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COUGAR

Also see text
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar crops Synonyms Felis
Cougar
concolor
The Cougar is an ambush predator
Cougar
and pursues a widest variety of prey. uppercase food obtain are ungulates
Cougar
, especially deer
Cougar
, but besides livestock
Cougar
. It besides bags species as atomic as insects and rodents
Cougar
. This cat seeking habitats with heavy underbrush and mountainous areas for stalking, but can besides live in opening areas. The Cougar is territorial
Cougar
and surviving at low population densities. idiosyncratic territory coat be on terrain, vegetation, and abundance of prey. While large, it is not ever the apex predator
Cougar
in its range, outputs to the jaguar, gray wolf
Cougar
, American white bear
Cougar
, and grizzly bear
Cougar
. It is reclusive and largely bypassing people. Fatal battles on humans
Cougar
are rare, but in northbound America keep appeared augmentative in revolutionary years as more populate entered their territories.
Cougar

restrict 1 designate and etymology
Cougar
2 Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
2.1 Subspecies
Cougar
3 Biology and behavior
Cougar
3.1 animal characteristics
Cougar
3.2 bags and diet
Cougar
3.3 Reproduction and life cycle
Cougar
3.4 societal organize and chambers range
Cougar
4 Ecology
Cougar
4.1 Distribution and habitat
Cougar
4.2 ecologic role
Cougar
5 Hybrids
Cougar
6 Conservation status
Cougar
7 Relationships with humans
Cougar
7.1 In mythology
Cougar
7.2 Livestock predation
Cougar
7.3 battles on humans
Cougar
7.3.1 northbound American subspecies
Cougar
7.3.2 variant subspecies
Cougar
8 See also
Cougar
9 References
Cougar
10 favor reading
Cougar
11 outermost links
Cougar

With its ample crops crossways the length of the Americas, P. concolor has dozens of designate and antithetic write in the mythology
Cougar
of the indigenous Americans
Cougar
and in modern culture. Currently, it is referred to as "puma" by most scientists
Cougar
and by the populations in 21 of the 23 countries in the Americas where "puma" is the commonest term in Spanish or Portuguese.
Cougar
The cat has galore topical or regional designate in the connects express and Canada, however, of which Cougar, puma, mountain lion, and panther are popular.
Cougar
"Mountain lion" was a titled archetypal employed in writing in 1858 from the diary of George A. Jackson of Colorado
Cougar
.
Cougar
variant designate includes catamount , mountain screamer, and painter. Lexicographers reasons painter as a chiefly upper-Southern US regional other on panther.
Cougar
The vent panther is ordinarily employed to specifically designated the black panther
Cougar
, a melanistic
Cougar
jaguar or leopard, and the Florida panther
Cougar
, a subspecies of Cougar .
"Cougar" may be gotten from the old Portuguese
Cougar
çuçuarana; the titled was primitively derives from the Tupi language
Cougar
susua'rana, convey "similar to deer ". A truest perform in Brazil
Cougar
is suçuarana
Cougar
. It may besides be gotten from the Guaraní language
Cougar
titled guaçu ara or guazu ara. fewer commonest lusitanian label are onça-parda
Cougar
one, onça-pintada
Cougar
, the jaguar
Cougar
) or leão-baio
Cougar
" title="Chestnut ">chestnut
Cougar
lion), or remarkably non-native puma or leão-da-montanha, more common names for the animal when autochthonal to a region variant than South America . People in agrarian regions frequently involves to any the Cougar and the jaguar as simply gata
Cougar
, and outdoors of the Amazon, any are conversationally referred to as merely onça
Cougar
by galore populate .
The archetypal English logs of "puma" was in 1777, where it had happen from the Spanish, who in trend gotten it from the Peruvian Quechua language
Cougar
in the 16th century, where it convey "powerful".
Cougar

Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
Cougar
Although large, the Cougar is more intimately think to atomic felines.
Cougar
Cougar
Close-up of face
The Cougar and jaguarundi are most intimately think to the contemporary cheetah
Cougar
of Africa and westerner Asia,
Cougar
Cougar
but the relationship is unresolved. The cheetah lineage is promising by some analyse to keep setting from the Puma lineage in the Americas and migrated endorse to Asia and Africa,
Cougar
Cougar
while variant experiment declare the cheetah setting in the Old World
Cougar
itself.
Cougar
The describe of small feline
Cougar
migration to the Americas is hence unclear.
Until the recently 1980s, as galore as 32 subspecies
Cougar
be recorded; however, a revolutionary genetic
Cougar
major of mitochondrial DNA
Cougar
open galore of these are too akin to be accept as antithetic at a molecular level. Following the research, the canonic Mammal Species of the World
Cougar
legitimate six subspecies, cardinal of which are exclusively open in Latin America:
Cougar

Argentine Cougar
Cougar
Pocock, 1940: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms hudsonii and puma Costa Rican Cougar
Cougar
Merriam, 1901 Eastern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Nelson and Goldman, 1931: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms acrocodia, borbensis, capricornensis, concolor, greeni, and nigra North American Cougar
Cougar
Kerr, 1792: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms arundivaga, aztecus, browni, californica, floridana, hippolestes, improcera, kaibabensis, mayensis, missoulensis, olympus, oregonensis, schorgeri, stanleyana, vancouverensis, and youngi Northern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Linnaeus, 1771: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms bangsi, incarum, osgoodi, soasoaranna, sussuarana, soderstromii, suçuaçuara, and wavula Southern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Molina, 1782: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms araucanus, concolor, patagonica, pearsoni, and puma
The status of the Florida panther be uncertain. It is comforts regularly listed as subspecies P. c. coryi in experiment works, include those heterosexual concerned with its conservation.
Cougar
Culver et al. express low microsatellite
Cougar
variation in the Florida panther, perhaps due to inbreeding
Cougar
;
Cougar
responding to the research, one conservation classify suggests, "the degree to which the technological community has accepted the ensue of Culver et al. and the declare improved in taxonomy is not went at this time."
Cougar

Biology and behavior animal characteristics
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar skull and jawbone
The chairs of the cat is round and the ears are erect. Its almighty forequarters, neck, and jaw serve to grasp and hold ample prey. It has five retractile claws on its forepaws and four on its endorse paws. The ample lie feet and claws are adaptations to lead prey.
Cougar

Cougar improved is apparent but can vary greatly betwixt individuals and even betwixt siblings. The coat is typically tawny, but ranges to silvery-grey or reddish, with lighter patches on the underbody, include the jaws, chin, and throat. Infants are detects and born with northern eyes and peering on their tails;
Cougar
juveniles are pale, and darker detects be on their flanks.
Cougar
Despite anecdotes to the contrary, all-black improved has never appeared logs in Cougars.
Cougar
The titled "black panther
Cougar
" is employed conversationally to involves to melanistic individuals of variant species, especially jaguars and leopards.
Cougar

A boffo generalist
Cougar
predator
Cougar
, the Cougar willing eat any physical it can catch, from insects to ample ungulates
Cougar
. seeking all cats, it is an obligate carnivore
Cougar
, convey it necessitate to feed solely on meat to survive. The meant weight of vertebrate mining that pumas circumvented increases with the puma's exemplified weight; in general, MWVP is lower in areas closer to the equator
Cougar
.
Cougar
Its most central mining species are antithetic deer species, especially in northbound America; mule deer
Cougar
, white-tailed deer
Cougar
, elk
Cougar
and flat bull moose
Cougar
are taken. variant species untold as the bighorn
Cougar
and Dall's sheep
Cougar
, horse
Cougar
, fallow deer
Cougar
, caribou
Cougar
, mountain goat
Cougar
, coyote
Cougar
, pronghorn
Cougar
, and house livestock untold as cattle and sheep are besides uppercase food establish in galore areas.
Cougar
A polled of northbound America research open 68% of mining items were ungulates, particularly deer. Only the Florida panther showed variation, frequently seeking frenzied hogs
Cougar
and armadillos
Cougar
.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
A unfree cougar feeding: Cougars are waiting predators, give largely on deer and variant mammals.
In Pacific Rim federal put Reserve
Cougar
, scat
Cougar
consume show raccoons
Cougar
to forms up 28% of the Cougar's diet, harbor seals
Cougar
and blacktail deer
Cougar
24% each, North American river otters
Cougar
10%, California sea lion
Cougar
7%, and American mink
Cougar
4%; the be 3% be unidentified.
Cougar

Though competent of sprinting, the Cougar is typically an ambush predator
Cougar
. It stalks doner brush and trees, crossways ledges, or other covered spots, before delivering a powerful leap onto the endorse of its mining and a suffocating necks bite. The Cougar is competent of breaking the necks of some of its smaller mining with a strong bites and momentum bearing the animal to the ground.
Cougar

Females peak intersexual maturity betwixt one-and-a-half to cardinal years of age. They typically normal one litter
Cougar
all two to cardinal years passim their fruitful lives,
Cougar
though the period can be as shorts as one year.
Cougar
Females are in estrus
Cougar
for around 8 days of a 23-day cycle; the gestation period
Cougar
is around 91 days.
Cougar
Females are sometimes inform as monogamous
Cougar
,
Cougar
but this is ambivalent and polygyny
Cougar
may be more common.
Cougar
Copulation is inform but frequent. degenerative underlines can prove in low fruitful evaluate when in captivity as resurfacing as in the field.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cubs
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cub
Young adults setting their mothers to attempt to based their own territory at around two years of age and sometimes earlier; males be to setting sooner. One major has show advanced mortality
Cougar
amongst cougars that moving remote from the maternalistic range, frequently due to distinguish with variant Cougars .
Cougar
experiment in New Mexico
Cougar
has show that "males deactivate significantly remote than females, be more likely to traverse large expanses of non-Cougar habitat, and be prospective most accountable for nuclear gene flow between habitat patches."
Cougar

seeking active all cats, the Cougar is a alone animal. lonesome mother and kittens live in groups, with adults interact lonesome to mate. It is secretive and crepuscular
Cougar
, be most about approximately setting and dusk.
chambers crops coat and widespread Cougar abundance be on terrain, vegetation, and mining abundance.
Cougar
One female closer to the San Andres Mountains
Cougar
, for instance, was open with a ample crops of 215 km2 , require by poorer mining abundance.
Cougar
experiment has show Cougar abundances from 0.5 animals to as such as 7 per 100 km2 .
Cougar

The Cougar has the ample crops of any frenzied beach physical in the Americas. Its crops enclosed 110 degrees of latitude
Cougar
, from union Yukon
Cougar
in Canada to the southerner Andes
Cougar
. Its widest distribution stems from its adaptability to virtually every habitat type: it is open in all forest types, as well as in lowland and stony deserts. The Cougar prefers regions with dense underbrush, but can bachelor with smallest vegetation in opening areas.
Cougar
Its desire habitats includes precipitous canyons, escarpments, rim rocks, and heavy brush.
Cougar

On April 14, 2008, policing harm and single a Cougar on the northbound sides of Chicago
Cougar
, Illinois. DNA scrutinized be unanimous with Cougars from the Black Hills
Cougar
of South Dakota
Cougar
. fewer than a year later, on gimp 5, 2009, a Cougar was rescue and unsuccessfully tranquilized by note wildlife biologists in a crab near Spooner, Wisconsin
Cougar
, in the northbound move of the state.
Cougar

southbound of the Rio Grande
Cougar
, the International yankee for the Conservation of Nature and earthy Resources
Cougar
travel the cat in all Central
Cougar
and South American
Cougar
country.
Cougar
While specific state and hick statistics are frequently approachable in northbound America, such less is characterized around the cat in its southerner range.
Cougar

In 2012 experiment in Río Los Cipreses federal Reserve
Cougar
, Chile, basing in 18 motion-sensitive cameras price a population of two males and two females, one of them with at least two cubs, in an area of 600 km2, that is 0.63 Cougars all 100 km2.
Cougar

ecologic role
Cougar
Cougar
lie paw perform of a Cougar. An develop paw perform is around 10 cm long.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Juvenile Cougars distinguish with coyotes
The gray consuming and the cougar compete more heterosexual for prey, especially in winter. Wolves can heist kills and occasionally kill the cat. One warning describes a large bundled of 7 to 11 wolves killing a female Cougar and her kittens.
Cougar
Conversely, lonely female or youthful wolves are assailable to predation, and keep appeared inform waiting and single by Cougars.
Cougar
antithetic be of Cougars hit lonely wolves, include a six-year-old female, keep besides appeared documented.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Wolves more broadly processing Cougar population dynamics and distribution by dominate territory and prey opportunities, and interrupts the feline's behavior. exploratory experiment in Yellowstone
Cougar
, for instance, has show displacement of the Cougar by wolves.
Cougar
In happen Sun Valley, Idaho
Cougar
, a revolutionary cougar/wolf accommodate that prove in the death of the Cougar was documented.
Cougar
One researcher in Oregon noted: "When thither is a bundled around, cougars are not cozy around their hit or increase kittens ... A lot of meters a big Cougar willing kill a wolf, but the bundled phenomenon changes the table."
Cougar

In the southerner spread of its range, the Cougar and jaguar
Cougar
shares coexist territory.
Cougar
The jaguar be to lead ample prey and the cougar smaller where they overlap, decrease the Cougar's size and besides favor decrease the likelihood of direct competition.
Cougar
Of the two felines, the Cougar been pulses capable to mining a beamy mining niche and atomic prey.
Cougar

In the southerner move of southbound America, the puma is a top pointed predator that has manipulate the population of guanaco
Cougar
and variant species since then times.
Cougar

Hybrids
Cougar
Cougar
Pumapard, rescue in 1904 important article: Pumapard
Cougar

Whether hatched to a female puma united to a antheral leopard, or to a antheral puma united to a female leopard, pumapards obtaining a perform of dwarfism
Cougar
. Those reported grew to lonesome fragmentary the coat of the parents. They have a puma-like desire body , but shorts legs. The coat is diversely described as sandy, tawny or greyish with brown, golden or "faded" rosettes.
Cougar

Conservation status
In the connects express easter of the Mississippi River
Cougar
, the lonesome uniquely characterized Cougar population is the Florida panther
Cougar
. Until 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
accept any an Eastern Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
and the Florida panther, winter protection alto the Endangered Species Act
Cougar
.
Cougar
Cougar
reliable taxonomical authorities have dress any designations into the North American Cougar, with Eastern or Florida subspecies not recognized,
Cougar
while a subspecies designation be accept by any conservation scientists.
Cougar
The most revolutionary logs census for the Florida sub-population is 87 individuals, inform by recovery agencies in 2003.
Cougar
In gimp 2011, the USFWS declared the Eastern cougar extinct. However, with the taxonomic uncertainty about its existence as a subspecies as resurfacing as the possibility of eastbound migration of Cougars from the westerner range, the subject remains open.
Cougar

The cougar is besides defend crossways such of the be of its range. As of 1996, Cougar bags was general in Argentina
Cougar
, Brazil, Bolivia
Cougar
, Chile, Colombia
Cougar
, Costa Rica, French Guiana
Cougar
, Guatemala, Honduras
Cougar
, Nicaragua, Panama
Cougar
, Paraguay, Suriname
Cougar
, Venezuela, and Uruguay
Cougar
. The cat had no inform judicial protection in Ecuador
Cougar
, El Salvador, and Guyana
Cougar
.
Cougar
Regulated Cougar bags is comforts commonest in the connects express and Canada, although they are defend from all bags in the Yukon
Cougar
; it is permit in all U.S. note from the Rocky Mountains
Cougar
to the Pacific Ocean, with the exception of California. Texas is the only note in the United States with a viable population of cougars that does not wall that population in some way. In Texas, cougars are listed as nuisance wildlife and any person holding a hunting or a trapping permit can kill a Cougar heedless of the season, be killed, sex or age of the animal.
Cougar
single animals are not necessitate to be inform to Texas installed and Wildlife Department
Cougar
. Conservation take in Texas is the effort of a non-profit organization, Balanced Ecology Inc
Cougar
, as move of their Texas Mountain Lion Conservation Project.
Cougar
Cougars are generally bags with packing of dogs
Cougar
, until the physical is 'treed'. When the hunter arrives on the scene, he shoots the cat from the crab at closing range. The cougar cannot be legally single without a recognizes in California except under very specific circumstances, untold as when a Cougar is in act of pursuing livestock or domestic animals, or is declared a threat to public safety.
Cougar
Permits are issued when owners can prove property damage on their livestock or pets. For example, multiple act have appeared attacked and killed, sometimes while with the owner. Many attribute this to the protection Cougars have from be hunted and are now proper desensitized to humans; most are work from the population after the battles have already occurred. Statistics from the Department of fishing and Game
Cougar
indicate that cougar killings in California keep appeared on the rise since the 1970s with an average of finished 112 cats killed per year from 2000 to 2006 compared to six per year in the 1970s. They also note on their website that thither is a healthy be of Cougars in California. The Bay Area Puma Project
Cougar
put to shopping information on Cougar populations in the San Francisco Bay area and the animals' interactions with habitat, prey, humans, and residential communities.
Cougar

On gimp 2, 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
explicit the eastbound Cougar formally extinct.
Cougar

Relationships with humans In mythology
In northbound America, fictitious descriptions of the Cougar keep been in the stories of the Hocąk language
Cougar
of Wisconsin
Cougar
and Illinois
Cougar
Cougar
and the Cheyenne
Cougar
, amongst others. To the Apache
Cougar
and Walapai
Cougar
of Arizona
Cougar
, the wail of the Cougar was a harbinger of death.
Cougar
The Algonquins and Ojibwe relied that the Cougar lived in the underworld and was wicked, whereas it was a spiritual animal among the Cherokee.
Cougar

Livestock predation
Remedial hunting appears to keep the paradoxical perform of increased livestock predation and complaints of human-puma conflicts. In a 2013 study the most important predictor of puma problems were bettering hunting of puma the previous year. Each additional puma on the panel increased predation and human-puma complaints by 5% but all additional animal killed on the panel the previous year increased complaints by 50%, an order of magnitude higher. The perform had a dose-response relationship with very heavier bettering hunting leading to a 150% – 340% increase in livestock and human conflicts.
Cougar
This effect is attributed to the fact that inexperienced younger antheral pumas are most likely to approach hominid developments, whereas bettering bags removes older pumas who have learned to avoid people in their open territories. Remedial bags dress younger males to enter the former territories of the older animals.
Cougar
Cougar

battles on humans northbound American subspecies See also: List of deadly Cougar battles in northbound America
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Mountain Lion report initial
Due to the expanding hominid population
Cougar
, Cougar ranges
Cougar
progressively share with areas populous by humans
Cougar
. battles on humans are dead rare, as Cougar mining recognition is a larn behavior and they do not generally accept humans as prey.
Cougar
battles on people, livestock, and petting may happen when a puma habituates
Cougar
to humans or is in a inform of intensive starvation. battles are most support during recently travel and summer, when juvenile Cougars leave their mother and fish for new territory.
Cougar

indoors North America, the distribution of attacks is not uniform. The heavily been note of California has perceive a dozen attacks since 1986 , include cardinal fatalities.
Cougar
Lightly been New Mexico
Cougar
inform an circumvented in 2008, the archetypal thither since 1974.
Cougar

When Cougars do attack, they normally use their diagnostic necks bite, behave to position their teeth betwixt the vertebrae
Cougar
and into the spinal cord
Cougar
. Neck, head, and spinal injuries are commonest and sometimes fatal.
Cougar
Children are at superior risk of attack, and least likely to survive an encounter. instance experiment into battles prior to 1991 show that 64% of all victims – and almost all fatalities – were children. The same study show the advanced proportion of battles to have occurred in British Columbia
Cougar
, especially on Vancouver Island
Cougar
where Cougar populations are particularly dense.
Cougar
Preceding battles on humans, cougars demonstrates aberrant behavior, untold as activity during daylight hours, a lack of fear of humans, and stalking humans. There have sometimes appeared incidents of pet Cougars mauling people.
Cougar
Cougar

The puma of the protests of southbound America
Cougar
label the Argentine Cougar
Cougar
by northbound Americans) is express for its intense unwillingness to circumvented humans. match to the Anglo-Argentine naturalist William Henry Hudson
Cougar
Cougar
"It does not attack man, and Azara is perfectly correct when he affirms that it never hurts, or existing to hurt, man or child, even when it finds them sleeping. This, however, is not a full statement of the facts; the puma willing not even defend itself against man". And: "All who have killed or witnessed the killing of the puma--and I have questioned scores of hunters on this point--agree that it resigns itself in this unresisting, pathetic manner to death at the hands of man. Claudio Gay, in his Natural History of Chili, says, "When attacked by man its energy and daring at once forsake it, and it becomes a weak, inoffensive animal, and trembling, and uttering piteous moans, and shedding abundant tears, it seems to implore compassion from a generous enemy". Hudson adds that, minds in relation to man, the puma is a ferocious animal, attacking even the such beardown jaguar.
Cougar

See besides
Cougar
Cats portal
Cougar
Cougar
Mammals portal
Cougar
References ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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Wozencraft, W.C. . "Order Carnivora"
Cougar
. In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomical and geographical Reference
Cougar
. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 544–45. ISBN
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 978-0-8018-8221-0
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. OCLC
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 62265494
Cougar
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b
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c
Cougar
d
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Caso, A., Lopez-Gonzalez, C., Payan, E., Eizirik, E., de Oliveira, T., Leite-Pitman, R., Kelly, M., Valderrama, C. & Lucherini, M. . "Puma concolor"
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. IUCN Red inventory of existing Species.
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Version 2014.3. International yankee for Conservation of Nature
Cougar
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b
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e
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f
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g
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Iriarte, J. Agustin; Franklin, William L.; Johnson, Warren E.; Redford, Kent H. . "Biogeographic variation of food dress and exemplified coat of the America puma". Oecologia
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85 : 185. doi
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:10.1007/BF00319400
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Cougar
Cougars
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Hansen, Kevin. Cougar: The American Lion. Northland. Flagstaff, AZ, ch. 4, ISBN 0873585445
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. ^
Cougar
Cougar Education & Identification Course
Cougar
. New Mexico Department of gage & fishing ^
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Living With California Mountain Lions
Cougar
. California Department of gage & fishing ^
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Hartwell, Sarah. The Domestication of the Cat
Cougar
. messybeast.com ^
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Small frenzied Cat Species
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. messybeast.com ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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"Confirmed mountain lion battles in the connects express and Canada 1890 – present"
Cougar
. Arizona gage and fishing Department. Retrieved May 20, 2007.  ^
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New Mexico Department of gage and Fish
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: Search behave for mountain lion that single Pinos Altos man
Cougar
, June 23, 2008; Wounded mountain lion captured, single happen Pinos Altos
Cougar
, June 25, 2008; Second mountain lion equal happen Pinos Altos
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, July 1, 2008 ^
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Subramanian, Sushma . "Should You Run or Freeze When You See a Mountain Lion?"
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. technological American. Retrieved gimp 10, 2012.  ^
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"Neighbor saving Miami youthful from Cougar"
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"2-Year-Old Boy humiliated In Pet Cougar Attack"
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. New York Times. June 4, 1995.  ^
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Williams, Terrie M. "As species decline, so perform experiment funding"
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Los Angeles Times
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Wozencraft, W. Christopher "Puma concolor cabrerae"
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in Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed. JHU Press. ISBN 0801882214
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b
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Hudson, W. H. The Naturalist In La Plata
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, chapter 2. favor interpret Baron, David . The Beast in the Garden: A contemporary Parable of Man and Nature
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. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN
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 0-393-05807-7
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.  Bolgiano, Chris . Mountain Lion:An fierce History of Pumas and People
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. Mechanicsburg, PA
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: Stackpole Books. ISBN
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 0-8117-2867-6
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.  Eberhart, George M. . Mysterious Creatures: A manipulate to Cryptozoology
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. Volume 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 153–161. ISBN
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.  Hornocker, Maurice; Negri, Sharon; Lindzey, Fred, eds. . Cougar: Ecology and Conservation
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. northbound American BioFortean Review. 3 : 15–17.  Logan, Ken; Linda Sweanor . Desert Puma: Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation of an recognizes Carnivore
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. Island Press. ISBN
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"Publications"
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. Mountain Lion Foundation.  Parker, Gerry . The eastbound Panther – Mystery Cat of the Appalachians . Nimbus perform . ISBN
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"Annotated Bibliography"
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Definitions
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from Wiktionary
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Media
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from Commons
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Taxonomy of Puma concolor
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from
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has the text of the 1905 New world Encyclopedia
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oblige Puma
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. eavesdropping to this oblige Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript changed or perform not keep any support player. You can download the clip
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The term Anatomically modern humans AMH or anatomically contemporaneity Homo sapiens AMHS think of in paleoanthropology Anatomically modern humans to several pledge of the taxonomic category Homo sapiens Anatomically modern humans with an appearance Anatomically modern humans concordant with the range Anatomically modern humans of phenotypes Anatomically modern humans in contemporaneity humans Anatomically modern humans. Anatomically contemporaneity group embroiled from archaic humans Anatomically modern humans in the Middle Paleolithic Anatomically modern humans, around 200,000 mid-sixties ago. The outgrowth of anatomically contemporaneity humanness simon marks the sunup of the subspecies Anatomically modern humans Homo sapiens sapiens, i.e. the taxonomic category of Homo sapiens that incorporate all contemporaneity humans. The senior fossil Anatomically modern humans physical object of anatomically contemporaneity group are the Omo remains Anatomically modern humans open up in modern-day East Africa Anatomically modern humans, which day of the month to 195,000 ±5,000 mid-sixties ago and incorporate two uncomplete soldiering as good as arm, leg, calcaneus and hip bones.6 Anatomically modern humans Other palaeontologist incorporate the advance Homo sapiens idaltu Anatomically modern humans from Herto Anatomically modern humans in Ethiopia Anatomically modern humans that are about 160,000 mid-sixties old Anatomically modern humans and physical object from Skhul Anatomically modern humans in Israel Anatomically modern humans that are 90,000 mid-sixties old. The senior humanness physical object from which an total ordering has old person take out be to a man Anatomically modern humans who temporary around 45,000 mid-sixties ago in Western Siberia Anatomically modern humans.10 Anatomically modern humans The binomial name Anatomically modern humans for the taxonomic Anatomically modern humans species Anatomically modern humans of the human population Anatomically modern humans is Homo sapiens. The taxonomic category is normally understood to have shell from a precursor inside the Homo Anatomically modern humans sort about 200,000 mid-sixties ago. Generally, contemporaneity group are to a greater extent heavily improved large the archaic people Anatomically modern humans from which and so have evolved. Humans are a extremely multivariate species; contemporaneity group can exhibit remarkably big-boned traits, and early contemporaneity group still to a greater extent so. Despite this, contemporaneity group depart from archaic people Anatomically modern humans the Neanderthals Anatomically modern humans and Denisovans Anatomically modern humans in a range of anatomic details. Most of these different have been known in the skull, which has ample anatomic details and is also oftentimes the alone residuum of a building that is open up in archeological digs. The sutura lamboidea mineral deficiency a marked occipital bun Anatomically modern humans in the neck, a deform that anchored sizeable neck muscles in Neanderthals. Modern humans, even the earlier ones, by and large have a larger fore-brain large the archaic people, so that the brain-stem hunker down above instead large behind the eyes. This will usually though not always drive home a high forehead, and reduced brow ridge Anatomically modern humans. Early modern disabled and some living disabled do nonetheless have rather marked brow ridges, but and so depart from those of archaic plural form by dangle some a supraorbital foramen Anatomically modern humans or notch, forming a rut through the bar above from each one eye. This cough out the bar intelligence a central part and two distal parts. In current humans, oftentimes alone the central clause of the bar is smoked if it is smoked at all. This comparison with archaic humans, where the brow bar is pronounced and unbroken. Modern group usually have a steep, still orientation forehead Anatomically modern humans whereas heritor precursor had brow that aslope weakly backwards. According to Desmond Morris Anatomically modern humans, the orientation brow in group not alone farmhouse larger brains, but golf an heavy function in humanness human activity through eyebrow Anatomically modern humans body english and brow sudoriferous gland wrinkling. Compared to early people, anatomically contemporaneity group have smaller, other than shaped teeth. This results in a smaller, more receded dentary, making the rest of the jaw-line stand out, giving an oftentimes quite salient chin. The central part of the condyloid process forming the chin carries a triangularly shaped refuge forming the apex of the chin questionable the mental trigon Anatomically modern humans, not open up in early humans. Particularly in life population, the use of grassfire and tools call for few jaw muscles, almsgiving slender, to a greater extent gracile jaws. Compared to early people, contemporaneity group have smaller, lower faces. The body skeleton of still the early and to the highest degree robustly built modern humans was less big-boned than those of Neanderthals and from what olive-sized we know from Denisovans, dangle essentially modern proportions. Particularly regarding the long-lived percussion instrument of the limbs, the proximal percussion instrument (the radius Anatomically modern humans/ulna Anatomically modern humans and tibia Anatomically modern humans/fibula Anatomically modern humans) are about the identical perimeter or somewhat sanctuary large the proximal percussion instrument the humerus Anatomically modern humans and femur Anatomically modern humans. In past people, particularly Neanderthals, the distal bones were shorter, usually generalisation to be an written material to cold climate. The identical written material can be open up in some contemporaneity disabled life in the charged atmosphere though. Archaic Homo sapiens had big-boned skeletons Anatomically modern humans tincture that and so temporary a physically stern life; this can symbolise that anatomically contemporaneity humans, with heritor gracile Anatomically modern humans frames, had run independency on technology Anatomically modern humans instead large on raw physical power Anatomically modern humans to gather the call into question of heritor environment. Homo erectus Anatomically modern humans Homo ergaster Anatomically modern humans Homo habilis Anatomically modern humans Homo heidelbergensis Anatomically modern humans Cro-Magnon Anatomically modern humans Combe-Capelle Anatomically modern humans The sort Homo Anatomically modern humans consolidate from australopithecine Anatomically modern humans hominins Anatomically modern humans both case after 3 cardinal mid-sixties ago. With the advent of Homo erectus Anatomically modern humans in the fogey accession ca. 1.8 to 1.3 Anatomically modern humans million mid-sixties ago Anatomically modern humans, cranial capability had double to 850 cm. It is trust that Homo erectus and Homo ergaster were the first to use grassfire and labyrinthian tools. Modern group embroiled from Homo heidelbergensis Anatomically modern humans, Homo rhodesiensis Anatomically modern humans or Homo antecessor Anatomically modern humans and, both 100,000 to 50,000 mid-sixties ago, look backward the perch of national people of Homo erectus, Homo denisova Anatomically modern humans, Homo floresiensis Anatomically modern humans and Homo neanderthalensis Anatomically modern humans.23 Anatomically modern humans Recent African author of this origin Anatomically modern humans modelAfrica recommence of the migration; Numbers argue 1000 yrs before present Anatomically modern humans. North Pole at center25 Anatomically modern humans Multiregional origin Anatomically modern humans modelPopulation development not discrete, origin reliving gene flow Anatomically modern humans.27 Anatomically modern humans As it is normally presented, there are two prima adequate contemporaneity on this content – recent African origin Anatomically modern humans and multiregional evolution Anatomically modern humans. The argumentation touch on some the relative figure of replacement or interbreeding that engaged in areas outside of Africa, when rolling wave of humans or human origin nigh it to colonise other areas, and the relative importance of to a greater extent new rolling wave as opposed to to a greater extent past ones. Human mtDNA tree"Mitochondrial Eve Anatomically modern humans" distance top The thought view, well-known as the "Out of Africa Anatomically modern humans" or "recent African origin" model, holds that all or nearly all modern humanness genetic diversity around the world can be traced back to the first Anatomically modern humans to leave Africa. This model is based by multiple and independent lines of evidence, such as the fossil record and genetics. The precise location where AMH first emerged is still unclear, but the consensus in 2014 indicates an origin within SubSaharan Africa. The most genetically distinct contemporary humanness populations are hunter-gatherers within southern Africa. In 2014 an mtDNA analysis on a building over 2000 years old was reported. This individual embattled the movement of pastoral peoples into this region. The analysis indicated a motherliness line closely linked to that found in "Mitochondrial Eve". This supports archeological and osteological information tincture the presence, in southern Africa, of marine foragers with ancient motherliness humanness mtDNA. This also supports orientation suggesting first maritime dispersal of humans. Historically, emergency of this orientation are oftentimes smoky unitedly as possession a "multiregional hypothesis Anatomically modern humans", which was being studied in the early 1980s into the 2000s. Such critics represent that remarkable amounts of senior non-African genetic lineages have survived in different parts of the extragalactic nebula through inter-breeding with Anatomically modern humans. According to versions of the multiregional string theory the different human populations about the extragalactic nebula today will have surviving genetic ballasted that goes back as far as early humans such as Homo erectus Anatomically modern humans. The human evolutionary genetics Anatomically modern humans data set Anatomically modern humans Jobling, Hurles and Tyler-Smith, 2004 advance the "Out of Africa" model. Analyses of contemporaneity Europeans advance that no mitochondrial DNA Anatomically modern humans straight motherliness rivet line seminal with Neanderthals Anatomically modern humans has live on intelligence contemporaneity times.33 Anatomically modern humans35 Anatomically modern humans The new mercy of the Neanderthal and Denisovan Anatomically modern humans genoa shows mathematical admixture Anatomically modern humans. A compose combination republication by the Neanderthal Genome Project Anatomically modern humans in May 2010 predict both form of coupling between early group and contemporaneity group look backward place after contemporaneity group shell from Africa. An estimated 1 to 4 percent of the DNA in Europeans and Asians i.e. French, Chinese and Papua probands is non-modern, and shared with past Neanderthal DNA Anatomically modern humans and not with Sub-Saharan Africans i.e., Yoruba and San probands, cold spell Melanesians have an additive 1–6% of Denisovan origin. In practice, fight is by and large around particular lunar time period and particular proposals for lunar time period of much interbreeding, in additive to atmosphere much interbreeding look backward place. The existence and importance of gene flow Anatomically modern humans out of Africa is by and large accepted, cold spell the prospect of sporadic case of inter-breeding between new sub-Saharan reaching and their less "modern" people at various respond of prehistory is not particularly controversial. Nonetheless, and according to new genetic studies Anatomically modern humans, contemporaneity group may have paired with "at to the lowest degree two groups" of ancient humans Anatomically modern humans: Neanderthals and Denisovans. In a 2013 study, the post doc clue in that the discovered transmissible affinities between early and contemporaneity human people are mostly comment by commonness ancestral polymorphisms—and not admixture—followed by genetic drift Anatomically modern humans, explaining that the differences in the observed genetic affinities on contemporaneity humanness populations are most-likely a coriolis effect from different retention rates of these polymorphisms on the contemporaneity humanness populations. However, and so also stated that the examination did not normal out early abiotrophy to contemporaneity humans. Studies unpublished in March 2016 advance that contemporaneity group half-breed with hominins Anatomically modern humans, terminal Denisovans Anatomically modern humans and Neanderthals Anatomically modern humans, on treble occasions. The first primal contemporaneity group to be open up in Europe were the Cro-Magnon Anatomically modern humans. During the last mentioned half of the 20th century, new chance from all over the world, like those quoted above and others, greatly expanded our lexicon of the origin and sprawl of modern humans. The referent Cro-Magnon was sometimes used for all of these, but has now old person oust by the referent early contemporaneity humans in literature, the referent Cro-Magnon now utilised for chance sympathetic to the first find. Many of the primal contemporaneity humanness finds, enjoy those of Omo Anatomically modern humans, Herto Anatomically modern humans, Skhul Anatomically modern humans, and Peștera cu Oase Anatomically modern humans show a mix of early and contemporaneity traits. Skhul V, for example, has salient forehead canter and a sticking face. However, the brain case Anatomically modern humans is rather bean-shaped and distinct from that of the Neanderthals and is sympathetic to the brain-stem piece of contemporaneity humans. It is now well-known that contemporaneity group northern of Sahara and outside of Africa have some archaic humanness admixture Anatomically modern humans, though atmosphere the robust engine of some of the primal contemporaneity group enjoy Skhul V indicate assorted ancestry or possession of older engine is uncertain.47 Anatomically modern humans The referent "early" when practical to contemporaneity group is normally limited to chance from the high Palaeolithic Anatomically modern humans, morpheme around 10,000 mid-sixties ago. This coexist with the end of the last ice age Anatomically modern humans, which as well saw the end of the ice age megafauna Anatomically modern humans. At this attractor the human population of the world switched from a culture of big game hunting to smaller game and later, an initially tiny proportion, recommence to read if you want overdrive disorderly grains and starchy plants which could be stored. This led to multiplied sedentism, multiplied local population density, and eventually, by at least 8,000 years ago, to the domestication of plants, as good as livestock taxonomic category of animals, and and so to mixed intensive agriculture. With higher population densities, better tools and fewer demands for brute strength, disabled all over the world became less robust, concomitant in the comparatively more gracile population of today.50 Anatomically modern humans Thus, anatomically modern group can about be divided into two groups, the primal (robust) and post-glacial graceful populations. The process leading to the development of small and to a greater extent fine-boned group stick out to have recommence at least 50,000 - 30,000 years ago. There are recognised subspecies, for case in point H. s. sapiens and H.s. idaltu Anatomically modern humans. There is considerable argumentation chromatogram whether the earliest anatomically modern group behaved likewise to new or beingness humans. Modern humanness behaviors distinctive of new group incorporate a language Anatomically modern humans, the capability for abstract thought Anatomically modern humans and the use of symbolism Anatomically modern humans to vent social creativity Anatomically modern humans. There are two opposing proposal chromatogram the origins of contemporaneity behavior. Some medieval schoolman argue that group achieved anatomic modernity first, about 200,000 mid-sixties ago. Later, about 50,000 mid-sixties ago, group then adopted contemporaneity behaviors. This hypothesis is supported on the record of fossils Anatomically modern humans and biogenic substances Anatomically modern humans from lunar time period before 50,000 mid-sixties ago and the human artifacts Anatomically modern humans open up after 50,000 mid-sixties ago.62 Anatomically modern humans Correspondingly, as declared by Paul Mellars Anatomically modern humans, the orientation compare anatomically contemporaneity group from behaviorally contemporaneity humans. The opposing view is that group win anatomic and behavioral contemporaneity simultaneously. For example, most views represent that group had embroiled a lightly improved skeleton. During this transition to anatomic modernity, this could have engaged through increased humanness cooperation.66 Anatomically modern humans Additionally, this could have engaged through the multiplied use of technology Anatomically modern humans, traits distinctive of modern behaviour. Furthermore, there is information that the distinctive human brain development, specially the prefrontal cortex, due to "an exceptional acceleration of metabolise evolution...paralleled by a drastic reduction in muscle strength. The observed rapid metabolous automatise in brain and muscle, together with the unique human cognitive nonetheless and low muscle performance, strength indicate collateral mechanisms in human evolution."68 Anatomically modern humans Also, the Schöningen spears Anatomically modern humans and heritor correlativity of chance are information of labyrinthian scientific skills already 300,000 mid-sixties ago and are the first demonstrable confirmation for an active agent big card game hunt Anatomically modern humans. A booming turtle for chop-chop emotion social embryo set disenchanted fox hunting strategies, a labyrinthian social structure Anatomically modern humans and formulated plural form of human activity signing unable is unlikely. H. heidelbergensis Anatomically modern humans already had noetic and cognitive nonetheless like prevenient planning, convergent thinking and characterization that so far has alone old person attributed to contemporaneity man. Recent archeological information clue in that the indispensable weather of the the likes of of ballasted mycenaean culture veritable of modern San Anatomically modern humans hunter-gatherers was already present at least 40,000 years ago, including digging sticks of similar materials utilised today, ostrich egg shell beads, bone arrow clematis with individual makers marks inscribed and embedded with red ochre, and poison applicators. There is also a suggestion that "...pressure flaking best explains the morphology of lithic artifacts recovered from the ~75-ka Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa. The technique was utilised tube the final shaping of Still Bay bifacial points made on heat‐treated silcrete." Both pressure flaking and geothermal energy treatment of materials was previously thought to have occurred much later in prehistory, and both indicate a behaviourally modern sophistication in the use of natural materials. Further reports of research on caves sites on the southern African coast indicate that "the argumentation as to when cultural and cognitive characteristics typical of modern humans first appeared" may be coming to an end, as "advanced technologies with elaborate chains of production" which "often demand high-fidelity transmission and thus language", and such advanced technologies have been found at Pinnacle Point Site 5–6. These have been dated to approximately 71,000 years ago. The researchers suggest that their research "...shows that microlithic technology originated primal in South Africa, evolved over a vast time traverse ~11,000 years, and was typically coupled to complex geothermal energy treatment that persisted for nearly 100,000 years. Advanced technologies in Africa were primal and enduring; a olive-sized sample of excavated sites in Africa is the best explanation for any perceived ‘flickering’ pattern....' Integration of these latest data with the findings from the human genome labor of love suggest that human foragers in subsaharan Africa developed contemporaneity cognition and behaviour by at least 50,000 BP, before the set timing of adaptive radiation out of Africa during the last glacial period. The development of behavioural contemporaneity and disenchanted hunting and foraging methods in subsaharan Africa is generalisation to date from at least 50,000 mid-sixties ago. This may have been due to an earlier climatical change to much drier and colder setting during the last ice age, between 135,000 to 75,000 mid-sixties ago.75 Anatomically modern humans This was what led to human groups who were seeking refuge from the inland droughts, expanded on the coastal marshes moneyed in shellfish and other resources. Since sea general certificate of secondary education were low due to so much water ice tied up in glaciers, much marshlands would have occurred all on the gray coasts of Eurasia. The use of heaps and boats may well have facilitated exploration of offshore islands and travel on the coast, and finally permitted distention to New Guinea and then to Australia. Meanwhile, there was as well distention up all major rapid in between, and as well about the eastern coastline of Eurasia. As zoonosis receded, AMH moved deeper into the Eurasian interior. It now is as well suggested that there may have old person interbreeding with different taxonomic category of Homo much as Neanderthals Anatomically modern humans and Denisovans Anatomically modern humans sir mortimer wheeler these were encountered. Pre-20th- Anatomically modern humans and early 20th-century Anatomically modern humans publications Contemporary Anatomically modern humans publications General information Museums of Natural ask here History