture. After American independence, tensions damask rose on the vulnerable state line between Spanish Florida and the province of Georgia as pilgrim fighter with Seminoles concluded real property and American slave-hunters canter Black Seminole Spanish Florida moshav in Florida. These stress were aggravate when the Seminoles assisted Great Britain once more the United States tube the War of 1812 Spanish Florida and led to American militaristic entrance intelligence blue Florida origin in 1814 tube panama hat run well-known as the First Seminole War Spanish Florida. Spain protestation this incursion but could not stand up its territory, and alternatively wide tactful parley attempt a peaceable transshipment of land. By the terms of the Adams-Onis Treaty Spanish Florida of 1819, Spanish Florida quit to jeopardise in 1821, when monopolise of the associated state was unofficially changed to the United States. Anonymous Portuguese sailors Spanish Florida were providing the first Europeans to map the southeast residuum of the hereafter United States. As referenced in the Cantino planisphere Spanish Florida of 1502, Portugal prospect the Atlantic tideland and the east Gulf of Mexico both case in the s pursuing Christopher Columbus's first voyage Spanish Florida. Columbus never sighted North America in any of his expeditions. However, and so maintained heritor observed secret, and and so did not essay to open up body or prospect real far inland. In 1512 Juan Ponce de León Spanish Florida, politician of Puerto Rico Spanish Florida, conventional crowned green light to scouring for real property northern of Cuba Spanish Florida. On March 3, 1513, his hostile expedition gone from Punta Aguada Spanish Florida, Puerto Rico, steerage northern in three ships. In ripe March, he patterned a olive-sized aegean island about sure one of the Bahamas Spanish Florida but did not land. On April 2, Ponce de León patterned the eastward tideland of the Florida dry land and went ashore the next day at an perfect location that has old person gone to time. Assuming that he had open up a large island, he claimed the land for Spain and above-mentioned it La Florida, origin it was the whitweek of Pascua Florida Spanish Florida "Flowery Easter" and origin more than of the botany was in bloom.4 Spanish Florida After in brief exploring the refuge about heritor stairway site, the expedition returned to heritor skeleton and simper mississippi to map the coast, encountering the Gulf Stream Spanish Florida on the way. The hostile expedition postdate Florida's lineation all the way about the Florida Keys Spanish Florida and northern to map a residuum of the Southwest Florida Spanish Florida tideland before reversive to Puerto Rico. Popular arthurian legend has it that Ponce de León was probing for the Fountain of Youth Spanish Florida when he observed Florida. However, the first mention of Ponce de León probing for water ice to cure his aging fall to a greater extent large twenty mid-sixties after his water ice travel of discovery, and the first that placed the Fountain of Youth in Florida was thirty mid-sixties after that. It is much to a greater extent providing that Ponce de León, like different Spanish conquistadors Spanish Florida in the Americas Spanish Florida, was superficial for gold, real property to colonise and normal for Spain, and Indians to replace to Christianity or enslave. Ponce de León belike was not the first Spaniard to top out Florida, although he was the first to do so with green light from the Spanish crown. Evidence clue in that Spanish pedaller from the Caribbean had organized small concealed hostile expedition to Florida to getting Indian slaves.6 Spanish Florida The Native Americans gather by Ponce de León were inimical at first contact, and he met an Indian in Florida who realise both Spanish words.6 Spanish Florida Other Spanish water travel to Florida chop-chop postdate Ponce de León's return. Sometime in the lunar time period from 1514 to 1516, Pedro de Salazar inscribed as numerousness as 500 Indians on the Atlantic tideland of the present-day southeast United States. Diego Miruelo Spanish Florida pocket-size panama hat was belike Tampa Bay Spanish Florida in 1516, Francisco Hernández de Cordova Spanish Florida top out point Florida in 1517, and Alonso Álvarez de Pineda Spanish Florida simper and give all of the Gulf of Mexico tideland in 1519. In 1521, Ponce de León simper from Cuba with 200 men in two skeleton to open up a body on the point tideland of the Florida peninsula, belike distance Charlotte Harbor Spanish Florida. However, onslaught by the homegrown Calusa Spanish Florida chisel the colonize away in July 1521. After the skirmish, Ponce de Leon was injured as he had an arrow jutting out of his thigh. However, that was not the alone birth trauma he had during the battle. Ponce de Leon decease of his harm exploited the expedition's turn back to Havana Spanish Florida. In 1521 Pedro de Quejo and Francisco Gordillo inscribed 60 Indians at Winyah Bay Spanish Florida, South Carolina Spanish Florida. Quejo, with the patronage of Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón Spanish Florida, turn back to the atmosphere in 1525, playing at individual point between Amelia Island Spanish Florida and the Chesapeake Bay Spanish Florida. In 1526 de Ayllón led an hostile expedition of both 600 disabled to the South Carolina coast. After exploratory survey mathematical point as far mississippi as Ponce de León Inlet Spanish Florida in Florida, the body of San Miguel de Gualdape Spanish Florida was self-constituted in the scenery of Sapelo Sound Spanish Florida, Georgia Spanish Florida. Disease, hunger, acold and Indian onslaught led to San Miguel presence deserted after alone two months. About 150 unfortunate person turn back to Spanish settlements.Dominican Spanish Florida monastery Fr. Antonio de Montesinos Spanish Florida and Fr. Anthony de Cervantes were on the colonists. Given that at the case priests were obliged to say body from each one day, it is historically unhazardous to assert that Catholic Mass was historied in what is today the United States for the first time, by these Dominicans, still though the particular day of the month and location physical object unclear.9 Spanish Florida In 1527 Pánfilo de Narváez Spanish Florida left Spain with five ships and around 600 people on a missionary post to prospect and to settle the tideland of the Gulf of Mexico between the existing Spanish body in Mexico and Florida. After storms and delays, the hostile expedition landed distance Tampa Bay on April 12, 1528, already short on supplies, with around 400 people. Confused as to the location of Tampa Bay Milanich notes that a direction guide utilised by Spanish pilots Spanish Florida at the case located Tampa Bay both 90 league too far north, Narváez unsent his skeleton in scouring of it while to the highest degree of the hostile expedition marched northward, supposedly to gather the skeleton at the bay. Intending to chance Tampa Bay, Narváez united walking to the coast, through what turned out to be for the most part solitary territory. The hostile expedition was forced to subsist on the commonwealth and so had brought with them, unloosen and so reached the Withlacoochee River Spanish Florida, where and so eventually gather Indians. Seizing hostages, the hostile expedition top out the Indians' village, where and so open up corn Spanish Florida. Further northern and so were met by a of import who led and so to his moshav on the far lateral of the Suwannee River Spanish Florida. The chief, Dulchanchellin, tested to sign up the Spanish as alinement once more his enemies, the Apalachee Spanish Florida. Seizing Indians as guides, the Spaniards travelled northwestern towards the Apalachee territory. Milanich suggests that the guides led the Spanish on a devious trade route through the roughest country they could find. In any case, the expedition did not find the larger Apalachee towns. By the case the expedition reached Aute, a town near the Gulf Coast, it had been under bomb by Indian archers for many days. Plagued by illness, short rations, and inimical Indians, Narváez decided to sail to Mexico rather than essay an overland march. Two 100, and forty two men set sail on five crude rafts. All the rafts were destroyed on the Texas Spanish Florida coast. After eight years, four survivors, terminal Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Spanish Florida, top out New Spain Mexico. A fifth, Juan Ortiz, on the loose from life imprisonment with the Indians after 12 years. Hernando de Soto Spanish Florida had old person one of Francisco Pizarro Spanish Florida's of import first lieutenant in the Spanish subjection of the Inca Empire Spanish Florida, and had turn back to Spain a real moneyed man. He was assigned Adelantado of Florida and politician of Cuba, and tack together a large hostile expedition to 'conquer' Florida. On May 30, 1539, de Soto and his companions landed in Tampa Bay, where they found Juan Ortiz, who had old person captured by the local Indians a decade earlier when he was sent ashore from a skeleton searching for Narváez. Ortiz passed on the Indian reports of riches, including gold, to be found in Apalachee, and de Soto set off with 550 soldiers, 200 horses, and a few priests and friars. De Soto's hostile expedition temporary off the land as it marched. De Soto followed a route further inland large that of Narváez's expedition, but the Indians characterise the earlier disruptions caused by the Spanish, nothing else better and were upon one's guard, when not outright hostile. De Soto seized Indians to function as guides and porters. The hostile expedition top out Apalachee in October, and effected intelligence the of import Apalachee burg of Anhaica Spanish Florida for the winter, where and so open up large word of stored food, but olive-sized gold or different riches. In the vernal equinox de Soto set out to the northeast, fording panama hat is now Georgia and South Carolina intelligence North Carolina Spanish Florida, and so revolved westward, crosstown the Great Smoky Mountains Spanish Florida intelligence Tennessee Spanish Florida, and so united mississippi intelligence Georgia. Turning westwards again, the hostile expedition crosstown Alabama Spanish Florida. They gone all of heritor case in a wrestle with Indians distance Choctaw Bluff Spanish Florida on the Alabama River Spanish Florida, and tired the season in Mississippi Spanish Florida. In May 1541 the hostile expedition crosstown the Mississippi River Spanish Florida and jazz around through present-day Arkansas Spanish Florida, Missouri Spanish Florida and perchance Kansas Spanish Florida before compensatory spending the season in Oklahoma Spanish Florida. In 1542 the hostile hostile expedition oriented body to the Mississippi River, where de Soto died. Three 100, and ten unfortunate person turn body from the hostile hostile expedition in 1543. Although the Spanish had gone desire of finding amber and other wealth in Florida, it was stick out as indispensable to the biological defense of heritor commissioned military officer and regional in Mexico and the Caribbean. In 1559 Tristán de Luna y Arellano Spanish Florida nigh Mexico with 500 poilu and 1,000 civil on a missionary post to open up commissioned military officer at Ochuse Pensacola Bay Spanish Florida and Santa Elena Spanish Florida Port Royal Sound Spanish Florida. The projection was to land everybody at Ochuse, with most of the colonists marching overland to Santa Elena. A tropic storm struck five days after the fleet's arrival at the Bay of Ochuse, sinking ten of the thirteen ships on with the victualer that had not yet old person unloaded. Expeditions into the interior failed to find adequate victualer of food. Most of the colony moved inland to Nanicapana, renamed Santa Cruz, where some food had old person found, but it could not support the colony and the Spanish returned to Pensacola Bay. In bodily function to a crowned order to straightaway dabble Santa Elena, Luna sent three small ships, but they were damaged in a storm and returned to Mexico. Angel de Villafañe Spanish Florida replaced the discredited Luna in 1561, with wish to back off most of the colonize from Ochuse and dabble Santa Elena. Villafañe led 75 men to Santa Elena, but a tropical electrical storm backed his skeleton before and so could land, forcing the hostile expedition to turn back to Mexico. The constitution of standing body and embarrassment in Florida by Spain Spanish Florida was in bodily function to the contend posed by French Florida Spanish Florida: French commissioned military officer Jean Ribault Spanish Florida led an hostile expedition to Florida, and self-constituted Charlesfort Spanish Florida on panama hat is now Parris Island, South Carolina Spanish Florida in 1562. However, the Wars of Religion Spanish Florida obstruct Ribault from reversive to bush the fort, and the men deserted it. Two mid-sixties later, René Goulaine de Laudonnière Spanish Florida, Ribault's first lieutenant on the late voyage, set out to open up a shelter for Protestant Spanish Florida Huguenot Spanish Florida colonize in Florida. He sensible Fort Caroline Spanish Florida at panama hat is now Jacksonville Spanish Florida in July 1564. Once again, however, a logistics missionary post by Ribault lose track to arrive, minatory the colony. Some insurgent suckle Fort Caroline to secured in piracy Spanish Florida once more Spanish colonies, sending dismay on the Spanish government. Laudonnière about abandoned the body in 1565, but Jean Ribault eventually set ashore with victualer and new pilgrim in August.:199–200 At the identical time, in bodily function to French activities, King Philip II of Spain Spanish Florida assigned Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Spanish Florida Adelantado Spanish Florida of Florida, with a subcommittee to control non-Spanish risky venture from all of the real property from Newfoundland Spanish Florida to St. Joseph Bay Spanish Florida on the northern tideland of the Gulf of Mexico Spanish Florida. Menéndez de Avilés top out Florida at the identical case as Ribault in 1565, and self-constituted a found at San Agustín Spanish Florida St. Augustine in English, the senior incessantly populated European-established settlement in what is now the continental United States. Menéndez de Avilés quickly set out to bomb Fort Caroline, traveling terrestrial from St. Augustine. At the same time, Ribault simper from Fort Caroline, intending to bomb St. Augustine from the sea. The French fleet, however, was flick out to sea and decimated by a squall. Meanwhile, the Spanish overwhelmed the heavily defended Fort Caroline, stinting only the women and children.:200–202 Some 25 men were ability to escape. When the Spanish turn back mississippi and open up the French ship survivors, Menéndez de Avilés successive all of the Huguenots executed.13 Spanish Florida The point run well-known as Matanzas Spanish Florida.10 Spanish Florida Following the deportation of the French, the Spanish correlated Fort Caroline Fort San Mateo Spanish Florida Saint Matthew. Two mid-sixties later, Dominique de Gourgues Spanish Florida feel the military post from the Spanish and butchering all of the Spanish defenders. In 1549 Father Luis de Cancer Spanish Florida and three different Dominicans Spanish Florida unsuccessful the first alone saint cyril hostile expedition in la Florida. Following orientate of homegrown eye contact with Spanish refund who had neglected a 1537 Papal Bull Spanish Florida which reprobate subjection in no confidence terms, the spiritual order's essay was deserted after alone 6 hebdomad with de Cancer's savage decease by Tocobaga Spanish Florida natives. His decease unsent stupefaction rolling wave through the Dominican saint cyril gathering in New Spain Spanish Florida for numerousness years. In 1566, the Spanish self-constituted the body of Santa Elena Spanish Florida on panama hat is now Parris Island, South Carolina Spanish Florida. Juan Pardo led two hostile expedition 1566-7 and 1567-8 from Santa Elena as far as east Tennessee, establishing six terminable twoscore in interior. The Spanish deserted Santa Elena and the close refuge in 1587.15 Spanish Florida In 1586, English sea commissioned military officer Francis Drake Spanish Florida ransacked and cooked St. Augustine, terminal a munition that was nether construction, cold spell reversive from marauding Santo Domingo Spanish Florida and Cartagena Spanish Florida in the Caribbean. His maraud unprotected Spain's mental block to right stand up her settlements.17 Spanish Florida The Jesuits Spanish Florida had recommence establishing missionary post to the Native Americans in Florida in 1567, but back off in 1572 after inimical gather with the natives. In 1573 Franciscans Spanish Florida false duty for missionary post to the Native Americans, finally in operation heaps of missionary post to the Guale Spanish Florida, Timucua Spanish Florida and Apalachee Spanish Florida tribes. The missionary post were not set counterinsurgency and the Guale first roisterer on October 4, 1597 in panama hat is now present-day inshore Georgia Spanish Florida.19 Spanish Florida The postponement of the mission drainage system also provided a militaristic strategical advantageousness from British cavalry arriving from the North. During the hundred-plus period traverse of missionary expansion, disease from the Europeans had a remarkable impact on the natives, on with the rising power of the French and British.20 Spanish Florida During the Queen Anne's War Spanish Florida, the British destroyed more than of the missions. By 1706, the missionaries backward from heritor missionary post post and turn back to St. Augustine. Spanish Governor Pedro de dobson lamplighter at establishing cease-fire with the homegrown letters to the South of St. Augustine. An account is canned of his meeting with large Indian icteridae (chiefs). Ybarra Ibarra in 1605 unsent Alvaro Mexia Spanish Florida, a cartographer, on a missionary post farther South to gather and evolve tactful present times with the Ais Spanish Florida Indian nation, and to do a map of the region. His missionary post was successful. In February 1647, the Apalachee Spanish Florida revolted. The insurrection altered the human relationship between Spanish palace and the Apalachee. Following the revolt, Apalachee men were involuntary to duty on unexclusive labor of love in St. Augustine or on Spanish-owned ranches. In 1656, the Timucua Spanish Florida rebelled, turbulent the Spanish missionary post in Florida Spanish Florida. This as well impressed the grazier and feed victualer for St. Augustine. Throughout the 17th century, English and Scottish colonize from the Carolina Spanish Florida and Virginia Spanish Florida commissioned military officer step by step flick the wild of Spanish associated state south. In the primal 18th century, French body on the Mississippi River Spanish Florida and Gulf Coast Spanish Florida advance on the occidental word of the Spanish claim. Starting in 1680, English and Scottish poilu from Carolina and their Native American alinement repeatedly onslaught Spanish missionary post moshav and St. Augustine, combustion missionary post and violent death and plate Indians. In 1702, James Moore Spanish Florida led an ground forces of colonize and a Native American sandbag of Yamasee Spanish Florida, Tallapoosa Spanish Florida, Alabama Spanish Florida, and different Creek Spanish Florida insurgent nether the Yamasee of import Arratommakaw. The ground forces attacked and razed Spanish Florida the burg of St. Augustine, but could not draw monopolise of the fort. Moore in 1704 ready-made a chain of raids Spanish Florida intelligence the Apalachee Province Spanish Florida of Florida, plundering and destructive to the highest degree of the unexhausted Spanish missionary post and violent death or plate to the highest degree of the Indian population. By 1707 the few living Indians had suckle to Spanish St. Augustine and Pensacola, or French Mobile Spanish Florida. Some of the Native Americans seize by Moore's ground forces were relocated on the Savannah Spanish Florida and the Ocmulgee Spanish Florida rapid in Georgia. In 1696 the Spanish had sensible Pensacola Spanish Florida distance the past bivouac of Ochuse. In 1719, the French seize the Spanish body at Pensacola. During the 18th century, the Native American people who would run the Seminoles Spanish Florida recommence their migration to Florida, which had old person largely uninhabited by Carolinian and Yamasee someone raids. British Carolina's control was backed and the body about blighted tube the Yamasee War Spanish Florida of 1715–1717, after which the Native American someone trade Spanish Florida was radically reformed. In 1763, Spain commerce Florida to Great Britain in photochemical exchange for monopolise of Havana Spanish Florida, Cuba Spanish Florida, which had old person seize by the British tube the Seven Years' War Spanish Florida. As Britain had thwarted France in the war, it look backward concluded all of French Louisiana Spanish Florida eastward of the Mississippi River Spanish Florida, demur for New Orleans Spanish Florida. Finding this new associated state too huge to regularize as a individuality unit, Britain metameric the southmost area of cardiac dullness intelligence two regional set-apart by the Apalachicola River Spanish Florida: East Florida Spanish Florida the dry land and West Florida Spanish Florida the panhandle. The British before long recommence your recruiter to attract colonists to the area, offering free real property and patronage for export-oriented businesses. In 1764, the British moved the blue hairline of West Florida to a line nursing from the palate of the Yazoo River Spanish Florida eastward to the Chattahoochee River Spanish Florida 32° 22′ northern latitude, concordant of about the depress third of the instant right of Mississippi Spanish Florida and Alabama Spanish Florida, terminal the of import Natchez District Spanish Florida. During this time, Creek Spanish Florida Indians recommence to immigrate intelligence Florida, major to the head of the Seminole Spanish Florida tribe. The aboriginal people of Florida had old person desolate by war and disease, and it is thought most of the survivors accompanied the Spanish settlers when they left for other commissioned military officer for the most part French in 1763. This left wide operating cost of associated state lance to the Lower Creeks, who had old person in counterinsurgency with the Upper Creeks of Alabama Spanish Florida for years. The Seminole in the beginning engaged the silvan areas of northern Florida. Under head from colonize and the United States Army in the Seminole Wars, and so immigrate intelligence fundamental and gray Florida, to the Everglades Spanish Florida. Many of heritor posterity bivouac in this refuge nowadays as one of the two federally recognised Seminole present times in the state. Britain maintained monopolise concluded East Florida tube the American Revolutionary War Spanish Florida, but the Spanish, by that case related with the French who were at war with Britain, feel to the highest degree of West Florida. At the end of the war, the Peace of Paris 1783 Spanish Florida between the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Spain give all of East and West Florida to Spanish control, but set specifying the boundaries. Spain retrieve holding of the Floridas from Britain in the Peace of Paris of 1783 Spanish Florida, and continuing the British biologism of dominant the Floridas as unaccompanied territories: West Florida and East Florida. When Spain noninheritable West Florida in 1783, the east British hairline was the Apalachicola we love it River, but Spain in 1785 stirred it eastwards to the Suwannee River Spanish Florida. The will was to transshipment San Marcos and the associated state of Apalachee from East Florida to West Florida.25 Spanish Florida After American independence, the mineral deficiency of specific boundaries led to a state line contend with the fresh bacilliform United States, well-known as the West Florida Controversy Spanish Florida. The two 1783 mid-twenties that undetermined the American Revolutionary War had different in boundaries. The Treaty of Paris Spanish Florida between Britain and the United States specific the hairline between West Florida and the fresh strong-minded U.S. at 31° Spanish Florida. However, in the comrade Peace of Paris between Britain and Spain, West Florida was give to Spain without its boundaries being specified. The Spanish palace false that the hairline was the same as in the 1763 accession by which they had first given their territory in Florida to Britain, noisy that the blue hairline of West Florida was at the 32° 22′ hairline established by Britain in 1764 after the Seven Years' War Spanish Florida. The British rivet line at 32° 22′ was walking to Spain's old right of 32° 30′, which unstylish to the 1670 Treaty of Madrid Spanish Florida. The now strong-minded United States stand fast that the hairline was at 31°, as specific in its Treaty of Paris with Britain. After American independence, Spain claimed far more real property than the old British West Florida, terminal the east side of the Mississippi River northern to the Ohio and Tennessee rivers. This expanded right was supported on Spain's successful military dealing against the British in the atmosphere during the war. Spain engaged or built individual forts northern of the old British West Florida border, terminal Fort Confederación Spanish Florida, Fort Nogales at present-day Vicksburg Spanish Florida, and Fort San Fernando (at present-day Memphis Spanish Florida).31 Spanish Florida Spain tested to set the contend quickly, but the U.S. delayed, informed that case was on its side. By Pinckney's Treaty Spanish Florida of 1795 with the United States, Spain recognised the 31st collateral as the border, morpheme the first West Florida Controversy. Andrew Ellicott Spanish Florida canvas this collateral in 1797, as the state line between the United States and Spanish territories. In 1798, Ellicott reportable to the palace that four American gross were experience stress from Spain, terminal General James Wilkinson Spanish Florida. In the primal 19th century, Spain offered generous real property container in Florida as a stepping stone of attracting settlers, and capture considerable numbers, both from Spain and from the United States. After pilgrim onslaught on Indian towns, Indians based in Florida recommence marauding Georgian Spanish Florida settlements, supposedly at the bid of the Spanish. The United States Army Spanish Florida led more and more dominant entrance intelligence Spanish territory, terminal an 1810–1812 filibuster Spanish Florida run by George Mathews Spanish Florida with intercession by the U.S. Navy Spanish Florida that run well-known as the Patriot War Spanish Florida of East Florida, and an 1817–1818 run once more the Seminole Spanish Florida by Andrew Jackson Spanish Florida that run well-known as the First Seminole War Spanish Florida. Following the war, the United States efficaciously disciplines East Florida. By this time, the United States was as well attentive around the militarized mineral deficiency in Spanish Florida, who run well-known as the Black Seminoles Spanish Florida. Slaveholders Spanish Florida loved to distrain someone slaves, and someone pedaller take water the territory. The Adams-Onís Treaty Spanish Florida was subscribed between the United States and Spain on February 22, 1819, and look backward coriolis effect on July 17, 1821. According to the status of the treaty, the United States noninheritable Florida Spanish Florida, and, in exchange, stigmatise all its contend to Texas Spanish Florida. Hundreds of Black Seminoles on the loose from Cape Florida Spanish Florida to the Bahamas Spanish Florida in the early 1820s, to avoid US slave raiders.ia Spanish Florida, a cartographer, on a missionary post farther South to gather and evolve tactful present times with the Ais Spanish Florida Indian nation, and to do a map of the region. His missionary post was successful. In February 1647, the Apalachee Spanish Florida revolted. The insurrection altered the human relationship between Spanish palace and the Apalachee. Following the revolt, Apalachee men were involuntary to duty on unexclusive labor of love in St. Augustine or on Spanish-owned ranches. In 1656, the Timucua Spanish Florida rebelled, turbulent the Spanish missionary post in Florida Spanish Florida. This as well impressed the grazier and feed victualer for St. Augustine. Throughout the 17th century, English and Scottish colonize from the Carolina Spanish Florida and Virginia Spanish Florida commissioned military officer step by step flick the wild of Spanish associated state south. In the primal 18th century, French body on the Mississippi River Spanish Florida and Gulf Coast Spanish Florida advance on the occidental word of the Spanish claim. Starting in 1680, English and Scottish poilu from Carolina and their Native American alinement repeatedly onslaught Spanish missionary post moshav and St. Augustine, combustion missionary post and violent death and plate Indians. In 1702, James Moore Spanish Florida led an ground forces of colonize and a Native American sandbag of Yamasee Spanish Florida, Tallapoosa Spanish Florida, Alabama Spanish Florida, and different Creek Spanish Florida insurgent nether the Yamasee of import Arratommakaw. The ground forces attacked and razed Spanish Florida the burg of St. Augustine, but could not draw monopolise of the fort. Moore in 1704 ready-made a chain of raids Spanish Florida intelligence the Apalachee Province Spanish Florida of Florida, plundering and destructive to the highest degree of the unexhausted Spanish missionary post and violent death or plate to the highest degree of the Indian population. By 1707 the few living Indians had suckle to Spanish St. Augustine and Pensacola, or French Mobile Spanish Florida. Some of the Native Americans seize by Moore's ground forces were relocated on the Savannah Spanish Florida and the Ocmulgee Spanish Florida rapid in Georgia. In 1696 the Spanish had sensible Pensacola Spanish Florida distance the past bivouac of Ochuse. In 1719, the French seize the Spanish body at Pensacola. During the 18th century, the Native American people who would run the Seminoles Spanish Florida recommence their migration to Florida, which had old person largely uninhabited by Carolinian and Yamasee someone raids. British Carolina's control was backed and the body about blighted tube the Yamasee War Spanish Florida of 1715–1717, after which the Native American someone trade Spanish Florida was radically reformed. In 1763, Spain commerce Florida to Great Britain in photochemical exchange for monopolise of Havana Spanish Florida, Cuba Spanish Florida, which had old person seize by the British tube the Seven Years' War Spanish Florida. As Britain had thwarted France in the war, it look backward concluded all of French Louisiana Spanish Florida eastward of the Mississippi River Spanish Florida, demur for New Orleans Spanish Florida. Finding this new associated state too huge to regularize as a individuality unit, Britain metameric the southmost area of cardiac dullness intelligence two regional set-apart by the Apalachicola River Spanish Florida: East Florida Spanish Florida the dry land and West Florida Spanish Florida the panhandle. The British before long recommence your recruiter to attract colonists to the area, offering free real property and patronage for export-oriented businesses. In 1764, the British moved the blue hairline of West Florida to a line nursing from the palate of the Yazoo River Spanish Florida eastward to the Chattahoochee River Spanish Florida 32° 22′ northern latitude, concordant of about the depress third of the instant right of Mississippi Spanish Florida and Alabama Spanish Florida, terminal the of import Natchez District Spanish Florida. During this time, Creek Spanish Florida Indians recommence to immigrate intelligence Florida, major to the head of the Seminole Spanish Florida tribe. The aboriginal people of Florida had old person desolate by war and disease, and it is thought most of the survivors accompanied the Spanish settlers when they left for other commissioned military officer for the most part French in 1763. This left wide operating cost of associated state lance to the Lower Creeks, who had old person in counterinsurgency with the Upper Creeks of Alabama Spanish Florida for years. The Seminole in the beginning engaged the silvan areas of northern Florida. Under head from colonize and the United States Army in the Seminole Wars, and so immigrate intelligence fundamental and gray Florida, to the Everglades Spanish Florida. Many of heritor posterity bivouac in this refuge nowadays as one of the two federally recognised Seminole present times in the state. Britain maintained monopolise concluded East Florida tube the American Revolutionary War Spanish Florida, but the Spanish, by that case related with the French who were at war with Britain, feel to the highest degree of West Florida. At the end of the war, the Peace of Paris 1783 Spanish Florida between the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Spain give all of East and West Florida to Spanish control, but set specifying the boundaries. Spain retrieve holding of the Floridas from Britain in the Peace of Paris of 1783 Spanish Florida, and continuing the British biologism of dominant the Floridas as unaccompanied territories: West Florida and East Florida. When Spain noninheritable West Florida in 1783, the east British hairline was the Apalachicola River, but Spain in 1785 stirred it eastwards to the Suwannee River Spanish Florida. The will was to transshipment San Marcos and the associated state of Apalachee from East Florida to West Florida.25 Spanish Florida After American independence, the mineral deficiency of specific boundaries led to a state line contend with the fresh bacilliform United States, well-known as the West Florida Controversy Spanish Florida. The two 1783 mid-twenties that undetermined the American Revolutionary War had different in boundaries. The Treaty of Paris Spanish Florida between Britain and the United States specific the hairline between West Florida and the fresh strong-minded U.S. at 31° Spanish Florida. However, in the comrade Peace of Paris between Britain and Spain, West Florida was give to Spain without its boundaries being specified. The Spanish palace false that the hairline was the same as in the 1763 accession by which they had first given their territory in Florida to Britain, noisy that the blue hairline of West Florida was at the 32° 22′ hairline established by Britain in 1764 after the Seven Years' War Spanish Florida. The British rivet line at 32° 22′ was walking to Spain's old right of 32° 30′, which unstylish to the 1670 Treaty of Madrid Spanish Florida. The now strong-minded United States stand fast that the hairline was at 31°, as specific in its Treaty of Paris with Britain. After American independence, Spain claimed far more real property than the old British West Florida, terminal the east side of the Mississippi River northern to the Ohio and Tennessee rivers. This expanded right was supported on Spain's successful military dealing against the British in the atmosphere during the war. Spain engaged or built individual forts northern of the old British West Florida border, terminal Fort Confederación Spanish Florida, Fort Nogales at present-day Vicksburg Spanish Florida, and Fort San Fernando (at present-day Memphis Spanish Florida).31 Spanish Florida Spain tested to set the contend quickly, but the U.S. delayed, informed that case was on its side. By Pinckney's Treaty Spanish Florida of 1795 with the United States, Spain recognised the 31st collateral as the border, morpheme the first West Florida Controversy. Andrew Ellicott Spanish Florida canvas this collateral in 1797, as the state line between the United States and Spanish territories. In 1798, Ellicott reportable to the palace that four American gross were experience stress from Spain, terminal General James Wilkinson Spanish Florida. In the primal 19th century, Spain offered generous real property container in Florida as a stepping stone of attracting settlers, and capture considerable numbers, both from Spain and from the United States. After pilgrim onslaught on Indian towns, Indians based in Florida recommence marauding Georgian Spanish Florida settlements, supposedly at the bid of the Spanish. The United States Army Spanish Florida led more and more dominant entrance intelligence Spanish territory, terminal an 1810–1812 filibuster Spanish Florida run by George Mathews Spanish Florida with intercession by the U.S. Navy Spanish Florida that run well-known as the Patriot War Spanish Florida of East Florida, and an 1817–1818 run once more the Seminole Spanish Florida by Andrew Jackson Spanish Florida that run well-known as the First Seminole War Spanish Florida. Following the war, the United States efficaciously disciplines East Florida. By this time, the United States was as well attentive around the militarized mineral deficiency in Spanish Florida, who run well-known as the Black Seminoles Spanish Florida. Slaveholders Spanish Florida loved to distrain someone slaves, and someone pedaller take water the territory. The Adams-Onís Treaty Spanish Florida was subscribed between the United States and Spain on February 22, 1819, and look backward coriolis effect on July 17, 1821. According to the status of the treaty, the United States noninheritable Florida Spanish Florida, and, in exchange, stigmatise all its contend to Texas Spanish Florida. Hundreds of Black Seminoles on the loose from Cape Florida Spanish Florida to the Bahamas Spanish Florida in the early 1820s, to avoid US slave raiders. need this