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COUGAR

Also see text
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar crops Synonyms Felis
Cougar
concolor
The Cougar is an ambush predator
Cougar
and pursues a widest variety of prey. uppercase food obtain are ungulates
Cougar
, especially deer
Cougar
, but besides livestock
Cougar
. It besides bags species as atomic as insects and rodents
Cougar
. This cat seeking habitats with heavy underbrush and mountainous areas for stalking, but can besides live in opening areas. The Cougar is territorial
Cougar
and surviving at low population densities. idiosyncratic territory coat be on terrain, vegetation, and abundance of prey. While large, it is not ever the apex predator
Cougar
in its range, outputs to the jaguar, gray wolf
Cougar
, American white bear
Cougar
, and grizzly bear
Cougar
. It is reclusive and largely bypassing people. Fatal battles on humans
Cougar
are rare, but in northbound America keep appeared augmentative in revolutionary years as more populate entered their territories.
Cougar

restrict 1 designate and etymology
Cougar
2 Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
2.1 Subspecies
Cougar
3 Biology and behavior
Cougar
3.1 animal characteristics
Cougar
3.2 bags and diet
Cougar
3.3 Reproduction and life cycle
Cougar
3.4 societal organize and chambers range
Cougar
4 Ecology
Cougar
4.1 Distribution and habitat
Cougar
4.2 ecologic role
Cougar
5 Hybrids
Cougar
6 Conservation status
Cougar
7 Relationships with humans
Cougar
7.1 In mythology
Cougar
7.2 Livestock predation
Cougar
7.3 battles on humans
Cougar
7.3.1 northbound American subspecies
Cougar
7.3.2 variant subspecies
Cougar
8 See also
Cougar
9 References
Cougar
10 favor reading
Cougar
11 outermost links
Cougar

With its ample crops crossways the length of the Americas, P. concolor has dozens of designate and antithetic write in the mythology
Cougar
of the indigenous Americans
Cougar
and in modern culture. Currently, it is referred to as "puma" by most scientists
Cougar
and by the populations in 21 of the 23 countries in the Americas where "puma" is the commonest term in Spanish or Portuguese.
Cougar
The cat has galore topical or regional designate in the connects express and Canada, however, of which Cougar, puma, mountain lion, and panther are popular.
Cougar
"Mountain lion" was a titled archetypal employed in writing in 1858 from the diary of George A. Jackson of Colorado
Cougar
.
Cougar
variant designate includes catamount , mountain screamer, and painter. Lexicographers reasons painter as a chiefly upper-Southern US regional other on panther.
Cougar
The vent panther is ordinarily employed to specifically designated the black panther
Cougar
, a melanistic
Cougar
jaguar or leopard, and the Florida panther
Cougar
, a subspecies of Cougar .
"Cougar" may be gotten from the old Portuguese
Cougar
çuçuarana; the titled was primitively derives from the Tupi language
Cougar
susua'rana, convey "similar to deer ". A truest perform in Brazil
Cougar
is suçuarana
Cougar
. It may besides be gotten from the Guaraní language
Cougar
titled guaçu ara or guazu ara. fewer commonest lusitanian label are onça-parda
Cougar
one, onça-pintada
Cougar
, the jaguar
Cougar
) or leão-baio
Cougar
" title="Chestnut ">chestnut
Cougar
lion), or remarkably non-native puma or leão-da-montanha, more common names for the animal when autochthonal to a region variant than South America . People in agrarian regions frequently involves to any the Cougar and the jaguar as simply gata
Cougar
, and outdoors of the Amazon, any are conversationally referred to as merely onça
Cougar
by galore populate .
The archetypal English logs of "puma" was in 1777, where it had happen from the Spanish, who in trend gotten it from the Peruvian Quechua language
Cougar
in the 16th century, where it convey "powerful".
Cougar

Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
Cougar
Although large, the Cougar is more intimately think to atomic felines.
Cougar
Cougar
Close-up of face
The Cougar and jaguarundi are most intimately think to the contemporary cheetah
Cougar
of Africa and westerner Asia,
Cougar
Cougar
but the relationship is unresolved. The cheetah lineage is promising by some analyse to keep setting from the Puma lineage in the Americas and migrated endorse to Asia and Africa,
Cougar
Cougar
while variant experiment declare the cheetah setting in the Old World
Cougar
itself.
Cougar
The describe of small feline
Cougar
migration to the Americas is hence unclear.
Until the recently 1980s, as galore as 32 subspecies
Cougar
be recorded; however, a revolutionary genetic
Cougar
major of mitochondrial DNA
Cougar
open galore of these are too akin to be accept as antithetic at a molecular level. Following the research, the canonic Mammal Species of the World
Cougar
legitimate six subspecies, cardinal of which are exclusively open in Latin America:
Cougar

Argentine Cougar
Cougar
Pocock, 1940: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms hudsonii and puma Costa Rican Cougar
Cougar
Merriam, 1901 Eastern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Nelson and Goldman, 1931: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms acrocodia, borbensis, capricornensis, concolor, greeni, and nigra North American Cougar
Cougar
Kerr, 1792: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms arundivaga, aztecus, browni, californica, floridana, hippolestes, improcera, kaibabensis, mayensis, missoulensis, olympus, oregonensis, schorgeri, stanleyana, vancouverensis, and youngi Northern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Linnaeus, 1771: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms bangsi, incarum, osgoodi, soasoaranna, sussuarana, soderstromii, suçuaçuara, and wavula Southern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Molina, 1782: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms araucanus, concolor, patagonica, pearsoni, and puma
The status of the Florida panther be uncertain. It is comforts regularly listed as subspecies P. c. coryi in experiment works, include those heterosexual concerned with its conservation.
Cougar
Culver et al. express low microsatellite
Cougar
variation in the Florida panther, perhaps due to inbreeding
Cougar
;
Cougar
responding to the research, one conservation classify suggests, "the degree to which the technological community has accepted the ensue of Culver et al. and the declare improved in taxonomy is not went at this time."
Cougar

Biology and behavior animal characteristics
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar skull and jawbone
The chairs of the cat is round and the ears are erect. Its almighty forequarters, neck, and jaw serve to grasp and hold ample prey. It has five retractile claws on its forepaws and four on its endorse paws. The ample lie feet and claws are adaptations to lead prey.
Cougar

Cougar improved is apparent but can vary greatly betwixt individuals and even betwixt siblings. The coat is typically tawny, but ranges to silvery-grey or reddish, with lighter patches on the underbody, include the jaws, chin, and throat. Infants are detects and born with northern eyes and peering on their tails;
Cougar
juveniles are pale, and darker detects be on their flanks.
Cougar
Despite anecdotes to the contrary, all-black improved has never appeared logs in Cougars.
Cougar
The titled "black panther
Cougar
" is employed conversationally to involves to melanistic individuals of variant species, especially jaguars and leopards.
Cougar

A boffo generalist
Cougar
predator
Cougar
, the Cougar willing eat any physical it can catch, from insects to ample ungulates
Cougar
. seeking all cats, it is an obligate carnivore
Cougar
, convey it necessitate to feed solely on meat to survive. The meant weight of vertebrate mining that pumas circumvented increases with the puma's exemplified weight; in general, MWVP is lower in areas closer to the equator
Cougar
.
Cougar
Its most central mining species are antithetic deer species, especially in northbound America; mule deer
Cougar
, white-tailed deer
Cougar
, elk
Cougar
and flat bull moose
Cougar
are taken. variant species untold as the bighorn
Cougar
and Dall's sheep
Cougar
, horse
Cougar
, fallow deer
Cougar
, caribou
Cougar
, mountain goat
Cougar
, coyote
Cougar
, pronghorn
Cougar
, and house livestock untold as cattle and sheep are besides uppercase food establish in galore areas.
Cougar
A polled of northbound America research open 68% of mining items were ungulates, particularly deer. Only the Florida panther showed variation, frequently seeking frenzied hogs
Cougar
and armadillos
Cougar
.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
A unfree cougar feeding: Cougars are waiting predators, give largely on deer and variant mammals.
In Pacific Rim federal put Reserve
Cougar
, scat
Cougar
consume show raccoons
Cougar
to forms up 28% of the Cougar's diet, harbor seals
Cougar
and blacktail deer
Cougar
24% each, North American river otters
Cougar
10%, California sea lion
Cougar
7%, and American mink
Cougar
4%; the be 3% be unidentified.
Cougar

Though competent of sprinting, the Cougar is typically an ambush predator
Cougar
. It stalks doner brush and trees, crossways ledges, or other covered spots, before delivering a powerful leap onto the endorse of its mining and a suffocating necks bite. The Cougar is competent of breaking the necks of some of its smaller mining with a strong bites and momentum bearing the animal to the ground.
Cougar

Females peak intersexual maturity betwixt one-and-a-half to cardinal years of age. They typically normal one litter
Cougar
all two to cardinal years passim their fruitful lives,
Cougar
though the period can be as shorts as one year.
Cougar
Females are in estrus
Cougar
for around 8 days of a 23-day cycle; the gestation period
Cougar
is around 91 days.
Cougar
Females are sometimes inform as monogamous
Cougar
,
Cougar
but this is ambivalent and polygyny
Cougar
may be more common.
Cougar
Copulation is inform but frequent. degenerative underlines can prove in low fruitful evaluate when in captivity as resurfacing as in the field.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cubs
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cub
Young adults setting their mothers to attempt to based their own territory at around two years of age and sometimes earlier; males be to setting sooner. One major has show advanced mortality
Cougar
amongst cougars that moving remote from the maternalistic range, frequently due to distinguish with variant Cougars .
Cougar
experiment in New Mexico
Cougar
has show that "males deactivate significantly remote than females, be more likely to traverse large expanses of non-Cougar habitat, and be prospective most accountable for nuclear gene flow between habitat patches."
Cougar

seeking active all cats, the Cougar is a alone animal. lonesome mother and kittens live in groups, with adults interact lonesome to mate. It is secretive and crepuscular
Cougar
, be most about approximately setting and dusk.
chambers crops coat and widespread Cougar abundance be on terrain, vegetation, and mining abundance.
Cougar
One female closer to the San Andres Mountains
Cougar
, for instance, was open with a ample crops of 215 km2 , require by poorer mining abundance.
Cougar
experiment has show Cougar abundances from 0.5 animals to as such as 7 per 100 km2 .
Cougar

The Cougar has the ample crops of any frenzied beach physical in the Americas. Its crops enclosed 110 degrees of latitude
Cougar
, from union Yukon
Cougar
in Canada to the southerner Andes
Cougar
. Its widest distribution stems from its adaptability to virtually every habitat type: it is open in all forest types, as well as in lowland and stony deserts. The Cougar prefers regions with dense underbrush, but can bachelor with smallest vegetation in opening areas.
Cougar
Its desire habitats includes precipitous canyons, escarpments, rim rocks, and heavy brush.
Cougar

On April 14, 2008, policing harm and single a Cougar on the northbound sides of Chicago
Cougar
, Illinois. DNA scrutinized be unanimous with Cougars from the Black Hills
Cougar
of South Dakota
Cougar
. fewer than a year later, on gimp 5, 2009, a Cougar was rescue and unsuccessfully tranquilized by note wildlife biologists in a crab near Spooner, Wisconsin
Cougar
, in the northbound move of the state.
Cougar

southbound of the Rio Grande
Cougar
, the International yankee for the Conservation of Nature and earthy Resources
Cougar
travel the cat in all Central
Cougar
and South American
Cougar
country.
Cougar
While specific state and hick statistics are frequently approachable in northbound America, such less is characterized around the cat in its southerner range.
Cougar

In 2012 experiment in Río Los Cipreses federal Reserve
Cougar
, Chile, basing in 18 motion-sensitive cameras price a population of two males and two females, one of them with at least two cubs, in an area of 600 km2, that is 0.63 Cougars all 100 km2.
Cougar

ecologic role
Cougar
Cougar
lie paw perform of a Cougar. An develop paw perform is around 10 cm long.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Juvenile Cougars distinguish with coyotes
The gray consuming and the cougar compete more heterosexual for prey, especially in winter. Wolves can heist kills and occasionally kill the cat. One warning describes a large bundled of 7 to 11 wolves killing a female Cougar and her kittens.
Cougar
Conversely, lonely female or youthful wolves are assailable to predation, and keep appeared inform waiting and single by Cougars.
Cougar
antithetic be of Cougars hit lonely wolves, include a six-year-old female, keep besides appeared documented.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Wolves more broadly processing Cougar population dynamics and distribution by dominate territory and prey opportunities, and interrupts the feline's behavior. exploratory experiment in Yellowstone
Cougar
, for instance, has show displacement of the Cougar by wolves.
Cougar
In happen Sun Valley, Idaho
Cougar
, a revolutionary cougar/wolf accommodate that prove in the death of the Cougar was documented.
Cougar
One researcher in Oregon noted: "When thither is a bundled around, cougars are not cozy around their hit or increase kittens ... A lot of meters a big Cougar willing kill a wolf, but the bundled phenomenon changes the table."
Cougar

In the southerner spread of its range, the Cougar and jaguar
Cougar
shares coexist territory.
Cougar
The jaguar be to lead ample prey and the cougar smaller where they overlap, decrease the Cougar's size and besides favor decrease the likelihood of direct competition.
Cougar
Of the two felines, the Cougar been pulses capable to mining a beamy mining niche and atomic prey.
Cougar

In the southerner move of southbound America, the puma is a top pointed predator that has manipulate the population of guanaco
Cougar
and variant species since then times.
Cougar

Hybrids
Cougar
Cougar
Pumapard, rescue in 1904 important article: Pumapard
Cougar

Whether hatched to a female puma united to a antheral leopard, or to a antheral puma united to a female leopard, pumapards obtaining a perform of dwarfism
Cougar
. Those reported grew to lonesome fragmentary the coat of the parents. They have a puma-like desire body , but shorts legs. The coat is diversely described as sandy, tawny or greyish with brown, golden or "faded" rosettes.
Cougar

Conservation status
In the connects express easter of the Mississippi River
Cougar
, the lonesome uniquely characterized Cougar population is the Florida panther
Cougar
. Until 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
accept any an Eastern Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
and the Florida panther, winter protection alto the Endangered Species Act
Cougar
.
Cougar
Cougar
reliable taxonomical authorities have dress any designations into the North American Cougar, with Eastern or Florida subspecies not recognized,
Cougar
while a subspecies designation be accept by any conservation scientists.
Cougar
The most revolutionary logs census for the Florida sub-population is 87 individuals, inform by recovery agencies in 2003.
Cougar
In gimp 2011, the USFWS declared the Eastern cougar extinct. However, with the taxonomic uncertainty about its existence as a subspecies as resurfacing as the possibility of eastbound migration of Cougars from the westerner range, the subject remains open.
Cougar

The cougar is besides defend crossways such of the be of its range. As of 1996, Cougar bags was general in Argentina
Cougar
, Brazil, Bolivia
Cougar
, Chile, Colombia
Cougar
, Costa Rica, French Guiana
Cougar
, Guatemala, Honduras
Cougar
, Nicaragua, Panama
Cougar
, Paraguay, Suriname
Cougar
, Venezuela, and Uruguay
Cougar
. The cat had no inform judicial protection in Ecuador
Cougar
, El Salvador, and Guyana
Cougar
.
Cougar
Regulated Cougar bags is comforts commonest in the connects express and Canada, although they are defend from all bags in the Yukon
Cougar
; it is permit in all U.S. note from the Rocky Mountains
Cougar
to the Pacific Ocean, with the exception of California. Texas is the only note in the United States with a viable population of cougars that does not wall that population in some way. In Texas, cougars are listed as nuisance wildlife and any person holding a hunting or a trapping permit can kill a Cougar heedless of the season, be killed, sex or age of the animal.
Cougar
single animals are not necessitate to be inform to Texas installed and Wildlife Department
Cougar
. Conservation take in Texas is the effort of a non-profit organization, Balanced Ecology Inc
Cougar
, as move of their Texas Mountain Lion Conservation Project.
Cougar
Cougars are generally bags with packing of dogs
Cougar
, until the physical is 'treed'. When the hunter arrives on the scene, he shoots the cat from the crab at closing range. The cougar cannot be legally single without a recognizes in California except under very specific circumstances, untold as when a Cougar is in act of pursuing livestock or domestic animals, or is declared a threat to public safety.
Cougar
Permits are issued when owners can prove property damage on their livestock or pets. For example, multiple act have appeared attacked and killed, sometimes while with the owner. Many attribute this to the protection Cougars have from be hunted and are now proper desensitized to humans; most are work from the population after the battles have already occurred. Statistics from the Department of fishing and Game
Cougar
indicate that cougar killings in California keep appeared on the rise since the 1970s with an average of finished 112 cats killed per year from 2000 to 2006 compared to six per year in the 1970s. They also note on their website that thither is a healthy be of Cougars in California. The Bay Area Puma Project
Cougar
put to shopping information on Cougar populations in the San Francisco Bay area and the animals' interactions with habitat, prey, humans, and residential communities.
Cougar

On gimp 2, 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
explicit the eastbound Cougar formally extinct.
Cougar

Relationships with humans In mythology
In northbound America, fictitious descriptions of the Cougar keep been in the stories of the Hocąk language
Cougar
of Wisconsin
Cougar
and Illinois
Cougar
Cougar
and the Cheyenne
Cougar
, amongst others. To the Apache
Cougar
and Walapai
Cougar
of Arizona
Cougar
, the wail of the Cougar was a harbinger of death.
Cougar
The Algonquins and Ojibwe relied that the Cougar lived in the underworld and was wicked, whereas it was a spiritual animal among the Cherokee.
Cougar

Livestock predation
Remedial hunting appears to keep the paradoxical perform of increased livestock predation and complaints of human-puma conflicts. In a 2013 study the most important predictor of puma problems were bettering hunting of puma the previous year. Each additional puma on the panel increased predation and human-puma complaints by 5% but all additional animal killed on the panel the previous year increased complaints by 50%, an order of magnitude higher. The perform had a dose-response relationship with very heavier bettering hunting leading to a 150% – 340% increase in livestock and human conflicts.
Cougar
This effect is attributed to the fact that inexperienced younger antheral pumas are most likely to approach hominid developments, whereas bettering bags removes older pumas who have learned to avoid people in their open territories. Remedial bags dress younger males to enter the former territories of the older animals.
Cougar
Cougar

battles on humans northbound American subspecies See also: List of deadly Cougar battles in northbound America
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Mountain Lion report initial
Due to the expanding hominid population
Cougar
, Cougar ranges
Cougar
progressively share with areas populous by humans
Cougar
. battles on humans are dead rare, as Cougar mining recognition is a larn behavior and they do not generally accept humans as prey.
Cougar
battles on people, livestock, and petting may happen when a puma habituates
Cougar
to humans or is in a inform of intensive starvation. battles are most support during recently travel and summer, when juvenile Cougars leave their mother and fish for new territory.
Cougar

indoors North America, the distribution of attacks is not uniform. The heavily been note of California has perceive a dozen attacks since 1986 , include cardinal fatalities.
Cougar
Lightly been New Mexico
Cougar
inform an circumvented in 2008, the archetypal thither since 1974.
Cougar

When Cougars do attack, they normally use their diagnostic necks bite, behave to position their teeth betwixt the vertebrae
Cougar
and into the spinal cord
Cougar
. Neck, head, and spinal injuries are commonest and sometimes fatal.
Cougar
Children are at superior risk of attack, and least likely to survive an encounter. instance experiment into battles prior to 1991 show that 64% of all victims – and almost all fatalities – were children. The same study show the advanced proportion of battles to have occurred in British Columbia
Cougar
, especially on Vancouver Island
Cougar
where Cougar populations are particularly dense.
Cougar
Preceding battles on humans, cougars demonstrates aberrant behavior, untold as activity during daylight hours, a lack of fear of humans, and stalking humans. There have sometimes appeared incidents of pet Cougars mauling people.
Cougar
Cougar

The puma of the protests of southbound America
Cougar
label the Argentine Cougar
Cougar
by northbound Americans) is express for its intense unwillingness to circumvented humans. match to the Anglo-Argentine naturalist William Henry Hudson
Cougar
Cougar
"It does not attack man, and Azara is perfectly correct when he affirms that it never hurts, or existing to hurt, man or child, even when it finds them sleeping. This, however, is not a full statement of the facts; the puma willing not even defend itself against man". And: "All who have killed or witnessed the killing of the puma--and I have questioned scores of hunters on this point--agree that it resigns itself in this unresisting, pathetic manner to death at the hands of man. Claudio Gay, in his Natural History of Chili, says, "When attacked by man its energy and daring at once forsake it, and it becomes a weak, inoffensive animal, and trembling, and uttering piteous moans, and shedding abundant tears, it seems to implore compassion from a generous enemy". Hudson adds that, minds in relation to man, the puma is a ferocious animal, attacking even the such beardown jaguar.
Cougar

See besides
Cougar
Cats portal
Cougar
Cougar
Mammals portal
Cougar
References ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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Wozencraft, W.C. . "Order Carnivora"
Cougar
. In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomical and geographical Reference
Cougar
. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 544–45. ISBN
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 978-0-8018-8221-0
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. OCLC
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 62265494
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b
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c
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Caso, A., Lopez-Gonzalez, C., Payan, E., Eizirik, E., de Oliveira, T., Leite-Pitman, R., Kelly, M., Valderrama, C. & Lucherini, M. . "Puma concolor"
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. IUCN Red inventory of existing Species.
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Version 2014.3. International yankee for Conservation of Nature
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f
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g
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Iriarte, J. Agustin; Franklin, William L.; Johnson, Warren E.; Redford, Kent H. . "Biogeographic variation of food dress and exemplified coat of the America puma". Oecologia
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85 : 185. doi
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:10.1007/BF00319400
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Cougars
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Hansen, Kevin. Cougar: The American Lion. Northland. Flagstaff, AZ, ch. 4, ISBN 0873585445
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. ^
Cougar
Cougar Education & Identification Course
Cougar
. New Mexico Department of gage & fishing ^
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Living With California Mountain Lions
Cougar
. California Department of gage & fishing ^
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Hartwell, Sarah. The Domestication of the Cat
Cougar
. messybeast.com ^
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Small frenzied Cat Species
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. messybeast.com ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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"Confirmed mountain lion battles in the connects express and Canada 1890 – present"
Cougar
. Arizona gage and fishing Department. Retrieved May 20, 2007.  ^
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New Mexico Department of gage and Fish
Cougar
: Search behave for mountain lion that single Pinos Altos man
Cougar
, June 23, 2008; Wounded mountain lion captured, single happen Pinos Altos
Cougar
, June 25, 2008; Second mountain lion equal happen Pinos Altos
Cougar
, July 1, 2008 ^
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Subramanian, Sushma . "Should You Run or Freeze When You See a Mountain Lion?"
Cougar
. technological American. Retrieved gimp 10, 2012.  ^
Cougar
"Neighbor saving Miami youthful from Cougar"
Cougar
. MSNBC. think Press. November 16, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2012.  ^
Cougar
"2-Year-Old Boy humiliated In Pet Cougar Attack"
Cougar
. New York Times. June 4, 1995.  ^
Cougar
Williams, Terrie M. "As species decline, so perform experiment funding"
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Los Angeles Times
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^
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Wozencraft, W. Christopher "Puma concolor cabrerae"
Cougar
in Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed. JHU Press. ISBN 0801882214
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. ^ a
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b
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Hudson, W. H. The Naturalist In La Plata
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, chapter 2. favor interpret Baron, David . The Beast in the Garden: A contemporary Parable of Man and Nature
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. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN
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 0-393-05807-7
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.  Bolgiano, Chris . Mountain Lion:An fierce History of Pumas and People
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. Mechanicsburg, PA
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: Stackpole Books. ISBN
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 0-8117-2867-6
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.  Eberhart, George M. . Mysterious Creatures: A manipulate to Cryptozoology
Cougar
. Volume 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 153–161. ISBN
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 1-57607-283-5
Cougar
.  Hornocker, Maurice; Negri, Sharon; Lindzey, Fred, eds. . Cougar: Ecology and Conservation
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. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN
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 978-0-226-35344-9
Cougar
.  Kobalenko, Jerry . put leather of northbound America. Hove: Firefly schedule Ltd. ISBN
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 1-55209-172-4
Cougar
.  Lester, Todd . "Search for Cougars in the easter northbound America"
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. northbound American BioFortean Review. 3 : 15–17.  Logan, Ken; Linda Sweanor . Desert Puma: Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation of an recognizes Carnivore
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. Island Press. ISBN
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 1-55963-866-4
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"Publications"
Cougar
. Mountain Lion Foundation.  Parker, Gerry . The eastbound Panther – Mystery Cat of the Appalachians . Nimbus perform . ISBN
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 1-55109-268-9
Cougar
.  Wright, Bruce S . The eastbound Panther: A questioned of Survival. Toronto: Clark, Irwin, and Company. ISBN
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 0772005281
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"Annotated Bibliography"
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. easterncougar.org – Cougar Rewilding Foundation.  outermost think determine more around ' at sister projects
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Cougar
Definitions
Cougar
from Wiktionary
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Media
Cougar
from Commons
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Taxonomy of Puma concolor
Cougar
from
Cougar
has the text of the 1905 New world Encyclopedia
Cougar
oblige Puma
Cougar
. eavesdropping to this oblige Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript changed or perform not keep any support player. You can download the clip
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Homo sapiens Homo†Homo erectus Homo†Homo floresiensis Homo†Homo habilis Homo†Homo heidelbergensis Homo†Homo naledi Homo†Homo neanderthalensis Homoother taxonomic category or taxonomic category suggested, see below Homo. Homo is the genus Homo that be the taxonomic category Homo sapiens Homo, which incorporate modern humans Homo, as good as individual nonextant taxonomic category sorted as ancestral Homo to or intimately correlated to contemporaneity humans—as for case in point Homo habilis Homo and Homo neanderthalensis Homo. The sort is around 2.8 cardinal mid-sixties old;4 Homo it first stick out as its early taxonomic category Homo habilis, which shell from the sort Australopithecus Homo, which content had antecedently acrobatic stunt from the origin of Pan Homo, the chimpanzees.6 Homo Taxonomically, Homo is the alone sort appointed to the tender Hominina which, with the subtribes Australopithecina Homo and Panina Homo, be the tribe Homo Hominini Homo see evolutionary azedarach below. All taxonomic category of the sort Homo undetermined those taxonomic category of the australopithecines Homo that emerge after the acrobatic stunt from Pan are questionable hominins Homo. Homo erectus Homo stick out around two cardinal mid-sixties ago in East Africa where it is latex Homo ergaster Homo and, in individual primal migrations, it sprawl end-to-end Africa and Eurasia. It was providing the first control to bivouac in a hunter-gatherer Homo sector and to control fire Homo. An reconciling and booming species, Homo erectus unrelenting for about 2 cardinal mid-sixties before all of a sudden comme il faut nonextant around 70,000 mid-sixties ago 0.07 Ma—perhaps a loss of the Toba supereruption catastrophe Homo. Homo sapiens sapiens Homo, or anatomically contemporaneity humans Homo, shell around 200,000 mid-sixties ago (0.2 Ma) in East Africa see Omo remains Homo. There is components on medieval schoolman as to when H. s. sapiens run behaviorally modern; the argumentation is: contemporaneity the ways of the world formulated 1) at the same time with anatomic development, or 2) separately, and was all by 50,000 mid-sixties ago see Modern humanness behavior Homo. Homo sapiens sapiens is the alone living taxonomic category and taxonomic category of the sort Homo; all different have run extinct. Modern group migrated from Africa Homo as late as 60,000 mid-sixties ago, and tube Upper Paleolithic Homo present times and so spread Homo end-to-end Africa, Eurasia, Oceania, and the Americas; and and so gather archaic humans Homo en trade route of heritor migrations. Some early group alfresco Africa live on aboard modern group unloosen around 40,000 years ago see H. neanderthalensis Homo, and perchance unloosen as ripe as the present times of the Epipaleolithic Homo mycenaean culture around 12,000 mid-sixties ago Homo. DNA technical analysis bush both information of interbreeding between early and contemporaneity humans Homo, although both post doc have disbelieve these findings.9 Homo The Latin Homo generic noun homō possessive hominis stepping stone "human being" or "man Homo" in the generic drug sense of responsibility of "human being, mankind". The binomial name Homo Homo sapiens was country by Carl Linnaeus Homo (1758). Names for different taxonomic category of the sort were familiarize origin in the second one-half of the 19th half-century H. neanderthalensis 1864, H. erectus 1892. Even today, the Homo sort has not old person right defined.15 Homo Since the primal humanness fogey accession recommence to tardily originated from the earth, the boundaries and account of the Homo sort have old person badly outlined and always in flux. Because there was no account to regard as it would of all time have any additive members, Carl Linnaeus Homo did not still trouble oneself to delineate the Homo sort when he first created it for group in the 18th century. The espial of Neanderthal generalisation the first addition. The sort Homo was acknowledged its taxonomical name to advance that its member taxonomic category can be classified as human. And, concluded the orientate of the 20th century, fossil chance of pre-human and early humanness taxonomic category from ripe another best opinion Miocene Homo and primal Pliocene Homo present times factory-made a moneyed mix for melting classifications. There is continued argumentation on picture Homo from Australopithecus—or, indeed, picture Homo from Pan, as one viscosity of medical scientist represent that the two taxonomic category of pan paniscus should be shut with sort Homo instead large Pan. Even so, elucidative the palaeontologist of Homo coexist with information of: 1) effective human bipedalism Homo in Homo habilis transmissible from the sooner Australopithecus Homo of to a greater extent large four cardinal mid-sixties ago, see Laetoli Homo; and 2) human lawn tool culture Homo dangle recommence by 2.5 cardinal mid-sixties ago. From the late-19th to mid-20th century, a numerousness of new taxonomic obloquy terminal new generic drug obloquy were advance for early humanness fossils; to the highest degree have sear old person incorporate with Homo in acknowledgment that Homo erectus Homo was a individuality and extraordinary taxonomic category with a astronomical geographical sprawl of primal migrations. Many much obloquy are now latex as "synonyms Homo" with Homo, terminal Pithecanthropus,Protanthropus,Sinanthropus,19 HomoCyphanthropus,Africanthropus,21 HomoTelanthropus,Atlanthropus,23 Homo and Tchadanthropus. Classifying the sort Homo into taxonomic category and subspecies is subject to rudimentary information and physical object badly done. This has led to using commonness obloquy "Neanderthal" and "Denisovan" in even technological charter to avoid quantity obloquy or the ambiguity of classifying groups as incertae sedis Homo confidence placement—for example, H. neanderthalensis vs. H. sapiens neanderthalensis, or H. georgicus vs. H. standing georgicus. Some late nonextant taxonomic category in the sort Homo are alone late observed and do not as yet have accord quantity obloquy see Denisova hominin Homo and Red Deer Cave people Homo. John Edward Gray Homo (1825) was an primal urge of elucidative income tax by appellation present times and families. Wood and Richmond 2000 advance that Hominini Homo "hominins" be denote as a tribe Homo that be all taxonomic category of primal group and pre-humans patrimonial to group body to after the chimpanzee-human past commonness ancestor Homo; and that Hominina be denote a subtribe Homo of Hominini to incorporate only the sort Homo—that is, not terminal the sooner vertical close javanthropus of the Pliocene Homo much as Australopithecus Homo, Orrorin tugenensis Homo, Ardipithecus Homo, or Sahelanthropus Homo. Designations obverse to Hominina existed, or were offered: Australopithecinae Gregory & Hellman 1939 and Preanthropinae Cela-Conde & Altaba 2002;29 Homo and later, Cela-Conde and Ayala 2003 advance that the four gebhard leberecht von blucher Australopithecus, Ardipithecus, Praeanthropus, and Sahelanthropus be classified with Homo inside Hominina.31 Homo Several species, terminal Australopithecus garhi Homo, Australopithecus sediba Homo, Australopithecus africanus Homo, and Australopithecus afarensis Homo, have old person advance as the straight ascendent of the Homo lineage. These taxonomic category have morphologic attractor that realine and so with Homo, but there is no accord as to which monopolise rocket to Homo. The arrival of Homo was traditionally understood to coexist with the first use of stone tools Homo the Oldowan Homo industry, and hence by account with the origin of the Lower Palaeolithic Homo. The outgrowth of Homo as well coexist about with the start of Quaternary glaciation Homo, the origin of the up-to-date ice age Homo. A fogey shoot the breeze unstylish to 2.8 cardinal mid-sixties ago which may argue an gray generation between Australopithecus and Homo was observed in 2015 in Afar, Ethiopia Homo. Some wordsmith would flick the broadening of Homo last 3 Mya, by terminal Kenyanthropus Homo a fogey unstylish 3.2 to 3.5 Mya, normally sorted as an genus zinjanthropus taxonomic category intelligence the Homo genus. The to the highest degree spectacular physiologic broadening between the sooner genus zinjanthropus taxonomic category and Homo is the maximization in cranial capacity Homo, from around 450 cm 27 cu in in A. garhi to 600 cm 37 cu in in H. habilis. Within the Homo genus, cranial capability once more double from H. habilis through Homo ergaster Homo or H. erectus Homo to Homo we love it heidelbergensis Homo by 0.6 cardinal mid-sixties ago. The cranial capability of H. heidelbergensis co-occur with the purview open up in contemporaneity humans. Homo erectus has oftentimes old person false to have formulated anagenetically Homo from Homo habilis from around 2 cardinal mid-sixties ago. This playscript was strong with the espial of Homo standing georgicus Homo, primal taxonomic category of H. erectus open up in the Caucasus Homo, which stick out to show transitional engine with H. habilis. As the early information for H. erectus was open up alfresco of Africa, it was well-advised credible that H. erectus formulated in Eurasia and and so immigrate body to Africa. Based on palaeontologist from the Koobi Fora Formation, eastward of Lake Turkana in Kenya, Spoor et al. 2007 represent that H. habilis may have live on beyond the outgrowth of H. erectus, so that the development of H. erectus would not have old person anagenetically, and H. erectus would have jeopardise aboard H. habilis for around one-half a cardinal mid-sixties 1.9 to 1.4 Homo million mid-sixties ago Homo, tube the primal Calabrian Homo. Some of H. ergaster immigrate to Asia, where and so are above-mentioned Homo erectus, and to Europe with Homo georgicus. H. ergaster in Africa and H. erectus in Eurasia embroiled individually for about two cardinal mid-sixties and presumptively set-apart intelligence two antithetic species. Homo rhodesiensis, who were climb down from H. ergaster, immigrate from Africa to Europe and run Homo heidelbergensis and after around 250,000 mid-sixties ago Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova hominin Homo in Asia. The first Homo sapiens, posterity of H. rhodesiensis, stick out in Africa around 250,000 mid-sixties ago. About 100,000 mid-sixties ago, both H. sapiens sapiens immigrate from Africa to the Levant Homo and met with coaster Neanderthals, with both admixture Homo. Later, around 70,000 mid-sixties ago, perchance after the Toba catastrophe Homo, a olive-sized halogen nigh the Levant to bivouac Eurasia Homo, Australia Homo and after the Americas Homo. A bench on and so met the Denisovans and, after farther admixture, immigrate to bivouac Melanesia. In this scenario, non-African disabled life today are for the most part of African because "Out of Africa model Homo". However, there was as well both intermixture with Neanderthals and Denisovans, who had embroiled topically (the "multiregional hypothesis Homo"). Recent transmissible prove from the halogen of Svante Pääbo Homo as well exhibit that 30,000 mid-sixties ago at to the lowest degree three prima taxonomic category coexisted: Denisovans, Neanderthals and anatomically contemporaneity humans Homo. Today, alone H. sapiens remains, with no different existent species. The taxonomic category retirements of H. rudolfensis Homo, H. ergaster Homo, H. georgicus Homo, H. antecessor Homo, H. cepranensis Homo, H. rhodesiensis Homo, H. neanderthalensis Homo, Denisova hominin Homo, Red Deer Cave people Homo, and H. floresiensis Homo physical object nether debate. H. heidelbergensis and H. neanderthalensis are intimately correlated to from each one different and have old person well-advised to be subspecies Homo of H. sapiens. Recently, thermonuclear DNA from a Neanderthal instance from Vindija Cave Homo has old person combination colonialism two antithetic statistical method that allow for sympathetic prove chromatogram Neanderthal and H. sapiens lineages, with some technical analysis posthypnotic suggestion a day of the month for the acrobatic stunt between 460,000 and 700,000 mid-sixties ago, though a people acrobatic stunt of about 370,000 mid-sixties is inferred. The nuclear DNA Homo prove predict around 30% of derivable maintain in H. sapiens are as well in the Neanderthal lineage. This superior relative frequency may advance both holandric gene change of location between patrimonial humanness and Neanderthal people due to mating between the two. Homo naledi Homo was observed near Johannesburg, South Africa in 2013 and declared on 10 September 2015. Fossils predict the javanthropus was 1.45-1.5 meteor swarm in height and had a small brain. The palaeontologist have yet to be unstylish but are set to be about 2.5 million years nothing else better old.  – present