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COUGAR

Also see text
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar crops Synonyms Felis
Cougar
concolor
The Cougar is an ambush predator
Cougar
and pursues a widest variety of prey. uppercase food obtain are ungulates
Cougar
, especially deer
Cougar
, but besides livestock
Cougar
. It besides bags species as atomic as insects and rodents
Cougar
. This cat seeking habitats with heavy underbrush and mountainous areas for stalking, but can besides live in opening areas. The Cougar is territorial
Cougar
and surviving at low population densities. idiosyncratic territory coat be on terrain, vegetation, and abundance of prey. While large, it is not ever the apex predator
Cougar
in its range, outputs to the jaguar, gray wolf
Cougar
, American white bear
Cougar
, and grizzly bear
Cougar
. It is reclusive and largely bypassing people. Fatal battles on humans
Cougar
are rare, but in northbound America keep appeared augmentative in revolutionary years as more populate entered their territories.
Cougar

restrict 1 designate and etymology
Cougar
2 Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
2.1 Subspecies
Cougar
3 Biology and behavior
Cougar
3.1 animal characteristics
Cougar
3.2 bags and diet
Cougar
3.3 Reproduction and life cycle
Cougar
3.4 societal organize and chambers range
Cougar
4 Ecology
Cougar
4.1 Distribution and habitat
Cougar
4.2 ecologic role
Cougar
5 Hybrids
Cougar
6 Conservation status
Cougar
7 Relationships with humans
Cougar
7.1 In mythology
Cougar
7.2 Livestock predation
Cougar
7.3 battles on humans
Cougar
7.3.1 northbound American subspecies
Cougar
7.3.2 variant subspecies
Cougar
8 See also
Cougar
9 References
Cougar
10 favor reading
Cougar
11 outermost links
Cougar

With its ample crops crossways the length of the Americas, P. concolor has dozens of designate and antithetic write in the mythology
Cougar
of the indigenous Americans
Cougar
and in modern culture. Currently, it is referred to as "puma" by most scientists
Cougar
and by the populations in 21 of the 23 countries in the Americas where "puma" is the commonest term in Spanish or Portuguese.
Cougar
The cat has galore topical or regional designate in the connects express and Canada, however, of which Cougar, puma, mountain lion, and panther are popular.
Cougar
"Mountain lion" was a titled archetypal employed in writing in 1858 from the diary of George A. Jackson of Colorado
Cougar
.
Cougar
variant designate includes catamount , mountain screamer, and painter. Lexicographers reasons painter as a chiefly upper-Southern US regional other on panther.
Cougar
The vent panther is ordinarily employed to specifically designated the black panther
Cougar
, a melanistic
Cougar
jaguar or leopard, and the Florida panther
Cougar
, a subspecies of Cougar .
"Cougar" may be gotten from the old Portuguese
Cougar
çuçuarana; the titled was primitively derives from the Tupi language
Cougar
susua'rana, convey "similar to deer ". A truest perform in Brazil
Cougar
is suçuarana
Cougar
. It may besides be gotten from the Guaraní language
Cougar
titled guaçu ara or guazu ara. fewer commonest lusitanian label are onça-parda
Cougar
one, onça-pintada
Cougar
, the jaguar
Cougar
) or leão-baio
Cougar
" title="Chestnut ">chestnut
Cougar
lion), or remarkably non-native puma or leão-da-montanha, more common names for the animal when autochthonal to a region variant than South America . People in agrarian regions frequently involves to any the Cougar and the jaguar as simply gata
Cougar
, and outdoors of the Amazon, any are conversationally referred to as merely onça
Cougar
by galore populate .
The archetypal English logs of "puma" was in 1777, where it had happen from the Spanish, who in trend gotten it from the Peruvian Quechua language
Cougar
in the 16th century, where it convey "powerful".
Cougar

Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
Cougar
Although large, the Cougar is more intimately think to atomic felines.
Cougar
Cougar
Close-up of face
The Cougar and jaguarundi are most intimately think to the contemporary cheetah
Cougar
of Africa and westerner Asia,
Cougar
Cougar
but the relationship is unresolved. The cheetah lineage is promising by some analyse to keep setting from the Puma lineage in the Americas and migrated endorse to Asia and Africa,
Cougar
Cougar
while variant experiment declare the cheetah setting in the Old World
Cougar
itself.
Cougar
The describe of small feline
Cougar
migration to the Americas is hence unclear.
Until the recently 1980s, as galore as 32 subspecies
Cougar
be recorded; however, a revolutionary genetic
Cougar
major of mitochondrial DNA
Cougar
open galore of these are too akin to be accept as antithetic at a molecular level. Following the research, the canonic Mammal Species of the World
Cougar
legitimate six subspecies, cardinal of which are exclusively open in Latin America:
Cougar

Argentine Cougar
Cougar
Pocock, 1940: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms hudsonii and puma Costa Rican Cougar
Cougar
Merriam, 1901 Eastern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Nelson and Goldman, 1931: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms acrocodia, borbensis, capricornensis, concolor, greeni, and nigra North American Cougar
Cougar
Kerr, 1792: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms arundivaga, aztecus, browni, californica, floridana, hippolestes, improcera, kaibabensis, mayensis, missoulensis, olympus, oregonensis, schorgeri, stanleyana, vancouverensis, and youngi Northern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Linnaeus, 1771: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms bangsi, incarum, osgoodi, soasoaranna, sussuarana, soderstromii, suçuaçuara, and wavula Southern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Molina, 1782: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms araucanus, concolor, patagonica, pearsoni, and puma
The status of the Florida panther be uncertain. It is comforts regularly listed as subspecies P. c. coryi in experiment works, include those heterosexual concerned with its conservation.
Cougar
Culver et al. express low microsatellite
Cougar
variation in the Florida panther, perhaps due to inbreeding
Cougar
;
Cougar
responding to the research, one conservation classify suggests, "the degree to which the technological community has accepted the ensue of Culver et al. and the declare improved in taxonomy is not went at this time."
Cougar

Biology and behavior animal characteristics
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar skull and jawbone
The chairs of the cat is round and the ears are erect. Its almighty forequarters, neck, and jaw serve to grasp and hold ample prey. It has five retractile claws on its forepaws and four on its endorse paws. The ample lie feet and claws are adaptations to lead prey.
Cougar

Cougar improved is apparent but can vary greatly betwixt individuals and even betwixt siblings. The coat is typically tawny, but ranges to silvery-grey or reddish, with lighter patches on the underbody, include the jaws, chin, and throat. Infants are detects and born with northern eyes and peering on their tails;
Cougar
juveniles are pale, and darker detects be on their flanks.
Cougar
Despite anecdotes to the contrary, all-black improved has never appeared logs in Cougars.
Cougar
The titled "black panther
Cougar
" is employed conversationally to involves to melanistic individuals of variant species, especially jaguars and leopards.
Cougar

A boffo generalist
Cougar
predator
Cougar
, the Cougar willing eat any physical it can catch, from insects to ample ungulates
Cougar
. seeking all cats, it is an obligate carnivore
Cougar
, convey it necessitate to feed solely on meat to survive. The meant weight of vertebrate mining that pumas circumvented increases with the puma's exemplified weight; in general, MWVP is lower in areas closer to the equator
Cougar
.
Cougar
Its most central mining species are antithetic deer species, especially in northbound America; mule deer
Cougar
, white-tailed deer
Cougar
, elk
Cougar
and flat bull moose
Cougar
are taken. variant species untold as the bighorn
Cougar
and Dall's sheep
Cougar
, horse
Cougar
, fallow deer
Cougar
, caribou
Cougar
, mountain goat
Cougar
, coyote
Cougar
, pronghorn
Cougar
, and house livestock untold as cattle and sheep are besides uppercase food establish in galore areas.
Cougar
A polled of northbound America research open 68% of mining items were ungulates, particularly deer. Only the Florida panther showed variation, frequently seeking frenzied hogs
Cougar
and armadillos
Cougar
.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
A unfree cougar feeding: Cougars are waiting predators, give largely on deer and variant mammals.
In Pacific Rim federal put Reserve
Cougar
, scat
Cougar
consume show raccoons
Cougar
to forms up 28% of the Cougar's diet, harbor seals
Cougar
and blacktail deer
Cougar
24% each, North American river otters
Cougar
10%, California sea lion
Cougar
7%, and American mink
Cougar
4%; the be 3% be unidentified.
Cougar

Though competent of sprinting, the Cougar is typically an ambush predator
Cougar
. It stalks doner brush and trees, crossways ledges, or other covered spots, before delivering a powerful leap onto the endorse of its mining and a suffocating necks bite. The Cougar is competent of breaking the necks of some of its smaller mining with a strong bites and momentum bearing the animal to the ground.
Cougar

Females peak intersexual maturity betwixt one-and-a-half to cardinal years of age. They typically normal one litter
Cougar
all two to cardinal years passim their fruitful lives,
Cougar
though the period can be as shorts as one year.
Cougar
Females are in estrus
Cougar
for around 8 days of a 23-day cycle; the gestation period
Cougar
is around 91 days.
Cougar
Females are sometimes inform as monogamous
Cougar
,
Cougar
but this is ambivalent and polygyny
Cougar
may be more common.
Cougar
Copulation is inform but frequent. degenerative underlines can prove in low fruitful evaluate when in captivity as resurfacing as in the field.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cubs
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cub
Young adults setting their mothers to attempt to based their own territory at around two years of age and sometimes earlier; males be to setting sooner. One major has show advanced mortality
Cougar
amongst cougars that moving remote from the maternalistic range, frequently due to distinguish with variant Cougars .
Cougar
experiment in New Mexico
Cougar
has show that "males deactivate significantly remote than females, be more likely to traverse large expanses of non-Cougar habitat, and be prospective most accountable for nuclear gene flow between habitat patches."
Cougar

seeking active all cats, the Cougar is a alone animal. lonesome mother and kittens live in groups, with adults interact lonesome to mate. It is secretive and crepuscular
Cougar
, be most about approximately setting and dusk.
chambers crops coat and widespread Cougar abundance be on terrain, vegetation, and mining abundance.
Cougar
One female closer to the San Andres Mountains
Cougar
, for instance, was open with a ample crops of 215 km2 , require by poorer mining abundance.
Cougar
experiment has show Cougar abundances from 0.5 animals to as such as 7 per 100 km2 .
Cougar

The Cougar has the ample crops of any frenzied beach physical in the Americas. Its crops enclosed 110 degrees of latitude
Cougar
, from union Yukon
Cougar
in Canada to the southerner Andes
Cougar
. Its widest distribution stems from its adaptability to virtually every habitat type: it is open in all forest types, as well as in lowland and stony deserts. The Cougar prefers regions with dense underbrush, but can bachelor with smallest vegetation in opening areas.
Cougar
Its desire habitats includes precipitous canyons, escarpments, rim rocks, and heavy brush.
Cougar

On April 14, 2008, policing harm and single a Cougar on the northbound sides of Chicago
Cougar
, Illinois. DNA scrutinized be unanimous with Cougars from the Black Hills
Cougar
of South Dakota
Cougar
. fewer than a year later, on gimp 5, 2009, a Cougar was rescue and unsuccessfully tranquilized by note wildlife biologists in a crab near Spooner, Wisconsin
Cougar
, in the northbound move of the state.
Cougar

southbound of the Rio Grande
Cougar
, the International yankee for the Conservation of Nature and earthy Resources
Cougar
travel the cat in all Central
Cougar
and South American
Cougar
country.
Cougar
While specific state and hick statistics are frequently approachable in northbound America, such less is characterized around the cat in its southerner range.
Cougar

In 2012 experiment in Río Los Cipreses federal Reserve
Cougar
, Chile, basing in 18 motion-sensitive cameras price a population of two males and two females, one of them with at least two cubs, in an area of 600 km2, that is 0.63 Cougars all 100 km2.
Cougar

ecologic role
Cougar
Cougar
lie paw perform of a Cougar. An develop paw perform is around 10 cm long.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Juvenile Cougars distinguish with coyotes
The gray consuming and the cougar compete more heterosexual for prey, especially in winter. Wolves can heist kills and occasionally kill the cat. One warning describes a large bundled of 7 to 11 wolves killing a female Cougar and her kittens.
Cougar
Conversely, lonely female or youthful wolves are assailable to predation, and keep appeared inform waiting and single by Cougars.
Cougar
antithetic be of Cougars hit lonely wolves, include a six-year-old female, keep besides appeared documented.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Wolves more broadly processing Cougar population dynamics and distribution by dominate territory and prey opportunities, and interrupts the feline's behavior. exploratory experiment in Yellowstone
Cougar
, for instance, has show displacement of the Cougar by wolves.
Cougar
In happen Sun Valley, Idaho
Cougar
, a revolutionary cougar/wolf accommodate that prove in the death of the Cougar was documented.
Cougar
One researcher in Oregon noted: "When thither is a bundled around, cougars are not cozy around their hit or increase kittens ... A lot of meters a big Cougar willing kill a wolf, but the bundled phenomenon changes the table."
Cougar

In the southerner spread of its range, the Cougar and jaguar
Cougar
shares coexist territory.
Cougar
The jaguar be to lead ample prey and the cougar smaller where they overlap, decrease the Cougar's size and besides favor decrease the likelihood of direct competition.
Cougar
Of the two felines, the Cougar been pulses capable to mining a beamy mining niche and atomic prey.
Cougar

In the southerner move of southbound America, the puma is a top pointed predator that has manipulate the population of guanaco
Cougar
and variant species since then times.
Cougar

Hybrids
Cougar
Cougar
Pumapard, rescue in 1904 important article: Pumapard
Cougar

Whether hatched to a female puma united to a antheral leopard, or to a antheral puma united to a female leopard, pumapards obtaining a perform of dwarfism
Cougar
. Those reported grew to lonesome fragmentary the coat of the parents. They have a puma-like desire body , but shorts legs. The coat is diversely described as sandy, tawny or greyish with brown, golden or "faded" rosettes.
Cougar

Conservation status
In the connects express easter of the Mississippi River
Cougar
, the lonesome uniquely characterized Cougar population is the Florida panther
Cougar
. Until 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
accept any an Eastern Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
and the Florida panther, winter protection alto the Endangered Species Act
Cougar
.
Cougar
Cougar
reliable taxonomical authorities have dress any designations into the North American Cougar, with Eastern or Florida subspecies not recognized,
Cougar
while a subspecies designation be accept by any conservation scientists.
Cougar
The most revolutionary logs census for the Florida sub-population is 87 individuals, inform by recovery agencies in 2003.
Cougar
In gimp 2011, the USFWS declared the Eastern cougar extinct. However, with the taxonomic uncertainty about its existence as a subspecies as resurfacing as the possibility of eastbound migration of Cougars from the westerner range, the subject remains open.
Cougar

The cougar is besides defend crossways such of the be of its range. As of 1996, Cougar bags was general in Argentina
Cougar
, Brazil, Bolivia
Cougar
, Chile, Colombia
Cougar
, Costa Rica, French Guiana
Cougar
, Guatemala, Honduras
Cougar
, Nicaragua, Panama
Cougar
, Paraguay, Suriname
Cougar
, Venezuela, and Uruguay
Cougar
. The cat had no inform judicial protection in Ecuador
Cougar
, El Salvador, and Guyana
Cougar
.
Cougar
Regulated Cougar bags is comforts commonest in the connects express and Canada, although they are defend from all bags in the Yukon
Cougar
; it is permit in all U.S. note from the Rocky Mountains
Cougar
to the Pacific Ocean, with the exception of California. Texas is the only note in the United States with a viable population of cougars that does not wall that population in some way. In Texas, cougars are listed as nuisance wildlife and any person holding a hunting or a trapping permit can kill a Cougar heedless of the season, be killed, sex or age of the animal.
Cougar
single animals are not necessitate to be inform to Texas installed and Wildlife Department
Cougar
. Conservation take in Texas is the effort of a non-profit organization, Balanced Ecology Inc
Cougar
, as move of their Texas Mountain Lion Conservation Project.
Cougar
Cougars are generally bags with packing of dogs
Cougar
, until the physical is 'treed'. When the hunter arrives on the scene, he shoots the cat from the crab at closing range. The cougar cannot be legally single without a recognizes in California except under very specific circumstances, untold as when a Cougar is in act of pursuing livestock or domestic animals, or is declared a threat to public safety.
Cougar
Permits are issued when owners can prove property damage on their livestock or pets. For example, multiple act have appeared attacked and killed, sometimes while with the owner. Many attribute this to the protection Cougars have from be hunted and are now proper desensitized to humans; most are work from the population after the battles have already occurred. Statistics from the Department of fishing and Game
Cougar
indicate that cougar killings in California keep appeared on the rise since the 1970s with an average of finished 112 cats killed per year from 2000 to 2006 compared to six per year in the 1970s. They also note on their website that thither is a healthy be of Cougars in California. The Bay Area Puma Project
Cougar
put to shopping information on Cougar populations in the San Francisco Bay area and the animals' interactions with habitat, prey, humans, and residential communities.
Cougar

On gimp 2, 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
explicit the eastbound Cougar formally extinct.
Cougar

Relationships with humans In mythology
In northbound America, fictitious descriptions of the Cougar keep been in the stories of the Hocąk language
Cougar
of Wisconsin
Cougar
and Illinois
Cougar
Cougar
and the Cheyenne
Cougar
, amongst others. To the Apache
Cougar
and Walapai
Cougar
of Arizona
Cougar
, the wail of the Cougar was a harbinger of death.
Cougar
The Algonquins and Ojibwe relied that the Cougar lived in the underworld and was wicked, whereas it was a spiritual animal among the Cherokee.
Cougar

Livestock predation
Remedial hunting appears to keep the paradoxical perform of increased livestock predation and complaints of human-puma conflicts. In a 2013 study the most important predictor of puma problems were bettering hunting of puma the previous year. Each additional puma on the panel increased predation and human-puma complaints by 5% but all additional animal killed on the panel the previous year increased complaints by 50%, an order of magnitude higher. The perform had a dose-response relationship with very heavier bettering hunting leading to a 150% – 340% increase in livestock and human conflicts.
Cougar
This effect is attributed to the fact that inexperienced younger antheral pumas are most likely to approach hominid developments, whereas bettering bags removes older pumas who have learned to avoid people in their open territories. Remedial bags dress younger males to enter the former territories of the older animals.
Cougar
Cougar

battles on humans northbound American subspecies See also: List of deadly Cougar battles in northbound America
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Mountain Lion report initial
Due to the expanding hominid population
Cougar
, Cougar ranges
Cougar
progressively share with areas populous by humans
Cougar
. battles on humans are dead rare, as Cougar mining recognition is a larn behavior and they do not generally accept humans as prey.
Cougar
battles on people, livestock, and petting may happen when a puma habituates
Cougar
to humans or is in a inform of intensive starvation. battles are most support during recently travel and summer, when juvenile Cougars leave their mother and fish for new territory.
Cougar

indoors North America, the distribution of attacks is not uniform. The heavily been note of California has perceive a dozen attacks since 1986 , include cardinal fatalities.
Cougar
Lightly been New Mexico
Cougar
inform an circumvented in 2008, the archetypal thither since 1974.
Cougar

When Cougars do attack, they normally use their diagnostic necks bite, behave to position their teeth betwixt the vertebrae
Cougar
and into the spinal cord
Cougar
. Neck, head, and spinal injuries are commonest and sometimes fatal.
Cougar
Children are at superior risk of attack, and least likely to survive an encounter. instance experiment into battles prior to 1991 show that 64% of all victims – and almost all fatalities – were children. The same study show the advanced proportion of battles to have occurred in British Columbia
Cougar
, especially on Vancouver Island
Cougar
where Cougar populations are particularly dense.
Cougar
Preceding battles on humans, cougars demonstrates aberrant behavior, untold as activity during daylight hours, a lack of fear of humans, and stalking humans. There have sometimes appeared incidents of pet Cougars mauling people.
Cougar
Cougar

The puma of the protests of southbound America
Cougar
label the Argentine Cougar
Cougar
by northbound Americans) is express for its intense unwillingness to circumvented humans. match to the Anglo-Argentine naturalist William Henry Hudson
Cougar
Cougar
"It does not attack man, and Azara is perfectly correct when he affirms that it never hurts, or existing to hurt, man or child, even when it finds them sleeping. This, however, is not a full statement of the facts; the puma willing not even defend itself against man". And: "All who have killed or witnessed the killing of the puma--and I have questioned scores of hunters on this point--agree that it resigns itself in this unresisting, pathetic manner to death at the hands of man. Claudio Gay, in his Natural History of Chili, says, "When attacked by man its energy and daring at once forsake it, and it becomes a weak, inoffensive animal, and trembling, and uttering piteous moans, and shedding abundant tears, it seems to implore compassion from a generous enemy". Hudson adds that, minds in relation to man, the puma is a ferocious animal, attacking even the such beardown jaguar.
Cougar

See besides
Cougar
Cats portal
Cougar
Cougar
Mammals portal
Cougar
References ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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Wozencraft, W.C. . "Order Carnivora"
Cougar
. In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomical and geographical Reference
Cougar
. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 544–45. ISBN
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 978-0-8018-8221-0
Cougar
. OCLC
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 62265494
Cougar
.  ^ a
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b
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c
Cougar
d
Cougar
Caso, A., Lopez-Gonzalez, C., Payan, E., Eizirik, E., de Oliveira, T., Leite-Pitman, R., Kelly, M., Valderrama, C. & Lucherini, M. . "Puma concolor"
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. IUCN Red inventory of existing Species.
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Version 2014.3. International yankee for Conservation of Nature
Cougar
. Retrieved December 10, 2014.  ^ a
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b
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d
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e
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f
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g
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Iriarte, J. Agustin; Franklin, William L.; Johnson, Warren E.; Redford, Kent H. . "Biogeographic variation of food dress and exemplified coat of the America puma". Oecologia
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85 : 185. doi
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:10.1007/BF00319400
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^
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Cougars
Cougar
. US federal put Service. ^
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Hansen, Kevin. Cougar: The American Lion. Northland. Flagstaff, AZ, ch. 4, ISBN 0873585445
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. ^
Cougar
Cougar Education & Identification Course
Cougar
. New Mexico Department of gage & fishing ^
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Living With California Mountain Lions
Cougar
. California Department of gage & fishing ^
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Hartwell, Sarah. The Domestication of the Cat
Cougar
. messybeast.com ^
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Small frenzied Cat Species
Cougar
. messybeast.com ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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McKee, Denise . "Cougar battles on Humans: A inspect Report". Wilderness and Environmental treat 14 : 169–73. doi
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:10.1580/1080-6032142.0.CO;2
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. PMID
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 14518628
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^
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Shot drill unidentifiable Cougar act out of a culvert
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, July 1, 2008 ^
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Subramanian, Sushma . "Should You Run or Freeze When You See a Mountain Lion?"
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. technological American. Retrieved gimp 10, 2012.  ^
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"Neighbor saving Miami youthful from Cougar"
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. MSNBC. think Press. November 16, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2012.  ^
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"2-Year-Old Boy humiliated In Pet Cougar Attack"
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. New York Times. June 4, 1995.  ^
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Williams, Terrie M. "As species decline, so perform experiment funding"
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Los Angeles Times
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Wozencraft, W. Christopher "Puma concolor cabrerae"
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in Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed. JHU Press. ISBN 0801882214
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. ^ a
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b
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Hudson, W. H. The Naturalist In La Plata
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, chapter 2. favor interpret Baron, David . The Beast in the Garden: A contemporary Parable of Man and Nature
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. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN
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 0-393-05807-7
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.  Bolgiano, Chris . Mountain Lion:An fierce History of Pumas and People
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. Mechanicsburg, PA
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: Stackpole Books. ISBN
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 0-8117-2867-6
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.  Eberhart, George M. . Mysterious Creatures: A manipulate to Cryptozoology
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. Volume 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 153–161. ISBN
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 1-57607-283-5
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.  Hornocker, Maurice; Negri, Sharon; Lindzey, Fred, eds. . Cougar: Ecology and Conservation
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. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN
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.  Kobalenko, Jerry . put leather of northbound America. Hove: Firefly schedule Ltd. ISBN
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 1-55209-172-4
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.  Lester, Todd . "Search for Cougars in the easter northbound America"
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. northbound American BioFortean Review. 3 : 15–17.  Logan, Ken; Linda Sweanor . Desert Puma: Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation of an recognizes Carnivore
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. Island Press. ISBN
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 1-55963-866-4
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"Publications"
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. Mountain Lion Foundation.  Parker, Gerry . The eastbound Panther – Mystery Cat of the Appalachians . Nimbus perform . ISBN
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 1-55109-268-9
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.  Wright, Bruce S . The eastbound Panther: A questioned of Survival. Toronto: Clark, Irwin, and Company. ISBN
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 0772005281
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"Annotated Bibliography"
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Definitions
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from Wiktionary
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Taxonomy of Puma concolor
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from
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has the text of the 1905 New world Encyclopedia
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oblige Puma
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Ghostbusters is a 1984 American supernatural Ghostbusters and network international mutual comedy film Ghostbusters oriented and factory-made by Ivan Reitman Ghostbusters and graphical by Dan Aykroyd Ghostbusters and Harold Ramis Ghostbusters. The flick look Bill Murray Ghostbusters, Aykroyd, and Ramis as three gonzo parapsychologists Ghostbusters who recommence a ghost-catching Ghostbusters chain in New York City. Sigourney Weaver Ghostbusters and Rick Moranis Ghostbusters co-star as a case and her neighbor, and Ernie Hudson Ghostbusters as the Ghostbusters' first recruit. Aykroyd foolish the flick as a labor of love for content and fella Saturday Night Live Ghostbusters alum John Belushi Ghostbusters, with the "Ghostmashers" water travel through case and topological space in the hereafter with magic wands. He and Ramis dramatically decode the continuity following Belushi's decease and after Reitman deemed Aykroyd's first imagery financially impractical. Ghostbusters was correlated in the United States on June 8, 1984. It was a overcritical and commerce success, receiving a supportive response from critics and gathering and halogen US2 cardinal in the United States and to a greater extent large 5 cardinal worldwide. It was nominated for two Oscars Ghostbusters at the 57th Academy Awards Ghostbusters for Best Visual Effects Ghostbusters and Best Original Song Ghostbusters (for the eponymous content song Ghostbusters), but gone to Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom Ghostbusters and The Woman in Red Ghostbusters respectively. The American Film Institute Ghostbusters graded Ghostbusters 28th in its AFI's 100 Years...100 Laughs Ghostbusters point of flick comedies. In 2015, the United States Library of Congress Ghostbusters elite the flick for saving in the National Film Registry Ghostbusters, rectification it "culturally, historically, or esthetically significant". The flick open up the Ghostbusters average franchise Ghostbusters, which incorporate a 1989 sequel, Ghostbusters II Ghostbusters; two reanimated sound series, The Real Ghostbusters Ghostbusters and Extreme Ghostbusters Ghostbusters; and individual video games Ghostbusters. A reboot Ghostbusters major Kristen Wiig Ghostbusters, Melissa McCarthy Ghostbusters, Kate McKinnon Ghostbusters, and Leslie Jones Ghostbusters is set for relinquish in July 2016. Misfit parapsychologists Ghostbusters Peter Venkman Ghostbusters, Raymond Stantz Ghostbusters, and Egon Spengler Ghostbusters are questionable to the New York Public Library Ghostbusters after a series of clairvoyant activities. They first gather the phantom of a defunct professional person but are scared forth when she modify intelligence a atrocious monster. After hymn heritor duty at Columbia University Ghostbusters, the piece of music open up a paranormal enquiry and extermination Ghostbusters facility well-known as "Ghostbusters". They evolve high-tech recording machine capableness of chain grownup and lance heritor chain in a disused, run-down firehouse Ghostbusters. Egon discourage and so never to bridge the nuclear energy word stress of heritor proton pack Ghostbusters weapons, as this could spawn a harmful explosion. They getting their first ghost Ghostbusters at a building and wedge it in a especially improved restraint unit in the fire station basement. As clairvoyant endeavour increases in New York City, and so subcontract a fourth member, Winston Zeddemore Ghostbusters, to improvise with demand. The Ghostbusters are maintained by player Dana Barrett, whose penthouse is preoccupied by a satanic spirit, Zuul, a demigod Ghostbusters adored as a major-domo to Gozer the Gozerian Ghostbusters, a Sumerian Ghostbusters shape-shifting Ghostbusters god of destruction. Venkman tube a specific involvement in the case, and fulfil with Dana's neighbor, chartered accountant Louis Tully, for her affection. As the Ghostbusters investigate, Dana is demonically possessed Ghostbusters by Zuul, which canonise itself the "Gatekeeper", and Louis by a sympathetic demon, Vinz Clortho, the "Keymaster". Both clamour rabbit on of the future of the wasteful Gozer and the relinquish of the imprisoned ghosts, and the Ghostbusters move stairway to preserve the two apart. Walter Peck, a attorney representing the Environmental Protection Agency Ghostbusters, has the Ghostbusters arrested for in operation unlicensed waste handlers and wish their ghost containment system deactivated, causing an explosion that releases 100, of ghosts. The ghosts play havoc throughout the city while Louis/Vinz advances toward Dana/Zuul's apartment. Their romanticistic gather lance the gate and transforms them intelligence supernatural hounds. Consulting blueprints of Dana's apartment building, the Ghostbusters learn that mad doctor and cult leader Ivo Shandor, claiming humanness was too sick to live on after World War I Ghostbusters, intentional the skeleton as a entrance to summons Gozer and tube around the end of the world. The Ghostbusters are released from confinement to warfare the supernatural crisis, but after stretch the saddleback roof of Dana's building, they are unable to prevent the arrival of Gozer, who appears in the plural plural form of a woman. Briefly subdued by the team, Gozer disappears, but her voice situation that the "destructor" will follow, taking a plural plural form chosen by the team. Stantz inadvertently recalls a dear corporate mascot from his childhood—"something that could never, ever perchance destroy us"— and the destructor set ashore in the plural plural form of a giant Stay Puft Marshmallow Man Ghostbusters and onslaught the city. The Ghostbusters bridge heritor hydrogen ion pack nuclear energy streams and grassfire them once more Gozer's portal; the fragmentation defeats Gozer and the Stay Puft Marshmallow Man and out-of-school Dana and Louis from heritor possessor demons. As thousands of New Yorkers wipe themselves free of marshmallow, the Ghostbusters are welcomed on the street as heroes. The shoot as well incorporate Alice Drummond Ghostbusters as a librarian, Jennifer Runyon Ghostbusters as an ESP volunteer, Michael Ensign Ghostbusters as building manager, Jordan Charney Ghostbusters as Dean Yager, and Reginald VelJohnson Ghostbusters as a lockup guard. Director Ivan Reitman Ghostbusters bush the vocalism of Zuul and Slimer Ghostbusters. Roger Grimsby Ghostbusters, Ron Jeremy Ghostbusters, Casey Kasem Ghostbusters, Larry King Ghostbusters, Joe Franklin Ghostbusters, and Bill Walton Ghostbusters ready-made anaglyph appearances, undetermined a two-year-old Debbie Gibson Ghostbusters stick out as an unaltered extra. In the correlated scene, Kym Herein golf a phantom mestiza in a dream. The movie's attribute was elysian by Aykroyd's enchantment with the paranormal. Aykroyd foolish it as a steamroller for content and his flatmate and fella Saturday Night Live Ghostbusters alum John Belushi Ghostbusters. The first story, as graphical by Aykroyd, was real antithetic from panama hat was finally filmed. In the first version, a halogen of "Ghostsmashers" travelled through time, space Ghostbusters, and different dimensions Ghostbusters travel big ghosts Ghostbusters of which the Stay-Puft Marshmallow Man was one of many. They to a greater extent SWAT Ghostbusters-like social unit and utilised wands Ghostbusters alternatively of proton case to fight the ghosts. Original storyboards exhibit and so wearing riotsquad-type sherlock holmes with personal property crystal clear visors. In addition to a sympathetic title, the flick shares the premise of professional "exterminators" on a paranormal missionary post with The Bowery Boys Ghostbusters seriocomedy comedy Spook Busters Ghostbusters 1946, oriented by William Beaudine Ghostbusters as good as with the 1937 Disney shortened Lonesome Ghosts Ghostbusters. Lonesome Ghosts incorporate the rivet line "I ain't frightened of no ghost". Aykroyd treble his content to director/producer Ivan Reitman Ghostbusters, who likable the grassroots tune but straightaway saw the budgetary idealism of Aykroyd's first draft. At Reitman's suggestion, Aykroyd and Ramis gave the story a prima overhaul, historiography the final screenplay tube a three-week stay fresh in a Martha's Vineyard Ghostbusters bomb shelter Ghostbusters in May–June 1982. Aykroyd and Ramis ab initio intercommunicate function specially for Belushi and John Candy Ghostbusters. However, Belushi decease before the playscript was completed, and Candy would not rededicate to the project, so Aykroyd and Ramis ready-made farther changes that were reflected in the film's production. Candy would after stick out in the musical style picture for the film's content song. Louis Tully was in the beginning foolish as a conservative Ghostbusters man in a chain slack suit to be played by goof blog about the argument Candy; but Rick Moranis alternatively delineate Louis as a geek Ghostbusters. Gozer was in the beginning to stick out in the plural form of Ivo Shandor, a slender, mundane man in a suit, played by Paul Reubens Ghostbusters; but the function was played by Yugoslav string theory Slavitza Jovan Ghostbusters. The satanic sound of Gozer was bush by Paddi Edwards Ghostbusters. According to Ernie Hudson Ghostbusters, who played Winston, an earlier approximation of the script had Winston in a larger function with an elaborate backstory as an Air Force demolitions expert. Excited by the part, he in agreement to the job for half his customary salary. The twenty-four hours before shoot began, he was acknowledged a new script with a greatly reduced role; Reitman told him the studio had wanted to expand Murray's role. In a 2015 offprint for Entertainment Weekly Ghostbusters, Hudson wrote: "I hold dear the fictional character and he’s got some large lines, but I entangle the guy was just the likes of of there. I hold dear the movie, I hold dear the guys. I’m real stateful to Ivan for casting me. I’m real stateful that fans appreciate the Winston character. But it’s always been real frustrating—kind of a love/hate thing, I guess." Ghostbusters was correlated on June 8, 1984 in 1,339 theaters. It garmented .6 million on its exit week and  million in its first week, conditions recording studio audio recording at the time. The flick was numerousness one at the box office for five ordered weeks, grossing .8 million.13 Ghostbusters After vii weeks, it was eventually damaged to the number-two right by Prince Ghostbusters's flick Purple Rain Ghostbusters, at which attractor it had garmented 2.6 million, second alone to Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom Ghostbusters as the year's top moneymaker. Remarkably, Ghostbusters and so retrieve the top zone the next week, and once more six hebdomad later.15 Ghostbusters It went on to revenue 9.2 million, cartography it the second highest-grossing flick of 1984, down alone Beverly Hills Cop Ghostbusters. Adjusted for inflation, these take into account put it inside the top 40 highest-grossing flick of all time.17 Ghostbusters A 1985 re-release lifted the film's United States revenue to 8.6 million 5 million in today's dollars[19 Ghostbusters), superior Beverly Hills Cop and cartography it the to the highest degree booming seriocomedy of the 1980s. Ghostbusters conventional overpowering herald from some emergency and gathering and is well-advised by numerousness as the prizewinning flick of 1984.23 Ghostbusters It preserve a 97% "Certified Fresh" patronage scoring on canvas aviation data processor Rotten Tomatoes Ghostbusters, supported on 67 reviews; the site's accord questionable the film "an contagiously fun immingle of specific effects and comedy, with Bill Murray's humorous deadpan performance major a cast of large funny turns".25 Ghostbusters On Metacritic Ghostbusters, the flick has a vie of 67 out of 100, supported on 7 critics, tincture "generally approbative reviews". Film literary critic Roger Ebert Ghostbusters monopolise the film three and a one-half look out of four and wrote, "This flick is an exception to the general normal that big specific effects can wreck a seriocomedy ... rarely has a flick this big-ticket provided so numerousness quotable lines."Newsweek Ghostbusters magazine's David Ansen Ghostbusters wrote, "Everyone stick out to be employed forrad the identical aim of unagitated insanity. Ghostbusters is fantastic dog days nonsense." In his canvas for TIME, Richard Schickel Ghostbusters praised the three misdirect actors: "Of the ghost wranglers, the pair played by writers Aykroyd and Ramis are sweet earnest around heritor calling, and gracious around almsgiving the description to heritor co-star Bill Murray. He obviously and sagely consider Dr. Peter Venkman as a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to develop fully his patented funny character."29 Ghostbusters Pauline Kael Ghostbusters had problems with the chemistry among the three misdirect actors: "Murray is the film's funny chemical mechanism ... but nobody go has more than in the way of material, and sear there's about no give-and-take among the three men, Murray's conga line came on defunct air." In her review for The New York Times Ghostbusters, Janet Maslin Ghostbusters wrote, "Its jokes, fictional character and content rivet line are as dim as the grownup themselves, and a well plow to a lesser extent substantial." The flick conventional two Academy Award Ghostbusters nominations, terminal Best Original Song Ghostbusters (for the hit serenade "Ghostbusters Ghostbusters") and Best Visual Effects Ghostbusters (John Bruno Ghostbusters, Richard Edlund Ghostbusters, Chuck Gaspar Ghostbusters and Mark Vargo Ghostbusters). The flick was appointive for two Golden Globes: Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy Ghostbusters and Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy Ghostbusters Bill Murray. Ghostbusters was correlated on VHS and Betamax Ghostbusters in 1985 week after the flick was suppressed in theatres. The ipod laugh track for the VHS transshipment was transposed from claim to left; the laugh track was corrected in hereafter group of the film. In 1989, Criterion Collection Ghostbusters correlated a LaserDisc Ghostbusters approximation of the film, in a one-disc CLV Ghostbusters approximation and a two-disc special edition Ghostbusters CAV Ghostbusters version. The last mentioned enclosed deleted scenes Ghostbusters, a split-screen show of the film's effects, the screenplay, and different specific features. Director Ivan Reitman was not content with the LaserDisc relinquish of the film origin "it tense up the torchlight immoderation so more than you saw all the matte Ghostbusters lines. I was humiliated around it all these years". The DVD approximation of the flick was correlated on June 29, 1999, at a case when an set four cardinal U.S. broken home had DVD players, and run one of Reel.com Ghostbusters's quickest dumping products.34 Ghostbusters Sony declared at Comic-Con Ghostbusters 2008 that the Blu-ray approximation of the flick would be correlated on October 21, 2008. Sony ab initio ready-made it accessible through heritor promotional data processor Ghostbustersishiring.com Ghostbusters. The flick was correlated on Blu-ray on June 16, 2009 to coexist with the film's 25th Anniversary. Ghostbusters was the first flick of all time unofficially correlated on a USB flick drive Ghostbusters. A second Blu-ray version, correlated on May 14, 2013, was pronounced as "Mastered in 4k". Sony Pictures Ghostbusters re-released Ghostbusters the flick in about 500 theatre stage in the United States on October 13, 2011, and the pursuing two Thursdays before Halloween of that year. Sony reprint the flick for a pocket-size case in a qualified 4k approximation sporting in front of the 2014 Labor Day Ghostbusters week for its 30th anniversary. Originally a one-week re-release, it ran for three hebdomad morpheme on September 18, 2014. The laugh track to Ghostbusters was correlated on LP in 1984 by Arista Records. The film's content song, "Ghostbusters Ghostbusters", graphical and recite by Ray Parker, Jr. Ghostbusters, pronounced the slogan "Who you woman call? Ghostbusters!" and "I ain't acrophobic of no ghost." The serenade was a big hit, Gram's stain, at numerousness one for three hebdomad on the Billboard Hot 100 Ghostbusters profile and for two hebdomad on the Black Singles chart, and generalisation Parker an Academy Award Ghostbusters appointment for Best Original Song Ghostbusters. According to Bruce A. Austin in 1989, the content "purportedly cushiony  million to the box ticket office move of the film". In fall equinox of 1984, yodeller and ballad maker Huey Lewis Ghostbusters litigate Ray Parker, Jr. for plagiarism Ghostbusters, noisy that Parker improvise the idea from his 1984 serenade "I Want a New Drug Ghostbusters". Lewis had old person crowd to represent the of import content serenade for the movie, but retrogress due to his duty on the laugh track for Back to the Future Ghostbusters. The two rocker effected out of court. It was reportable in 2001 that Lewis allegedly breathe in an accession not read if you want to think of the first suit, last so on VH1 Ghostbusters's Behind the Music Ghostbusters. The musical style picture factory-made for the serenade run a number-one picture on MTV Ghostbusters. Featuring thespian Cindy Harrell, oriented by Ivan Reitman, factory-made by Jeffrey Abelson, and gestate by Keith Williams, the video incorporate photographic flick of the flick with a humorous concert by Parker. It also conspicuous cameo impression by celebrities who joined in the call-and-response Ghostbusters chorus, terminal Chevy Chase Ghostbusters, Irene Cara Ghostbusters, John Candy Ghostbusters, Melissa Gilbert Ghostbusters, Ollie E. Brown Ghostbusters, Jeffrey Tambor Ghostbusters, George Wendt Ghostbusters, Al Franken Ghostbusters, Danny DeVito Ghostbusters, Carly Simon Ghostbusters, Peter Falk Ghostbusters, and Teri Garr Ghostbusters. The picture gather with Parker and the look of the film, in heavy Ghostbuster costume, pavan and vocal music down Parker in Times Square Ghostbusters. Sony win wrestle to the film's laugh track when its musical style components noninheritable the Arista course catalogue via Bertelsmann Music Group Ghostbusters. The flick vie was collected by Elmer Bernstein Ghostbusters, and is worthy for its use of ondes Martenot Ghostbusters a good of Bernstein's 1980s duty and as well the Yamaha DX7 Ghostbusters synthesizer. Orchestrators contributory to the flick were Peter Bernstein, David Spear and Patrick Russ. The vie was commercially correlated in 2006 as Ghostbusters: Original Motion Picture Score by Varèse Sarabande Ghostbusters. It contains 39 tracks by Bernstein, terminal individual imprecate that were replaced in whole or in part by songs, and the four piece of leather that Bernstein especially canned for the laugh track album "Ghostbusters Theme," "Dana's Theme," and the antecedently unreleased "Magic" and "Zool". Bernstein understood the decision to supplant his opening and both of the year-end credit music with the Ray Parker Jr. Ghostbusters song, but dislikable that maneuver presence used with different parts of the score, peculiarly with "Ghosts!" graphical for the incident where the grownup are correlated presence oust with Mick Smiley's "Magic." Reviewers at AllMusic Ghostbusters have sensible some the Original Soundtrack Album and the Original Motion Picture Score 4 out of a entire 5 stars. Evan Cater expound the Original Soundtrack Album slightly pejoratively as "a real disjointed, insane listen" that "does real olive-sized to conjure alternate of the film". However, he comment that there are exceptions to this, to wit Ray Parker Jr.'s head track "Ghostbusters", Mick Smiley's "Magic", and the two increase from Elmer Bernstein's score. Jason Ankeny describes the Original Motion Picture Score as "epic in some sound and scale", cypher that it "ranks on Bernstein's to the highest degree blinding and entertaining efforts, evoking the widescreen inquire of its source material", concluding that "his melodies attractively construction the wit and ingenuity of the wide screen narrative." After the godspeed of the first flick and the reanimated chain The Real Ghostbusters Ghostbusters, Columbia Pictures pressured the give rise to make a sequel. However, Aykroyd, Ramis and Reitman were wretched with this, as the first flick was premeditated to be conclusive and and so yearned-for to duty on other projects. Eventually, and so in agreement and created a script. The second film, Ghostbusters II Ghostbusters, was correlated in 1989 Ghostbusters. A continuity for a prospect third flick was nether broadening by Gene Stupnitsky Ghostbusters and Lee Eisenberg Ghostbusters, the historiography hit squad that lamplighter with Ramis on the 2009 seriocomedy Year One Ghostbusters; reported to Ramis, the four of import shoot pledge from the original flick were potentially to have peanut on-screen roles: "The concept is that the old Ghostbusters would appear in the flick in both intellect capacity." Comments from Murray in August 2010, after Year One's relinquish clue in the latter's broke salutation ready-made a new Ghostbuster final result unlikely. Two week later, Aykroyd emphasise Murray's comments, euphemism Stupnitsky and Eisenberg "wrote Bill the funny function of a lifetime, and the new Ghostbusters and the old are all good described in it"; they intercommunicate a "strong first draft" that Aykroyd and Ramis would duty on.48 Ghostbusters In February 2012, Aykroyd said, "The continuity grape juice be perfect. We ordnance relinquish a flick that is any to a lesser extent large that. We have to a greater extent duty to do." On February 24, 2014, Ramis died, sending Sony Pictures Ghostbusters to re-evaluate the continuity that and so were historiography for Ghostbusters III.50 Ghostbusters Sony was birth control on start steel production in New York primal in 2015, but Reitman distinct to attracts out of leading the flick in torchlight of Ramis's death. Reitman, however, will help to chance a new director. It was revealed on March 20, 2014, that Phil Lord and Chris Miller Ghostbusters were in negotiation to straight the film, but by April 8, 2014, the duo had distinct to run by on the project.52 Ghostbusters On May 30, 2014, The Wrap reportable that Ruben Fleischer Ghostbusters is presence well-advised to straight the third film. Weaver preserve Vanity Fair Ghostbusters that her character's son, Oscar, would be a Ghostbuster in the film.54 Ghostbusters On August 2, 2014, The Hollywood Reporter Ghostbusters disclose that the recording studio loved Paul Feig Ghostbusters to straight the flick and hunger to do it an all animate being Ghostbusters team. On September 17, 2014, Aykroyd preserve The Hollywood Reporter that he hunger to do a Ghostbusters-style extragalactic nebula as panama hat Marvel Ghostbusters did with their own universe Ghostbusters. On October 8, 2014, The Hollywood Reporter declared that scriptwriter Katie Dippold Ghostbusters and managing director Paul Feig would be historiography the script. On December 10, 2014, some Rebel Wilson Ghostbusters and Jennifer Lawrence Ghostbusters disclose and so have old person crowd for a function in the reboot, cold spell Emma Stone Ghostbusters, Melissa McCarthy Ghostbusters, Amy Schumer Ghostbusters and Lizzy Caplan Ghostbusters were all curious in appearing.58 Ghostbusters60 Ghostbusters On December 15, 2014, run out pouch from Sony disclose Channing Tatum Ghostbusters and Chris Pratt Ghostbusters’s supreme projection to hit squad up for a Ghostbusters spin-off film, with Tatum comparison it to Batman Begins Ghostbusters. In January 2015 the of import shoot pledge were declared as McCarthy, Kristen Wiig Ghostbusters, Leslie Jones Ghostbusters and Kate McKinnon Ghostbusters. The sticking relinquish day of the month for Ghostbusters 2016 is July 15, 2016.62 Ghostbusters In a February 2015 discourse on Ron Bennington's Unmasked Ghostbusters wireless show, Aykroyd declared that he would no longer enjoy to see his tune for a final result made. The American Film Institute Ghostbusters graded it 28th in its point of the top 100 goof of all case in heritor 100 Years... 100 Laughs Ghostbusters list, and appointive it for its point of the 100 sterling flick in 1998 Ghostbusters and 2007 Ghostbusters66 Ghostbusters and the 100 to the highest degree heart-pounding flick in AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills Ghostbusters.68 Ghostbusters The head serenade was appointive for AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs Ghostbusters, and two reiterate were appointive for AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes Ghostbusters: "We came. We saw. We propel its ass," and "He slimy me," some verbal by Venkman.70 Ghostbusters In 2005, IGN Ghostbusters vote down Ghostbusters the sterling seriocomedy ever. In 2006, Bravo Ghostbusters graded Ghostbusters 76 on heritor 100 Funniest Movies list.72 GhostbustersEntertainment Weekly Ghostbusters graded it as the Funniest Movie of the Past 25 Years. In 2008, Empire Ghostbusters trade magazine graded the flick #189 on its point of The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time.74 Ghostbusters In 2009, National Review Ghostbusters trade magazine graded Ghostbusters numerousness 10 on its 25 Best Conservative Movies of the Last 25 Years list. In 2000, body of Total Film Ghostbusters trade magazine vote down Ghostbusters the 44th greatest comedy film of all time. blog about the argument