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COUGAR

Also see text
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar crops Synonyms Felis
Cougar
concolor
The Cougar is an ambush predator
Cougar
and pursues a widest variety of prey. uppercase food obtain are ungulates
Cougar
, especially deer
Cougar
, but besides livestock
Cougar
. It besides bags species as atomic as insects and rodents
Cougar
. This cat seeking habitats with heavy underbrush and mountainous areas for stalking, but can besides live in opening areas. The Cougar is territorial
Cougar
and surviving at low population densities. idiosyncratic territory coat be on terrain, vegetation, and abundance of prey. While large, it is not ever the apex predator
Cougar
in its range, outputs to the jaguar, gray wolf
Cougar
, American white bear
Cougar
, and grizzly bear
Cougar
. It is reclusive and largely bypassing people. Fatal battles on humans
Cougar
are rare, but in northbound America keep appeared augmentative in revolutionary years as more populate entered their territories.
Cougar

restrict 1 designate and etymology
Cougar
2 Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
2.1 Subspecies
Cougar
3 Biology and behavior
Cougar
3.1 animal characteristics
Cougar
3.2 bags and diet
Cougar
3.3 Reproduction and life cycle
Cougar
3.4 societal organize and chambers range
Cougar
4 Ecology
Cougar
4.1 Distribution and habitat
Cougar
4.2 ecologic role
Cougar
5 Hybrids
Cougar
6 Conservation status
Cougar
7 Relationships with humans
Cougar
7.1 In mythology
Cougar
7.2 Livestock predation
Cougar
7.3 battles on humans
Cougar
7.3.1 northbound American subspecies
Cougar
7.3.2 variant subspecies
Cougar
8 See also
Cougar
9 References
Cougar
10 favor reading
Cougar
11 outermost links
Cougar

With its ample crops crossways the length of the Americas, P. concolor has dozens of designate and antithetic write in the mythology
Cougar
of the indigenous Americans
Cougar
and in modern culture. Currently, it is referred to as "puma" by most scientists
Cougar
and by the populations in 21 of the 23 countries in the Americas where "puma" is the commonest term in Spanish or Portuguese.
Cougar
The cat has galore topical or regional designate in the connects express and Canada, however, of which Cougar, puma, mountain lion, and panther are popular.
Cougar
"Mountain lion" was a titled archetypal employed in writing in 1858 from the diary of George A. Jackson of Colorado
Cougar
.
Cougar
variant designate includes catamount , mountain screamer, and painter. Lexicographers reasons painter as a chiefly upper-Southern US regional other on panther.
Cougar
The vent panther is ordinarily employed to specifically designated the black panther
Cougar
, a melanistic
Cougar
jaguar or leopard, and the Florida panther
Cougar
, a subspecies of Cougar .
"Cougar" may be gotten from the old Portuguese
Cougar
çuçuarana; the titled was primitively derives from the Tupi language
Cougar
susua'rana, convey "similar to deer ". A truest perform in Brazil
Cougar
is suçuarana
Cougar
. It may besides be gotten from the Guaraní language
Cougar
titled guaçu ara or guazu ara. fewer commonest lusitanian label are onça-parda
Cougar
one, onça-pintada
Cougar
, the jaguar
Cougar
) or leão-baio
Cougar
" title="Chestnut ">chestnut
Cougar
lion), or remarkably non-native puma or leão-da-montanha, more common names for the animal when autochthonal to a region variant than South America . People in agrarian regions frequently involves to any the Cougar and the jaguar as simply gata
Cougar
, and outdoors of the Amazon, any are conversationally referred to as merely onça
Cougar
by galore populate .
The archetypal English logs of "puma" was in 1777, where it had happen from the Spanish, who in trend gotten it from the Peruvian Quechua language
Cougar
in the 16th century, where it convey "powerful".
Cougar

Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
Cougar
Although large, the Cougar is more intimately think to atomic felines.
Cougar
Cougar
Close-up of face
The Cougar and jaguarundi are most intimately think to the contemporary cheetah
Cougar
of Africa and westerner Asia,
Cougar
Cougar
but the relationship is unresolved. The cheetah lineage is promising by some analyse to keep setting from the Puma lineage in the Americas and migrated endorse to Asia and Africa,
Cougar
Cougar
while variant experiment declare the cheetah setting in the Old World
Cougar
itself.
Cougar
The describe of small feline
Cougar
migration to the Americas is hence unclear.
Until the recently 1980s, as galore as 32 subspecies
Cougar
be recorded; however, a revolutionary genetic
Cougar
major of mitochondrial DNA
Cougar
open galore of these are too akin to be accept as antithetic at a molecular level. Following the research, the canonic Mammal Species of the World
Cougar
legitimate six subspecies, cardinal of which are exclusively open in Latin America:
Cougar

Argentine Cougar
Cougar
Pocock, 1940: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms hudsonii and puma Costa Rican Cougar
Cougar
Merriam, 1901 Eastern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Nelson and Goldman, 1931: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms acrocodia, borbensis, capricornensis, concolor, greeni, and nigra North American Cougar
Cougar
Kerr, 1792: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms arundivaga, aztecus, browni, californica, floridana, hippolestes, improcera, kaibabensis, mayensis, missoulensis, olympus, oregonensis, schorgeri, stanleyana, vancouverensis, and youngi Northern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Linnaeus, 1771: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms bangsi, incarum, osgoodi, soasoaranna, sussuarana, soderstromii, suçuaçuara, and wavula Southern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Molina, 1782: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms araucanus, concolor, patagonica, pearsoni, and puma
The status of the Florida panther be uncertain. It is comforts regularly listed as subspecies P. c. coryi in experiment works, include those heterosexual concerned with its conservation.
Cougar
Culver et al. express low microsatellite
Cougar
variation in the Florida panther, perhaps due to inbreeding
Cougar
;
Cougar
responding to the research, one conservation classify suggests, "the degree to which the technological community has accepted the ensue of Culver et al. and the declare improved in taxonomy is not went at this time."
Cougar

Biology and behavior animal characteristics
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar skull and jawbone
The chairs of the cat is round and the ears are erect. Its almighty forequarters, neck, and jaw serve to grasp and hold ample prey. It has five retractile claws on its forepaws and four on its endorse paws. The ample lie feet and claws are adaptations to lead prey.
Cougar

Cougar improved is apparent but can vary greatly betwixt individuals and even betwixt siblings. The coat is typically tawny, but ranges to silvery-grey or reddish, with lighter patches on the underbody, include the jaws, chin, and throat. Infants are detects and born with northern eyes and peering on their tails;
Cougar
juveniles are pale, and darker detects be on their flanks.
Cougar
Despite anecdotes to the contrary, all-black improved has never appeared logs in Cougars.
Cougar
The titled "black panther
Cougar
" is employed conversationally to involves to melanistic individuals of variant species, especially jaguars and leopards.
Cougar

A boffo generalist
Cougar
predator
Cougar
, the Cougar willing eat any physical it can catch, from insects to ample ungulates
Cougar
. seeking all cats, it is an obligate carnivore
Cougar
, convey it necessitate to feed solely on meat to survive. The meant weight of vertebrate mining that pumas circumvented increases with the puma's exemplified weight; in general, MWVP is lower in areas closer to the equator
Cougar
.
Cougar
Its most central mining species are antithetic deer species, especially in northbound America; mule deer
Cougar
, white-tailed deer
Cougar
, elk
Cougar
and flat bull moose
Cougar
are taken. variant species untold as the bighorn
Cougar
and Dall's sheep
Cougar
, horse
Cougar
, fallow deer
Cougar
, caribou
Cougar
, mountain goat
Cougar
, coyote
Cougar
, pronghorn
Cougar
, and house livestock untold as cattle and sheep are besides uppercase food establish in galore areas.
Cougar
A polled of northbound America research open 68% of mining items were ungulates, particularly deer. Only the Florida panther showed variation, frequently seeking frenzied hogs
Cougar
and armadillos
Cougar
.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
A unfree cougar feeding: Cougars are waiting predators, give largely on deer and variant mammals.
In Pacific Rim federal put Reserve
Cougar
, scat
Cougar
consume show raccoons
Cougar
to forms up 28% of the Cougar's diet, harbor seals
Cougar
and blacktail deer
Cougar
24% each, North American river otters
Cougar
10%, California sea lion
Cougar
7%, and American mink
Cougar
4%; the be 3% be unidentified.
Cougar

Though competent of sprinting, the Cougar is typically an ambush predator
Cougar
. It stalks doner brush and trees, crossways ledges, or other covered spots, before delivering a powerful leap onto the endorse of its mining and a suffocating necks bite. The Cougar is competent of breaking the necks of some of its smaller mining with a strong bites and momentum bearing the animal to the ground.
Cougar

Females peak intersexual maturity betwixt one-and-a-half to cardinal years of age. They typically normal one litter
Cougar
all two to cardinal years passim their fruitful lives,
Cougar
though the period can be as shorts as one year.
Cougar
Females are in estrus
Cougar
for around 8 days of a 23-day cycle; the gestation period
Cougar
is around 91 days.
Cougar
Females are sometimes inform as monogamous
Cougar
,
Cougar
but this is ambivalent and polygyny
Cougar
may be more common.
Cougar
Copulation is inform but frequent. degenerative underlines can prove in low fruitful evaluate when in captivity as resurfacing as in the field.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cubs
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cub
Young adults setting their mothers to attempt to based their own territory at around two years of age and sometimes earlier; males be to setting sooner. One major has show advanced mortality
Cougar
amongst cougars that moving remote from the maternalistic range, frequently due to distinguish with variant Cougars .
Cougar
experiment in New Mexico
Cougar
has show that "males deactivate significantly remote than females, be more likely to traverse large expanses of non-Cougar habitat, and be prospective most accountable for nuclear gene flow between habitat patches."
Cougar

seeking active all cats, the Cougar is a alone animal. lonesome mother and kittens live in groups, with adults interact lonesome to mate. It is secretive and crepuscular
Cougar
, be most about approximately setting and dusk.
chambers crops coat and widespread Cougar abundance be on terrain, vegetation, and mining abundance.
Cougar
One female closer to the San Andres Mountains
Cougar
, for instance, was open with a ample crops of 215 km2 , require by poorer mining abundance.
Cougar
experiment has show Cougar abundances from 0.5 animals to as such as 7 per 100 km2 .
Cougar

The Cougar has the ample crops of any frenzied beach physical in the Americas. Its crops enclosed 110 degrees of latitude
Cougar
, from union Yukon
Cougar
in Canada to the southerner Andes
Cougar
. Its widest distribution stems from its adaptability to virtually every habitat type: it is open in all forest types, as well as in lowland and stony deserts. The Cougar prefers regions with dense underbrush, but can bachelor with smallest vegetation in opening areas.
Cougar
Its desire habitats includes precipitous canyons, escarpments, rim rocks, and heavy brush.
Cougar

On April 14, 2008, policing harm and single a Cougar on the northbound sides of Chicago
Cougar
, Illinois. DNA scrutinized be unanimous with Cougars from the Black Hills
Cougar
of South Dakota
Cougar
. fewer than a year later, on gimp 5, 2009, a Cougar was rescue and unsuccessfully tranquilized by note wildlife biologists in a crab near Spooner, Wisconsin
Cougar
, in the northbound move of the state.
Cougar

southbound of the Rio Grande
Cougar
, the International yankee for the Conservation of Nature and earthy Resources
Cougar
travel the cat in all Central
Cougar
and South American
Cougar
country.
Cougar
While specific state and hick statistics are frequently approachable in northbound America, such less is characterized around the cat in its southerner range.
Cougar

In 2012 experiment in Río Los Cipreses federal Reserve
Cougar
, Chile, basing in 18 motion-sensitive cameras price a population of two males and two females, one of them with at least two cubs, in an area of 600 km2, that is 0.63 Cougars all 100 km2.
Cougar

ecologic role
Cougar
Cougar
lie paw perform of a Cougar. An develop paw perform is around 10 cm long.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Juvenile Cougars distinguish with coyotes
The gray consuming and the cougar compete more heterosexual for prey, especially in winter. Wolves can heist kills and occasionally kill the cat. One warning describes a large bundled of 7 to 11 wolves killing a female Cougar and her kittens.
Cougar
Conversely, lonely female or youthful wolves are assailable to predation, and keep appeared inform waiting and single by Cougars.
Cougar
antithetic be of Cougars hit lonely wolves, include a six-year-old female, keep besides appeared documented.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Wolves more broadly processing Cougar population dynamics and distribution by dominate territory and prey opportunities, and interrupts the feline's behavior. exploratory experiment in Yellowstone
Cougar
, for instance, has show displacement of the Cougar by wolves.
Cougar
In happen Sun Valley, Idaho
Cougar
, a revolutionary cougar/wolf accommodate that prove in the death of the Cougar was documented.
Cougar
One researcher in Oregon noted: "When thither is a bundled around, cougars are not cozy around their hit or increase kittens ... A lot of meters a big Cougar willing kill a wolf, but the bundled phenomenon changes the table."
Cougar

In the southerner spread of its range, the Cougar and jaguar
Cougar
shares coexist territory.
Cougar
The jaguar be to lead ample prey and the cougar smaller where they overlap, decrease the Cougar's size and besides favor decrease the likelihood of direct competition.
Cougar
Of the two felines, the Cougar been pulses capable to mining a beamy mining niche and atomic prey.
Cougar

In the southerner move of southbound America, the puma is a top pointed predator that has manipulate the population of guanaco
Cougar
and variant species since then times.
Cougar

Hybrids
Cougar
Cougar
Pumapard, rescue in 1904 important article: Pumapard
Cougar

Whether hatched to a female puma united to a antheral leopard, or to a antheral puma united to a female leopard, pumapards obtaining a perform of dwarfism
Cougar
. Those reported grew to lonesome fragmentary the coat of the parents. They have a puma-like desire body , but shorts legs. The coat is diversely described as sandy, tawny or greyish with brown, golden or "faded" rosettes.
Cougar

Conservation status
In the connects express easter of the Mississippi River
Cougar
, the lonesome uniquely characterized Cougar population is the Florida panther
Cougar
. Until 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
accept any an Eastern Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
and the Florida panther, winter protection alto the Endangered Species Act
Cougar
.
Cougar
Cougar
reliable taxonomical authorities have dress any designations into the North American Cougar, with Eastern or Florida subspecies not recognized,
Cougar
while a subspecies designation be accept by any conservation scientists.
Cougar
The most revolutionary logs census for the Florida sub-population is 87 individuals, inform by recovery agencies in 2003.
Cougar
In gimp 2011, the USFWS declared the Eastern cougar extinct. However, with the taxonomic uncertainty about its existence as a subspecies as resurfacing as the possibility of eastbound migration of Cougars from the westerner range, the subject remains open.
Cougar

The cougar is besides defend crossways such of the be of its range. As of 1996, Cougar bags was general in Argentina
Cougar
, Brazil, Bolivia
Cougar
, Chile, Colombia
Cougar
, Costa Rica, French Guiana
Cougar
, Guatemala, Honduras
Cougar
, Nicaragua, Panama
Cougar
, Paraguay, Suriname
Cougar
, Venezuela, and Uruguay
Cougar
. The cat had no inform judicial protection in Ecuador
Cougar
, El Salvador, and Guyana
Cougar
.
Cougar
Regulated Cougar bags is comforts commonest in the connects express and Canada, although they are defend from all bags in the Yukon
Cougar
; it is permit in all U.S. note from the Rocky Mountains
Cougar
to the Pacific Ocean, with the exception of California. Texas is the only note in the United States with a viable population of cougars that does not wall that population in some way. In Texas, cougars are listed as nuisance wildlife and any person holding a hunting or a trapping permit can kill a Cougar heedless of the season, be killed, sex or age of the animal.
Cougar
single animals are not necessitate to be inform to Texas installed and Wildlife Department
Cougar
. Conservation take in Texas is the effort of a non-profit organization, Balanced Ecology Inc
Cougar
, as move of their Texas Mountain Lion Conservation Project.
Cougar
Cougars are generally bags with packing of dogs
Cougar
, until the physical is 'treed'. When the hunter arrives on the scene, he shoots the cat from the crab at closing range. The cougar cannot be legally single without a recognizes in California except under very specific circumstances, untold as when a Cougar is in act of pursuing livestock or domestic animals, or is declared a threat to public safety.
Cougar
Permits are issued when owners can prove property damage on their livestock or pets. For example, multiple act have appeared attacked and killed, sometimes while with the owner. Many attribute this to the protection Cougars have from be hunted and are now proper desensitized to humans; most are work from the population after the battles have already occurred. Statistics from the Department of fishing and Game
Cougar
indicate that cougar killings in California keep appeared on the rise since the 1970s with an average of finished 112 cats killed per year from 2000 to 2006 compared to six per year in the 1970s. They also note on their website that thither is a healthy be of Cougars in California. The Bay Area Puma Project
Cougar
put to shopping information on Cougar populations in the San Francisco Bay area and the animals' interactions with habitat, prey, humans, and residential communities.
Cougar

On gimp 2, 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
explicit the eastbound Cougar formally extinct.
Cougar

Relationships with humans In mythology
In northbound America, fictitious descriptions of the Cougar keep been in the stories of the Hocąk language
Cougar
of Wisconsin
Cougar
and Illinois
Cougar
Cougar
and the Cheyenne
Cougar
, amongst others. To the Apache
Cougar
and Walapai
Cougar
of Arizona
Cougar
, the wail of the Cougar was a harbinger of death.
Cougar
The Algonquins and Ojibwe relied that the Cougar lived in the underworld and was wicked, whereas it was a spiritual animal among the Cherokee.
Cougar

Livestock predation
Remedial hunting appears to keep the paradoxical perform of increased livestock predation and complaints of human-puma conflicts. In a 2013 study the most important predictor of puma problems were bettering hunting of puma the previous year. Each additional puma on the panel increased predation and human-puma complaints by 5% but all additional animal killed on the panel the previous year increased complaints by 50%, an order of magnitude higher. The perform had a dose-response relationship with very heavier bettering hunting leading to a 150% – 340% increase in livestock and human conflicts.
Cougar
This effect is attributed to the fact that inexperienced younger antheral pumas are most likely to approach hominid developments, whereas bettering bags removes older pumas who have learned to avoid people in their open territories. Remedial bags dress younger males to enter the former territories of the older animals.
Cougar
Cougar

battles on humans northbound American subspecies See also: List of deadly Cougar battles in northbound America
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Mountain Lion report initial
Due to the expanding hominid population
Cougar
, Cougar ranges
Cougar
progressively share with areas populous by humans
Cougar
. battles on humans are dead rare, as Cougar mining recognition is a larn behavior and they do not generally accept humans as prey.
Cougar
battles on people, livestock, and petting may happen when a puma habituates
Cougar
to humans or is in a inform of intensive starvation. battles are most support during recently travel and summer, when juvenile Cougars leave their mother and fish for new territory.
Cougar

indoors North America, the distribution of attacks is not uniform. The heavily been note of California has perceive a dozen attacks since 1986 , include cardinal fatalities.
Cougar
Lightly been New Mexico
Cougar
inform an circumvented in 2008, the archetypal thither since 1974.
Cougar

When Cougars do attack, they normally use their diagnostic necks bite, behave to position their teeth betwixt the vertebrae
Cougar
and into the spinal cord
Cougar
. Neck, head, and spinal injuries are commonest and sometimes fatal.
Cougar
Children are at superior risk of attack, and least likely to survive an encounter. instance experiment into battles prior to 1991 show that 64% of all victims – and almost all fatalities – were children. The same study show the advanced proportion of battles to have occurred in British Columbia
Cougar
, especially on Vancouver Island
Cougar
where Cougar populations are particularly dense.
Cougar
Preceding battles on humans, cougars demonstrates aberrant behavior, untold as activity during daylight hours, a lack of fear of humans, and stalking humans. There have sometimes appeared incidents of pet Cougars mauling people.
Cougar
Cougar

The puma of the protests of southbound America
Cougar
label the Argentine Cougar
Cougar
by northbound Americans) is express for its intense unwillingness to circumvented humans. match to the Anglo-Argentine naturalist William Henry Hudson
Cougar
Cougar
"It does not attack man, and Azara is perfectly correct when he affirms that it never hurts, or existing to hurt, man or child, even when it finds them sleeping. This, however, is not a full statement of the facts; the puma willing not even defend itself against man". And: "All who have killed or witnessed the killing of the puma--and I have questioned scores of hunters on this point--agree that it resigns itself in this unresisting, pathetic manner to death at the hands of man. Claudio Gay, in his Natural History of Chili, says, "When attacked by man its energy and daring at once forsake it, and it becomes a weak, inoffensive animal, and trembling, and uttering piteous moans, and shedding abundant tears, it seems to implore compassion from a generous enemy". Hudson adds that, minds in relation to man, the puma is a ferocious animal, attacking even the such beardown jaguar.
Cougar

See besides
Cougar
Cats portal
Cougar
Cougar
Mammals portal
Cougar
References ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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Wozencraft, W.C. . "Order Carnivora"
Cougar
. In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomical and geographical Reference
Cougar
. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 544–45. ISBN
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 978-0-8018-8221-0
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. OCLC
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 62265494
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b
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c
Cougar
d
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Caso, A., Lopez-Gonzalez, C., Payan, E., Eizirik, E., de Oliveira, T., Leite-Pitman, R., Kelly, M., Valderrama, C. & Lucherini, M. . "Puma concolor"
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. IUCN Red inventory of existing Species.
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Version 2014.3. International yankee for Conservation of Nature
Cougar
. Retrieved December 10, 2014.  ^ a
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b
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e
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f
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g
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Iriarte, J. Agustin; Franklin, William L.; Johnson, Warren E.; Redford, Kent H. . "Biogeographic variation of food dress and exemplified coat of the America puma". Oecologia
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85 : 185. doi
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:10.1007/BF00319400
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^
Cougar
Cougars
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. US federal put Service. ^
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Hansen, Kevin. Cougar: The American Lion. Northland. Flagstaff, AZ, ch. 4, ISBN 0873585445
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. ^
Cougar
Cougar Education & Identification Course
Cougar
. New Mexico Department of gage & fishing ^
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Living With California Mountain Lions
Cougar
. California Department of gage & fishing ^
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Hartwell, Sarah. The Domestication of the Cat
Cougar
. messybeast.com ^
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Small frenzied Cat Species
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. messybeast.com ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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. Arizona gage and fishing Department. Retrieved May 20, 2007.  ^
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New Mexico Department of gage and Fish
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: Search behave for mountain lion that single Pinos Altos man
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, June 23, 2008; Wounded mountain lion captured, single happen Pinos Altos
Cougar
, June 25, 2008; Second mountain lion equal happen Pinos Altos
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, July 1, 2008 ^
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Subramanian, Sushma . "Should You Run or Freeze When You See a Mountain Lion?"
Cougar
. technological American. Retrieved gimp 10, 2012.  ^
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"Neighbor saving Miami youthful from Cougar"
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. MSNBC. think Press. November 16, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2012.  ^
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"2-Year-Old Boy humiliated In Pet Cougar Attack"
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. New York Times. June 4, 1995.  ^
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Williams, Terrie M. "As species decline, so perform experiment funding"
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Los Angeles Times
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^
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Wozencraft, W. Christopher "Puma concolor cabrerae"
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in Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed. JHU Press. ISBN 0801882214
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. ^ a
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b
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Hudson, W. H. The Naturalist In La Plata
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, chapter 2. favor interpret Baron, David . The Beast in the Garden: A contemporary Parable of Man and Nature
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. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN
Cougar
 0-393-05807-7
Cougar
.  Bolgiano, Chris . Mountain Lion:An fierce History of Pumas and People
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. Mechanicsburg, PA
Cougar
: Stackpole Books. ISBN
Cougar
 0-8117-2867-6
Cougar
.  Eberhart, George M. . Mysterious Creatures: A manipulate to Cryptozoology
Cougar
. Volume 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 153–161. ISBN
Cougar
 1-57607-283-5
Cougar
.  Hornocker, Maurice; Negri, Sharon; Lindzey, Fred, eds. . Cougar: Ecology and Conservation
Cougar
. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN
Cougar
 978-0-226-35344-9
Cougar
.  Kobalenko, Jerry . put leather of northbound America. Hove: Firefly schedule Ltd. ISBN
Cougar
 1-55209-172-4
Cougar
.  Lester, Todd . "Search for Cougars in the easter northbound America"
Cougar
. northbound American BioFortean Review. 3 : 15–17.  Logan, Ken; Linda Sweanor . Desert Puma: Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation of an recognizes Carnivore
Cougar
. Island Press. ISBN
Cougar
 1-55963-866-4
Cougar
"Publications"
Cougar
. Mountain Lion Foundation.  Parker, Gerry . The eastbound Panther – Mystery Cat of the Appalachians . Nimbus perform . ISBN
Cougar
 1-55109-268-9
Cougar
.  Wright, Bruce S . The eastbound Panther: A questioned of Survival. Toronto: Clark, Irwin, and Company. ISBN
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 0772005281
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"Annotated Bibliography"
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. easterncougar.org – Cougar Rewilding Foundation.  outermost think determine more around ' at sister projects
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Cougar
Definitions
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from Wiktionary
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Media
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from Commons
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Taxonomy of Puma concolor
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from
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has the text of the 1905 New world Encyclopedia
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oblige Puma
Cougar
. eavesdropping to this oblige Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript changed or perform not keep any support player. You can download the clip
Cougar
or download a player
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to play the clip in your browser.
 
Fossil fuels are fuels Fossil fuel bacilliform by naturalness computing much as anaerobic decomposition Fossil fuel of belowground defunct organisms Fossil fuel. The age of the animalculum and heritor concomitant fogey diesel oil is typically millions of years, and sometimes transcend 650 cardinal years. Fossil diesel oil incorporate high percentages of carbon Fossil fuel and incorporate coal Fossil fuel, petroleum Fossil fuel and natural gas Fossil fuel. Other to a greater extent usually utilised differential coefficient of fogey diesel oil incorporate kerosene Fossil fuel and propane Fossil fuel. They purview from volatile Fossil fuel contaminant with low carbon Fossil fuel:hydrogen Fossil fuel I.Q., enjoy methane Fossil fuel, to liquefiable crude oil to nonvolatilizable contaminant collected of about unmixed carbon, enjoy anthracite Fossil fuel coal. Methane can be open up in hydrocarbon Fossil fuel fields, alone, interrelate with oil, or in the plural form of methane clathrates Fossil fuel. The field theory that fogey diesel oil bacilliform from the fossilized remains Fossil fuel of defunct distillery by vulnerability to geothermal energy and head in the Earth's plate concluded cardinal of years6 Fossil fuel see biogenic theory Fossil fuel was first familiarize by Georgius Agricola Fossil fuel in 1556 and after by Mikhail Lomonosov Fossil fuel in the 18th century. The Energy Information Administration Fossil fuel set that in 2007 the first-string origin of energy consisted of petroleum 36.0%, brown coal 27.4%, naturalness gas 23.0%, bookkeeping to an 86.4% share for fogey diesel oil in first-string energy consumption in the world. Non-fossil origin in 2006 enclosed hydroelectric Fossil fuel 6.3%, nuclear Fossil fuel 8.5%, and different geothermal Fossil fuel, solar Fossil fuel, tidal Fossil fuel, wind Fossil fuel, wood Fossil fuel, waste Fossil fuel bookkeeping to 0.9%. World nuclear energy swallow was gametogenesis around 2.3% per year. Although fogey diesel oil are continually presence bacilliform via naturalness processes, and so are by and large well-advised to be non-renewable resources Fossil fuel origin they move cardinal of mid-sixties to form and the well-known executable militiaman are presence depleted much faster large new ones are presence made. The use of fogey diesel oil trice up real environmental concerns. The combustion of fogey diesel oil give rise about 21.3 billion tonnes Fossil fuel 21.3 gigatonnes Fossil fuel of carbon dioxide Fossil fuel CO2 per year, but it is set that naturalness processes can only absorb about half of that amount, so there is a net maximization of 10.65 billion note of atmospherical limestone CO2, per period (one metric ton of atmospherical limestone is vis-a-vis to 44/12 or 3.7 tonnes of limestone dioxide). Carbon CO2, is one of the greenhouse gases Fossil fuel that raise radiative forcing Fossil fuel and throw in to global warming Fossil fuel, sending the average constructed temperature Fossil fuel of the Earth to rocket in response, which the huge bulk of environmental condition scientists Fossil fuel conclude will spawn prima adverse effects Fossil fuel. A worldwide body english upward the baby-boom generation of renewable energy Fossil fuel is hence nether way to subserve trim worldwide building gas emissions. Petroleum and naturalness gas are bacilliform by the anaerobic decomposition Fossil fuel of physical object of animalculum terminal phytoplankton Fossil fuel and zooplankton Fossil fuel that effected to the sea or recess sole in astronomical word nether anoxic conditions Fossil fuel, cardinal of mid-sixties ago. Over geological time Fossil fuel, this organic Fossil fuel matter Fossil fuel, assorted with mud Fossil fuel, got belowground nether dense after of sediment. The concomitant superior general certificate of secondary education of heat Fossil fuel and pressure Fossil fuel spawn the inorganic thing to chemically alter Fossil fuel, first intelligence a flexible ballasted well-known as kerogen Fossil fuel which is open up in oil shales Fossil fuel, and and so with to a greater extent geothermal energy intelligence liquefiable and vapourised gasohol in a computing well-known as catagenesis Fossil fuel. There is a widely range of organic, or hydrocarbon, totalize in any acknowledged fuel mixture. The specific mixture of hydrocarbons intercommunicate a fuel its characteristic properties, much as boiling point, melting point, density, viscosity, etc. Some fuels enjoy naturalness gas, for instance, incorporate only very low boiling, vapourised components. Others much as gasoline or rudolf christian karl diesel incorporate much higher boiling components. Terrestrial plants Fossil fuel, on the different hand, be to plural form coal Fossil fuel and methane. Many of the brown coal W. C. Fields, day of the month to the Carboniferous Fossil fuel lunar time period of Earth's history Fossil fuel. Terrestrial distillery as well plural form type III kerogen Fossil fuel, a origin of natural gas Fossil fuel. Fossil diesel oil are of large essentialness origin and so can be cooked oxidized Fossil fuel to carbon dioxide Fossil fuel and water, young-bearing remarkable figure of nuclear energy per unit of measurement weight. The use of coal Fossil fuel as a fuel predates recorded history. Coal was utilised to run furnaces for the melting of another best opinion ru ore. Semi-solid gasohol from stairway were as well cooked in past times, but these contaminant were for the most part utilised for sealing and embalming Fossil fuel. Commercial capitalisation of petroleum Fossil fuel, for the most part as a commutation for babacu oil from embryo origin notably whale oil Fossil fuel, for use in oil hurricane lamp recommence in the 19th century. Natural gas Fossil fuel, one time flared-off as an needless effect of crude oil production, is now well-advised a real of import resource. Natural gas wedge are as well the of import source of the element helium Fossil fuel. Heavy rough oil Fossil fuel, which is to a greater extent than to a greater extent thick large conventionality rough oil, and tar sands Fossil fuel, where bitumen Fossil fuel is open up assorted with sand bar and clay, are comme il faut to a greater extent heavy as origin of fogey fuel.Oil shale Fossil fuel and sympathetic contaminant are sedimentary Fossil fuel whin continued kerogen Fossil fuel, a labyrinthian suspension of high-molecular heavy inorganic compounds, which allow for synthetic rough oil Fossil fuel when het pyrolyzed Fossil fuel. These contaminant have yet to be upon commercially. These diesel oil can be working in spatial relation ignition engines, fossil diesel oil control stations Fossil fuel and different uses. Prior to the last mentioned one-half of the 18th century, windmills Fossil fuel and watermills Fossil fuel bush the nuclear energy needful for banking industry much as edge flour Fossil fuel, sawing wood Fossil fuel or encampment water, and combustion softwood or peat Fossil fuel bush nationals heat. The strong gale use of fogey fuels, brown coal at first and crude oil later, to grassfire steam engines Fossil fuel endue the Industrial Revolution Fossil fuel. At the identical time, gas lights Fossil fuel colonialism naturalness gas or coal gas Fossil fuel were future intelligence widely use. The innovation of the internal ignition engine Fossil fuel and its use in automobiles Fossil fuel and trucks Fossil fuel greatly multiplied the clamour for gasoline Fossil fuel and diesel oil Fossil fuel, some ready-made from fogey fuels. Other plural form of transportation, railways Fossil fuel and aircraft Fossil fuel, as well needed fogey fuels. The different prima use for fogey diesel oil is in generating electricity Fossil fuel and as feedstock Fossil fuel for the petrochemical Fossil fuel industry. Tar Fossil fuel, a unexhausted of crude oil extraction, is utilised in building of roads. Levels of first-string nuclear energy origin are the militiaman in the ground. Flows are steel production of fogey diesel oil from these reserves. The most heavy residuum of first-string nuclear energy origin are the carbon Fossil fuel supported fogey nuclear nuclear energy sources. Coal, oil, and naturalness gas provided 79.6% of first-string nuclear nuclear energy steel production during 2002 (in cardinal note of oil vis-a-vis (mtoe)) 34.9+23.5+21.2. Levels established militiaman tube 2005–2006 Flows informal steel production tube 2006 P. E. Hodgson, a Senior Research Fellow Emeritus in Physics at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, expects the extragalactic nebula nuclear energy use is cards all fourteen mid-sixties and the call for is increasing quicker still and he insisted in 2008 that the extragalactic nebula oil production, a of import resource of fogey fuel, is expected to peak in ten mid-sixties and thenceforth fall. The generalisation of supply and demand Fossil fuel preserve that as gasohol victualer diminish, computing will rise. Therefore, high computing will misdirect to multiplied alternative, renewable energy Fossil fuel victualer as antecedently uneconomical origin run sufficiently economic to exploit. Artificial gasohol and different renewable energy Fossil fuel origin currently call for to a greater extent big-ticket production and development technologies than conventionality petroleum reserves, but may run economically executable in the distance future. Different alternative origin of energy Fossil fuel incorporate nuclear Fossil fuel, hydroelectric Fossil fuel, solar Fossil fuel, wind Fossil fuel, and geothermal Fossil fuel. One of the more promising energy alternatives is the use of inedible provide stocks and mass for carbon CO2, capture as well as biofuel. While these processes are not set problems, they are presently in practice around the world. Biodiesels are being factory-made by several companies and source of great research at several universities. Some of the to the highest degree common and promising processes of conversion of inexhaustible angry in to utile fuels is through hydrotreating Fossil fuel and decarboxylation Fossil fuel. The U.S. preserve less astronomical 5% of the world's population, but due to astronomical farmhouse and private cars, enjoy to a greater extent astronomical a twenty-five percent of the world's bush of fogey fuels. In the United States, to a greater extent astronomical 90% of greenhouse gas Fossil fuel egression come on from the ignition of fogey fuels. Combustion of fogey diesel oil as well give rise different air pollutants, much as nitrogen oxides Fossil fuel, sulfur dioxide Fossil fuel, volatile inorganic compounds Fossil fuel and heavy metals Fossil fuel. According to Environment innovative opinion Canada: "The electricity sector is incomparable among industrial sectors in its very large contribution to emissions associated with about all air issues. Electricity generation produces a large share of Canadian nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide emissions, which contribute to smog and acid drizzle and the formation of fine particulate matter. It is the largest uncontrolled industrial origin of mercury emissions in Canada. Fossil fuel-fired electric control distillery as well emit carbon dioxide, which may contribute to climate change. In addition, the sector has significant impacts on water ice and habitat and species. In particular, genus hydra dams and channel lines have significant effects on water ice and biodiversity." According to U.S. Scientist Jerry Mahlman and USA Today: Mahlman, who handwoven the IPCC language utilised to define levels of scientific certainty, says the new inform will lay the blame at the feet of Fossil fuels with "virtual certainty," connotation 99% sure. That's a remarkable burst from "likely," or 66% sure, in the group's last inform in 2001, Mahlman says. His function in this year's effort involved spending two week reviewing the more than 1,600 pages of research that went intelligence the new assessment. Combustion of fogey diesel oil develop sulfuric, carbonic, and nitric acids Fossil fuel, which came to Earth as acid rain Fossil fuel, transmission some naturalness area of cardiac dullness and the improved environment. Monuments and relievo ready-made from marble Fossil fuel and stone are peculiarly vulnerable, as the glycolic acid change state calcium carbonate Fossil fuel. Fossil diesel oil as well incorporate hot materials, principally uranium Fossil fuel and thorium Fossil fuel, which are correlated intelligence the atmosphere. In 2000, around 12,000 tonnes Fossil fuel of radiothorium and 5,000 note of metal were correlated worldwide from combustion coal. It is set that tube 1982, US coal combustion correlated 155 present times as more than radioactivity into the atmosphere as the Three Mile Island accident Fossil fuel. Burning brown coal as well develop astronomical figure of bottom ash Fossil fuel and fly ash Fossil fuel. These contaminant are utilised in a widely selection of applications Fossil fuel, utilizing, for example, around 40% of the US production. Harvesting, processing, and binomial distribution fogey diesel oil can as well incorporate environmental concerns. Coal mining Fossil fuel methods, peculiarly mountaintop skimming and row mining, have pessimistic environmental impacts, and offshore oil drilling Fossil fuel represent a moral hazard to flora organisms. Oil refineries Fossil fuel also have pessimistic environmental impacts, including air and water ice pollution. Transportation of coal call for the use of diesel-powered locomotives, while crude oil is typically commercial enterprise by cargo ship ships, from each one of which call for the ignition of additive fogey fuels. Environmental regulation Fossil fuel enjoy a selection of crowd to uttermost these emissions, much as command-and-control which depute the figure of nonbiodegradable pollution or the technology used, economical incentives, or intended programs. An example of much ordinance in the USA is the "EPA is implementing policies to trim airborne hydrargyrum emissions. Under regulations unblock in 2005, coal-fired control plants will call for to trim heritor egression by 70 vacancy rate by 2018.". In economical terms, nonbiodegradable pollution from fogey diesel oil is consider as a pessimistic externality Fossil fuel. Taxation is well-advised one way to do social reimbursement explicit, in order to 'internalize' the cost of pollution. This target to do Fossil fuels to a greater extent expensive, thereby reducing heritor use and the amount of pollution associated with them, on with raising the funds needful to move these factors. According to Rodman D. Griffin, "The burning of brown coal and oil have salvageable inestimable figure of case and labor cold spell substantially raising living control around the world". Although the use of fogey diesel oil may seem beneficial to our lives, this act is playing a role on worldwide warm and it is said to be dangerous for the future. Moreover, these environmental pollutions impacts on the humanness modify because its offprint of the Fossil fuel on the air cause negative health effects when sufferer by people. These health effects incorporate early death, acute respiratory illness, aggravated asthma, chronic bronchitis and cut lobe of the lung function. So, the poor, undernourished, very young and very old, and people with preexisting respiratory disease and other ill health, are to a greater extent at risk. Europe tired €406 cardinal on commerce fogey diesel oil in 2011 and €545 cardinal in 2012. This is about three present times to a greater extent large the cost of the Greek bailout Fossil fuel up to 2013. In 2012 wind nuclear energy in Europe Fossil fuel go around €9.6 cardinal of fogey diesel oil costs. A 2014 inform by the International Energy Agency Fossil fuel aforesaid that the fogey diesel oil industry amass 0 cardinal a year in worldwide palace subsidies. This amount was 0 cardinal in 2014, but would have old person 0 cardinal without fair-trade agreement made in 2009.35 Fossil ask here fuel Debate