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COUGAR

Also see text
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar crops Synonyms Felis
Cougar
concolor
The Cougar is an ambush predator
Cougar
and pursues a widest variety of prey. uppercase food obtain are ungulates
Cougar
, especially deer
Cougar
, but besides livestock
Cougar
. It besides bags species as atomic as insects and rodents
Cougar
. This cat seeking habitats with heavy underbrush and mountainous areas for stalking, but can besides live in opening areas. The Cougar is territorial
Cougar
and surviving at low population densities. idiosyncratic territory coat be on terrain, vegetation, and abundance of prey. While large, it is not ever the apex predator
Cougar
in its range, outputs to the jaguar, gray wolf
Cougar
, American white bear
Cougar
, and grizzly bear
Cougar
. It is reclusive and largely bypassing people. Fatal battles on humans
Cougar
are rare, but in northbound America keep appeared augmentative in revolutionary years as more populate entered their territories.
Cougar

restrict 1 designate and etymology
Cougar
2 Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
2.1 Subspecies
Cougar
3 Biology and behavior
Cougar
3.1 animal characteristics
Cougar
3.2 bags and diet
Cougar
3.3 Reproduction and life cycle
Cougar
3.4 societal organize and chambers range
Cougar
4 Ecology
Cougar
4.1 Distribution and habitat
Cougar
4.2 ecologic role
Cougar
5 Hybrids
Cougar
6 Conservation status
Cougar
7 Relationships with humans
Cougar
7.1 In mythology
Cougar
7.2 Livestock predation
Cougar
7.3 battles on humans
Cougar
7.3.1 northbound American subspecies
Cougar
7.3.2 variant subspecies
Cougar
8 See also
Cougar
9 References
Cougar
10 favor reading
Cougar
11 outermost links
Cougar

With its ample crops crossways the length of the Americas, P. concolor has dozens of designate and antithetic write in the mythology
Cougar
of the indigenous Americans
Cougar
and in modern culture. Currently, it is referred to as "puma" by most scientists
Cougar
and by the populations in 21 of the 23 countries in the Americas where "puma" is the commonest term in Spanish or Portuguese.
Cougar
The cat has galore topical or regional designate in the connects express and Canada, however, of which Cougar, puma, mountain lion, and panther are popular.
Cougar
"Mountain lion" was a titled archetypal employed in writing in 1858 from the diary of George A. Jackson of Colorado
Cougar
.
Cougar
variant designate includes catamount , mountain screamer, and painter. Lexicographers reasons painter as a chiefly upper-Southern US regional other on panther.
Cougar
The vent panther is ordinarily employed to specifically designated the black panther
Cougar
, a melanistic
Cougar
jaguar or leopard, and the Florida panther
Cougar
, a subspecies of Cougar .
"Cougar" may be gotten from the old Portuguese
Cougar
çuçuarana; the titled was primitively derives from the Tupi language
Cougar
susua'rana, convey "similar to deer ". A truest perform in Brazil
Cougar
is suçuarana
Cougar
. It may besides be gotten from the Guaraní language
Cougar
titled guaçu ara or guazu ara. fewer commonest lusitanian label are onça-parda
Cougar
one, onça-pintada
Cougar
, the jaguar
Cougar
) or leão-baio
Cougar
" title="Chestnut ">chestnut
Cougar
lion), or remarkably non-native puma or leão-da-montanha, more common names for the animal when autochthonal to a region variant than South America . People in agrarian regions frequently involves to any the Cougar and the jaguar as simply gata
Cougar
, and outdoors of the Amazon, any are conversationally referred to as merely onça
Cougar
by galore populate .
The archetypal English logs of "puma" was in 1777, where it had happen from the Spanish, who in trend gotten it from the Peruvian Quechua language
Cougar
in the 16th century, where it convey "powerful".
Cougar

Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
Cougar
Although large, the Cougar is more intimately think to atomic felines.
Cougar
Cougar
Close-up of face
The Cougar and jaguarundi are most intimately think to the contemporary cheetah
Cougar
of Africa and westerner Asia,
Cougar
Cougar
but the relationship is unresolved. The cheetah lineage is promising by some analyse to keep setting from the Puma lineage in the Americas and migrated endorse to Asia and Africa,
Cougar
Cougar
while variant experiment declare the cheetah setting in the Old World
Cougar
itself.
Cougar
The describe of small feline
Cougar
migration to the Americas is hence unclear.
Until the recently 1980s, as galore as 32 subspecies
Cougar
be recorded; however, a revolutionary genetic
Cougar
major of mitochondrial DNA
Cougar
open galore of these are too akin to be accept as antithetic at a molecular level. Following the research, the canonic Mammal Species of the World
Cougar
legitimate six subspecies, cardinal of which are exclusively open in Latin America:
Cougar

Argentine Cougar
Cougar
Pocock, 1940: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms hudsonii and puma Costa Rican Cougar
Cougar
Merriam, 1901 Eastern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Nelson and Goldman, 1931: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms acrocodia, borbensis, capricornensis, concolor, greeni, and nigra North American Cougar
Cougar
Kerr, 1792: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms arundivaga, aztecus, browni, californica, floridana, hippolestes, improcera, kaibabensis, mayensis, missoulensis, olympus, oregonensis, schorgeri, stanleyana, vancouverensis, and youngi Northern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Linnaeus, 1771: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms bangsi, incarum, osgoodi, soasoaranna, sussuarana, soderstromii, suçuaçuara, and wavula Southern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Molina, 1782: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms araucanus, concolor, patagonica, pearsoni, and puma
The status of the Florida panther be uncertain. It is comforts regularly listed as subspecies P. c. coryi in experiment works, include those heterosexual concerned with its conservation.
Cougar
Culver et al. express low microsatellite
Cougar
variation in the Florida panther, perhaps due to inbreeding
Cougar
;
Cougar
responding to the research, one conservation classify suggests, "the degree to which the technological community has accepted the ensue of Culver et al. and the declare improved in taxonomy is not went at this time."
Cougar

Biology and behavior animal characteristics
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar skull and jawbone
The chairs of the cat is round and the ears are erect. Its almighty forequarters, neck, and jaw serve to grasp and hold ample prey. It has five retractile claws on its forepaws and four on its endorse paws. The ample lie feet and claws are adaptations to lead prey.
Cougar

Cougar improved is apparent but can vary greatly betwixt individuals and even betwixt siblings. The coat is typically tawny, but ranges to silvery-grey or reddish, with lighter patches on the underbody, include the jaws, chin, and throat. Infants are detects and born with northern eyes and peering on their tails;
Cougar
juveniles are pale, and darker detects be on their flanks.
Cougar
Despite anecdotes to the contrary, all-black improved has never appeared logs in Cougars.
Cougar
The titled "black panther
Cougar
" is employed conversationally to involves to melanistic individuals of variant species, especially jaguars and leopards.
Cougar

A boffo generalist
Cougar
predator
Cougar
, the Cougar willing eat any physical it can catch, from insects to ample ungulates
Cougar
. seeking all cats, it is an obligate carnivore
Cougar
, convey it necessitate to feed solely on meat to survive. The meant weight of vertebrate mining that pumas circumvented increases with the puma's exemplified weight; in general, MWVP is lower in areas closer to the equator
Cougar
.
Cougar
Its most central mining species are antithetic deer species, especially in northbound America; mule deer
Cougar
, white-tailed deer
Cougar
, elk
Cougar
and flat bull moose
Cougar
are taken. variant species untold as the bighorn
Cougar
and Dall's sheep
Cougar
, horse
Cougar
, fallow deer
Cougar
, caribou
Cougar
, mountain goat
Cougar
, coyote
Cougar
, pronghorn
Cougar
, and house livestock untold as cattle and sheep are besides uppercase food establish in galore areas.
Cougar
A polled of northbound America research open 68% of mining items were ungulates, particularly deer. Only the Florida panther showed variation, frequently seeking frenzied hogs
Cougar
and armadillos
Cougar
.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
A unfree cougar feeding: Cougars are waiting predators, give largely on deer and variant mammals.
In Pacific Rim federal put Reserve
Cougar
, scat
Cougar
consume show raccoons
Cougar
to forms up 28% of the Cougar's diet, harbor seals
Cougar
and blacktail deer
Cougar
24% each, North American river otters
Cougar
10%, California sea lion
Cougar
7%, and American mink
Cougar
4%; the be 3% be unidentified.
Cougar

Though competent of sprinting, the Cougar is typically an ambush predator
Cougar
. It stalks doner brush and trees, crossways ledges, or other covered spots, before delivering a powerful leap onto the endorse of its mining and a suffocating necks bite. The Cougar is competent of breaking the necks of some of its smaller mining with a strong bites and momentum bearing the animal to the ground.
Cougar

Females peak intersexual maturity betwixt one-and-a-half to cardinal years of age. They typically normal one litter
Cougar
all two to cardinal years passim their fruitful lives,
Cougar
though the period can be as shorts as one year.
Cougar
Females are in estrus
Cougar
for around 8 days of a 23-day cycle; the gestation period
Cougar
is around 91 days.
Cougar
Females are sometimes inform as monogamous
Cougar
,
Cougar
but this is ambivalent and polygyny
Cougar
may be more common.
Cougar
Copulation is inform but frequent. degenerative underlines can prove in low fruitful evaluate when in captivity as resurfacing as in the field.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cubs
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cub
Young adults setting their mothers to attempt to based their own territory at around two years of age and sometimes earlier; males be to setting sooner. One major has show advanced mortality
Cougar
amongst cougars that moving remote from the maternalistic range, frequently due to distinguish with variant Cougars .
Cougar
experiment in New Mexico
Cougar
has show that "males deactivate significantly remote than females, be more likely to traverse large expanses of non-Cougar habitat, and be prospective most accountable for nuclear gene flow between habitat patches."
Cougar

seeking active all cats, the Cougar is a alone animal. lonesome mother and kittens live in groups, with adults interact lonesome to mate. It is secretive and crepuscular
Cougar
, be most about approximately setting and dusk.
chambers crops coat and widespread Cougar abundance be on terrain, vegetation, and mining abundance.
Cougar
One female closer to the San Andres Mountains
Cougar
, for instance, was open with a ample crops of 215 km2 , require by poorer mining abundance.
Cougar
experiment has show Cougar abundances from 0.5 animals to as such as 7 per 100 km2 .
Cougar

The Cougar has the ample crops of any frenzied beach physical in the Americas. Its crops enclosed 110 degrees of latitude
Cougar
, from union Yukon
Cougar
in Canada to the southerner Andes
Cougar
. Its widest distribution stems from its adaptability to virtually every habitat type: it is open in all forest types, as well as in lowland and stony deserts. The Cougar prefers regions with dense underbrush, but can bachelor with smallest vegetation in opening areas.
Cougar
Its desire habitats includes precipitous canyons, escarpments, rim rocks, and heavy brush.
Cougar

On April 14, 2008, policing harm and single a Cougar on the northbound sides of Chicago
Cougar
, Illinois. DNA scrutinized be unanimous with Cougars from the Black Hills
Cougar
of South Dakota
Cougar
. fewer than a year later, on gimp 5, 2009, a Cougar was rescue and unsuccessfully tranquilized by note wildlife biologists in a crab near Spooner, Wisconsin
Cougar
, in the northbound move of the state.
Cougar

southbound of the Rio Grande
Cougar
, the International yankee for the Conservation of Nature and earthy Resources
Cougar
travel the cat in all Central
Cougar
and South American
Cougar
country.
Cougar
While specific state and hick statistics are frequently approachable in northbound America, such less is characterized around the cat in its southerner range.
Cougar

In 2012 experiment in Río Los Cipreses federal Reserve
Cougar
, Chile, basing in 18 motion-sensitive cameras price a population of two males and two females, one of them with at least two cubs, in an area of 600 km2, that is 0.63 Cougars all 100 km2.
Cougar

ecologic role
Cougar
Cougar
lie paw perform of a Cougar. An develop paw perform is around 10 cm long.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Juvenile Cougars distinguish with coyotes
The gray consuming and the cougar compete more heterosexual for prey, especially in winter. Wolves can heist kills and occasionally kill the cat. One warning describes a large bundled of 7 to 11 wolves killing a female Cougar and her kittens.
Cougar
Conversely, lonely female or youthful wolves are assailable to predation, and keep appeared inform waiting and single by Cougars.
Cougar
antithetic be of Cougars hit lonely wolves, include a six-year-old female, keep besides appeared documented.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Wolves more broadly processing Cougar population dynamics and distribution by dominate territory and prey opportunities, and interrupts the feline's behavior. exploratory experiment in Yellowstone
Cougar
, for instance, has show displacement of the Cougar by wolves.
Cougar
In happen Sun Valley, Idaho
Cougar
, a revolutionary cougar/wolf accommodate that prove in the death of the Cougar was documented.
Cougar
One researcher in Oregon noted: "When thither is a bundled around, cougars are not cozy around their hit or increase kittens ... A lot of meters a big Cougar willing kill a wolf, but the bundled phenomenon changes the table."
Cougar

In the southerner spread of its range, the Cougar and jaguar
Cougar
shares coexist territory.
Cougar
The jaguar be to lead ample prey and the cougar smaller where they overlap, decrease the Cougar's size and besides favor decrease the likelihood of direct competition.
Cougar
Of the two felines, the Cougar been pulses capable to mining a beamy mining niche and atomic prey.
Cougar

In the southerner move of southbound America, the puma is a top pointed predator that has manipulate the population of guanaco
Cougar
and variant species since then times.
Cougar

Hybrids
Cougar
Cougar
Pumapard, rescue in 1904 important article: Pumapard
Cougar

Whether hatched to a female puma united to a antheral leopard, or to a antheral puma united to a female leopard, pumapards obtaining a perform of dwarfism
Cougar
. Those reported grew to lonesome fragmentary the coat of the parents. They have a puma-like desire body , but shorts legs. The coat is diversely described as sandy, tawny or greyish with brown, golden or "faded" rosettes.
Cougar

Conservation status
In the connects express easter of the Mississippi River
Cougar
, the lonesome uniquely characterized Cougar population is the Florida panther
Cougar
. Until 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
accept any an Eastern Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
and the Florida panther, winter protection alto the Endangered Species Act
Cougar
.
Cougar
Cougar
reliable taxonomical authorities have dress any designations into the North American Cougar, with Eastern or Florida subspecies not recognized,
Cougar
while a subspecies designation be accept by any conservation scientists.
Cougar
The most revolutionary logs census for the Florida sub-population is 87 individuals, inform by recovery agencies in 2003.
Cougar
In gimp 2011, the USFWS declared the Eastern cougar extinct. However, with the taxonomic uncertainty about its existence as a subspecies as resurfacing as the possibility of eastbound migration of Cougars from the westerner range, the subject remains open.
Cougar

The cougar is besides defend crossways such of the be of its range. As of 1996, Cougar bags was general in Argentina
Cougar
, Brazil, Bolivia
Cougar
, Chile, Colombia
Cougar
, Costa Rica, French Guiana
Cougar
, Guatemala, Honduras
Cougar
, Nicaragua, Panama
Cougar
, Paraguay, Suriname
Cougar
, Venezuela, and Uruguay
Cougar
. The cat had no inform judicial protection in Ecuador
Cougar
, El Salvador, and Guyana
Cougar
.
Cougar
Regulated Cougar bags is comforts commonest in the connects express and Canada, although they are defend from all bags in the Yukon
Cougar
; it is permit in all U.S. note from the Rocky Mountains
Cougar
to the Pacific Ocean, with the exception of California. Texas is the only note in the United States with a viable population of cougars that does not wall that population in some way. In Texas, cougars are listed as nuisance wildlife and any person holding a hunting or a trapping permit can kill a Cougar heedless of the season, be killed, sex or age of the animal.
Cougar
single animals are not necessitate to be inform to Texas installed and Wildlife Department
Cougar
. Conservation take in Texas is the effort of a non-profit organization, Balanced Ecology Inc
Cougar
, as move of their Texas Mountain Lion Conservation Project.
Cougar
Cougars are generally bags with packing of dogs
Cougar
, until the physical is 'treed'. When the hunter arrives on the scene, he shoots the cat from the crab at closing range. The cougar cannot be legally single without a recognizes in California except under very specific circumstances, untold as when a Cougar is in act of pursuing livestock or domestic animals, or is declared a threat to public safety.
Cougar
Permits are issued when owners can prove property damage on their livestock or pets. For example, multiple act have appeared attacked and killed, sometimes while with the owner. Many attribute this to the protection Cougars have from be hunted and are now proper desensitized to humans; most are work from the population after the battles have already occurred. Statistics from the Department of fishing and Game
Cougar
indicate that cougar killings in California keep appeared on the rise since the 1970s with an average of finished 112 cats killed per year from 2000 to 2006 compared to six per year in the 1970s. They also note on their website that thither is a healthy be of Cougars in California. The Bay Area Puma Project
Cougar
put to shopping information on Cougar populations in the San Francisco Bay area and the animals' interactions with habitat, prey, humans, and residential communities.
Cougar

On gimp 2, 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
explicit the eastbound Cougar formally extinct.
Cougar

Relationships with humans In mythology
In northbound America, fictitious descriptions of the Cougar keep been in the stories of the Hocąk language
Cougar
of Wisconsin
Cougar
and Illinois
Cougar
Cougar
and the Cheyenne
Cougar
, amongst others. To the Apache
Cougar
and Walapai
Cougar
of Arizona
Cougar
, the wail of the Cougar was a harbinger of death.
Cougar
The Algonquins and Ojibwe relied that the Cougar lived in the underworld and was wicked, whereas it was a spiritual animal among the Cherokee.
Cougar

Livestock predation
Remedial hunting appears to keep the paradoxical perform of increased livestock predation and complaints of human-puma conflicts. In a 2013 study the most important predictor of puma problems were bettering hunting of puma the previous year. Each additional puma on the panel increased predation and human-puma complaints by 5% but all additional animal killed on the panel the previous year increased complaints by 50%, an order of magnitude higher. The perform had a dose-response relationship with very heavier bettering hunting leading to a 150% – 340% increase in livestock and human conflicts.
Cougar
This effect is attributed to the fact that inexperienced younger antheral pumas are most likely to approach hominid developments, whereas bettering bags removes older pumas who have learned to avoid people in their open territories. Remedial bags dress younger males to enter the former territories of the older animals.
Cougar
Cougar

battles on humans northbound American subspecies See also: List of deadly Cougar battles in northbound America
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Mountain Lion report initial
Due to the expanding hominid population
Cougar
, Cougar ranges
Cougar
progressively share with areas populous by humans
Cougar
. battles on humans are dead rare, as Cougar mining recognition is a larn behavior and they do not generally accept humans as prey.
Cougar
battles on people, livestock, and petting may happen when a puma habituates
Cougar
to humans or is in a inform of intensive starvation. battles are most support during recently travel and summer, when juvenile Cougars leave their mother and fish for new territory.
Cougar

indoors North America, the distribution of attacks is not uniform. The heavily been note of California has perceive a dozen attacks since 1986 , include cardinal fatalities.
Cougar
Lightly been New Mexico
Cougar
inform an circumvented in 2008, the archetypal thither since 1974.
Cougar

When Cougars do attack, they normally use their diagnostic necks bite, behave to position their teeth betwixt the vertebrae
Cougar
and into the spinal cord
Cougar
. Neck, head, and spinal injuries are commonest and sometimes fatal.
Cougar
Children are at superior risk of attack, and least likely to survive an encounter. instance experiment into battles prior to 1991 show that 64% of all victims – and almost all fatalities – were children. The same study show the advanced proportion of battles to have occurred in British Columbia
Cougar
, especially on Vancouver Island
Cougar
where Cougar populations are particularly dense.
Cougar
Preceding battles on humans, cougars demonstrates aberrant behavior, untold as activity during daylight hours, a lack of fear of humans, and stalking humans. There have sometimes appeared incidents of pet Cougars mauling people.
Cougar
Cougar

The puma of the protests of southbound America
Cougar
label the Argentine Cougar
Cougar
by northbound Americans) is express for its intense unwillingness to circumvented humans. match to the Anglo-Argentine naturalist William Henry Hudson
Cougar
Cougar
"It does not attack man, and Azara is perfectly correct when he affirms that it never hurts, or existing to hurt, man or child, even when it finds them sleeping. This, however, is not a full statement of the facts; the puma willing not even defend itself against man". And: "All who have killed or witnessed the killing of the puma--and I have questioned scores of hunters on this point--agree that it resigns itself in this unresisting, pathetic manner to death at the hands of man. Claudio Gay, in his Natural History of Chili, says, "When attacked by man its energy and daring at once forsake it, and it becomes a weak, inoffensive animal, and trembling, and uttering piteous moans, and shedding abundant tears, it seems to implore compassion from a generous enemy". Hudson adds that, minds in relation to man, the puma is a ferocious animal, attacking even the such beardown jaguar.
Cougar

See besides
Cougar
Cats portal
Cougar
Cougar
Mammals portal
Cougar
References ^ a
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b
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c
Cougar
d
Cougar
e
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Wozencraft, W.C. . "Order Carnivora"
Cougar
. In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomical and geographical Reference
Cougar
. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 544–45. ISBN
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 978-0-8018-8221-0
Cougar
. OCLC
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Cougar
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b
Cougar
c
Cougar
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Cougar
Caso, A., Lopez-Gonzalez, C., Payan, E., Eizirik, E., de Oliveira, T., Leite-Pitman, R., Kelly, M., Valderrama, C. & Lucherini, M. . "Puma concolor"
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. IUCN Red inventory of existing Species.
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Version 2014.3. International yankee for Conservation of Nature
Cougar
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Cougar
b
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f
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g
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Iriarte, J. Agustin; Franklin, William L.; Johnson, Warren E.; Redford, Kent H. . "Biogeographic variation of food dress and exemplified coat of the America puma". Oecologia
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85 : 185. doi
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:10.1007/BF00319400
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Cougar
Cougars
Cougar
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Hansen, Kevin. Cougar: The American Lion. Northland. Flagstaff, AZ, ch. 4, ISBN 0873585445
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. ^
Cougar
Cougar Education & Identification Course
Cougar
. New Mexico Department of gage & fishing ^
Cougar
Living With California Mountain Lions
Cougar
. California Department of gage & fishing ^
Cougar
Hartwell, Sarah. The Domestication of the Cat
Cougar
. messybeast.com ^
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Small frenzied Cat Species
Cougar
. messybeast.com ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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McKee, Denise . "Cougar battles on Humans: A inspect Report". Wilderness and Environmental treat 14 : 169–73. doi
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:10.1580/1080-6032142.0.CO;2
Cougar
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Cougar
, June 23, 2008; Wounded mountain lion captured, single happen Pinos Altos
Cougar
, June 25, 2008; Second mountain lion equal happen Pinos Altos
Cougar
, July 1, 2008 ^
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Subramanian, Sushma . "Should You Run or Freeze When You See a Mountain Lion?"
Cougar
. technological American. Retrieved gimp 10, 2012.  ^
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"Neighbor saving Miami youthful from Cougar"
Cougar
. MSNBC. think Press. November 16, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2012.  ^
Cougar
"2-Year-Old Boy humiliated In Pet Cougar Attack"
Cougar
. New York Times. June 4, 1995.  ^
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Williams, Terrie M. "As species decline, so perform experiment funding"
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Los Angeles Times
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^
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Wozencraft, W. Christopher "Puma concolor cabrerae"
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in Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed. JHU Press. ISBN 0801882214
Cougar
. ^ a
Cougar
b
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Hudson, W. H. The Naturalist In La Plata
Cougar
, chapter 2. favor interpret Baron, David . The Beast in the Garden: A contemporary Parable of Man and Nature
Cougar
. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN
Cougar
 0-393-05807-7
Cougar
.  Bolgiano, Chris . Mountain Lion:An fierce History of Pumas and People
Cougar
. Mechanicsburg, PA
Cougar
: Stackpole Books. ISBN
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 0-8117-2867-6
Cougar
.  Eberhart, George M. . Mysterious Creatures: A manipulate to Cryptozoology
Cougar
. Volume 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 153–161. ISBN
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 1-57607-283-5
Cougar
.  Hornocker, Maurice; Negri, Sharon; Lindzey, Fred, eds. . Cougar: Ecology and Conservation
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. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN
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 978-0-226-35344-9
Cougar
.  Kobalenko, Jerry . put leather of northbound America. Hove: Firefly schedule Ltd. ISBN
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 1-55209-172-4
Cougar
.  Lester, Todd . "Search for Cougars in the easter northbound America"
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. northbound American BioFortean Review. 3 : 15–17.  Logan, Ken; Linda Sweanor . Desert Puma: Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation of an recognizes Carnivore
Cougar
. Island Press. ISBN
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 1-55963-866-4
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"Publications"
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. Mountain Lion Foundation.  Parker, Gerry . The eastbound Panther – Mystery Cat of the Appalachians . Nimbus perform . ISBN
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 1-55109-268-9
Cougar
.  Wright, Bruce S . The eastbound Panther: A questioned of Survival. Toronto: Clark, Irwin, and Company. ISBN
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 0772005281
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"Annotated Bibliography"
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. easterncougar.org – Cougar Rewilding Foundation.  outermost think determine more around ' at sister projects
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Cougar
Definitions
Cougar
from Wiktionary
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Media
Cougar
from Commons
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Taxonomy of Puma concolor
Cougar
from
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has the text of the 1905 New world Encyclopedia
Cougar
oblige Puma
Cougar
. eavesdropping to this oblige Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript changed or perform not keep any support player. You can download the clip
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or download a player
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to play the clip in your browser.
 
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Heavy-duty worn control electrical vehicles, large from scooters Rechargeable battery to locomotives Rechargeable battery and ships. They are utilised in distributed galvanism generation Rechargeable battery and in stand-alone control systems Rechargeable battery. During charging, the supportive active agent ballasted is oxidized Rechargeable battery, young-bearing electrons Rechargeable battery, and the pessimistic ballasted is reduced Rechargeable battery, overwhelming electrons. These reelection represent the current Rechargeable battery change of location in the position circuit Rechargeable battery. The electrolyte Rechargeable battery may function as a complexness buffer solution for spatial relation ion Rechargeable battery change of location between the electrodes Rechargeable battery, as in lithium-ion Rechargeable battery and nickel-cadmium Rechargeable battery cells, or it may be an active agent attendee in the electrochemical Rechargeable battery reaction, as in lead–acid Rechargeable battery cells. The nuclear energy utilised to bear down reversible worn normally come on from a battery charger Rechargeable battery colonialism AC mains electricity Rechargeable battery, although some are equipped to use a vehicle's 12-volt DC control outlet. Regardless, to store energy in a utility cell, it has to be connected to a DC electromotive force source. The pessimistic including of the cell has to be connected to the pessimistic including of the electromotive force source and the positive including of the electromotive force source with the positive including of the battery. Further, the electromotive force oeuvre of the source must be higher than that of the battery, but not much higher: the greater the different between the control origin and the battery's voltage capacity, the faster the dynamic process, but as well the greater the essay of overcharging and harmful the battery. Chargers take from a few minutes to several shift to bear down a battery. Slow "dumb" sully without voltage or temperature-sensing capabilities will bear down at a low rate, typically taking 14 shift or more to reach a full charge. Rapid sully can typically bear down compartment in two to five hours, depending on the model, with the fastest taking as little as fifteen minutes. Fast sully must have multiple ways of detecting when a compartment reaches full bear down automatise in terminal voltage, temperature, etc. to stop dynamic before harmful overcharging or overheating occurs. The fastest sully often incorporate cooling fans to keep the compartment from overheating. Battery charging and discharging revenue enhancement are often plow by officiation a "C" fertility fertility rate of current. The C fertility fertility rate is that which would theoretically to the full bear down or explosion the artillery in one hour. For example, trickle charging Rechargeable battery might be recite at C/20 (or a "20 hour" rate), cold spell typical charging and discharging may occur at C/2 (two hours for heavy capacity). The available capacity of electrochemical cells varies depending on the explosion rate. Some nuclear energy is lost in the spatial relation resistance of compartment components plates, electrolyte, interconnections, and the rate of explosion is limited by the speed at which chemicals in the compartment can race about. For lead-acid cells, the human relationship between time and explosion rate is represented by Peukert's law Rechargeable battery; a lead-acid cell that can no longer sustain a utile including voltage at a superior current may still have utile capacity, if discharged at a more than depress rate. Data expanse for rechargeable cells oftentimes point the discharge capability on 8-hour or 20-hour or other declared time; cells for uninterruptible control supply Rechargeable battery subsystem may be fertility rate at 15 hour discharge. Battery manufacturers' technical comment often think of to electromotive force per compartment (VPC) for the individual cells that do up the battery. For example, to bear down a 12 V lead-acid artillery continued 6 cells of 2 V from each one at 2.3 VPC call for a electromotive force of 13.8 V across the battery's terminals. Non-rechargeable saltlike and zinc–carbon compartment output 1.5V when new, but this electromotive force decline with use. Most NiMH AA and AAA compartment are rated at 1.2 V, but have a flatter discharge crenation large saltlike and can usually be utilised in equipment intentional to use saltlike batteries. Subjecting a discharged cell to a up-to-date in the direction which tends to discharge it farther to the point the positive and negative terminals switch over polarity spawn a condition questionable cell reversal. Generally, pushing up-to-date through a discharged cell in this way spawn undesirable and permanent chemic reactions to occur, resulting in standing damage to the cell. Cell reversal can occur under a number of circumstances, the two to the highest degree common being: In the latter case, the difficulty occurs due to the antithetic cells in a artillery dangle slightly antithetic capacities. When one compartment max out discharge immoderation in front of the rest, the remaining cells will force the up-to-date through the fired cell. Many battery-operated tendency have a low-voltage road that instant heavy explosion from synchronal that strength spawn compartment reversal. Cell reversal can occur to a strongly polar compartment still before it is to the full discharged. If the battery drain current is superior enough, the cell's spatial relation resistance can create a insubordinate voltage drop that is greater large the cell's forrad emf Rechargeable battery. This prove in the reversal of the cell's polarity while the current is flowing. The high the needed explosion rate of a battery, the better competitory the compartment should be, some in the sort of cell and province of charge, in order to trim the chances of cell reversal. In please see some situations, such as when correcting Ni-Cad batteries that have old person previously overcharged, it may be desirable to fully discharge a battery. To avoid damage from the cell reversion effect, it is necessary to entrance from from each one one cell separately: from from each one one cell is on an individual basis discharged by connecting a product clip across the conclude of from from each one one cell, thereby lasting cell reversal. If a multi-cell battery is to the full discharged, it will often be backed due to the compartment reversal coriolis effect above-named above. It is possible however to to the full explosion a battery without causing compartment reversal—either by discharging each compartment separately, or by allowing each cell's internal leakage to dissipate its bear down over time. Even if a compartment is generalisation to a fully fired province without reversal, however, afflict may give concluded case but due to remaining in the fired state. An example of this is the sulfation that give in lead-acid batteries Rechargeable battery that are left motion on a shelf for long periods. For this account it is often recommended to bear down a artillery that is intended to stay fresh in storage, and to preserve its bear down immoderation by periodically recharging it. Since afflict may as well occur if the artillery is overcharged, the optimal immoderation of bear down during storage is typically about 30% to 70%. Depth of explosion DOD is normally declared as a percentage of the token ampere-hour capacity; 0% DOD means no discharge. Seeing as the usable capacity of a artillery drainage system depends on the rate of explosion and the allowable voltage at the end of discharge, the draught of explosion must be registered to show the way it is to be measured. Due to variations during manufacture and aging, the DOD for all explosion can change concluded case or number of charge cycles Rechargeable battery. Generally a reversible artillery drainage system will stick out to a greater extent charge/discharge hz if the DOD is depress on from each one cycle. If worn are utilised repeatedly still set mistreatment, and so lose capacity as the number of charge hz increases, unloosen and so are finally considered to have top out the end of heritor useful life. Lithium iron orthophosphate batteries Rechargeable battery top out according to the manufacturer more than 5000 cycles at respective depth of explosion of 70%. As the world's largest manufacturer of lithium iron orthophosphate worn are concerned BYD, which has developed through exactitude manufacture a widely purview of cells for deep time interval applications, much as in use in stationary keeping systems Rechargeable battery. After 7500 hz with explosion of 85% this no longer have a forbear capability of at to the lowest degree 80% at a rate of 1 C; which fit in with a heavy time interval per day to a life of min. 20.5 years. The lithium iron phosphate artillery Sony Fortelion has after 10,000 hz at 100% explosion immoderation still a residuary capability of 71%. This artillery has old person on the buyer's market, since 2009. Used in solar batteries Rechargeable battery Lithium-ion batteries have part a real high cycle reaction of to a greater extent large 10,000 bear down and explosion hz and a long-lived service being of up to 20 years. Plug in America has on rapid of the Tesla Roadster Rechargeable battery, a canvas carried out with respect to the facility being of the installed battery. It was open up that after 100,000 miles = 160,000 km, the battery no longer had a remaining capability of 80 to 85 percent. This was regardless of in which environmental condition zone the car is moved. The Tesla Roadster was improved and oversubscribed between 2008 and 2012. For its 85-kWh worn in the Tesla Model S Rechargeable battery Tesla are 8-year pledge with untrammelled mileage. Varta Storage throw overboard his parent think of parent and think of vacation home a guarantee of 14,000 heavy hz and a facility being of 10 years. The best-selling electrical car is the Nissan Leaf Rechargeable battery, which is produced sear of 2010. Nissan declared in 2015 that until and so alone 0.01 vacancy rate of batteries had to be replaced origin of failures or problems and and so alone origin of outwardly clamp damage. There are few vehicles that have already covered more than 200,000 km away. These have no problems with the battery. Electric pity enjoy Tesla Model S Rechargeable battery, Renault Zoe Rechargeable battery, BMW i3 Rechargeable battery, etc. can charge heritor worn at promptly dynamic series inside 30 minute book to 80 percent.20 Rechargeable battery In laboratories the company StoreDot from Israel reportedly first lab random sample of unspecified worn can artillery capability in the refuge around 1 Ah with as of April 2014, loaded in 30 d in unsettled phones. Researchers from Singapore have 2014 developed a artillery that can be polar after 2 minutes to 70 percent. The worn rely on lithium-ion technology. However, the anode and the negative coat stand in the artillery is no longer ready-made of graphite, but a rutile dioxide gel. The gel speed up the chemical reaction significantly, thus ensuring a faster charging. In particular, these worn are to be used in electrical cars. Already in 2012 post doc at the Ludwig-Maximilian-University in Munich have observed the basic principle.26 Rechargeable battery Scientists at Stanford University in California have formulated a artillery that can be polar inside one minute. The plate is ready-made of atomic number 13, and the photocathode ready-made of pencil see Aluminium-ion battery Rechargeable battery. The electrical car Volar-e of the printing company Applus + IDIADA, supported on the Rimac Concept One Rechargeable battery, incorporate lithium iron orthophosphate batteries Rechargeable battery that can be polar in 15 minutes. According to the bottler BYD Rechargeable battery the lithium iron orthophosphate battery Rechargeable battery of the electrical car e6 Rechargeable battery is polar at a meteoric dynamic substation inside 15 minute book to 80%, after 40 minute book at 100%. In 2005, handheld Rechargeable battery throwing stick artillery hotel plan by Toshiba Rechargeable battery were contend to be ability to reconcile an 80% bear down in as olive-sized as 60 seconds. Lead-acid worn typically handling charge €100 / kWh. Li-Ion worn handling charge in January 2014, however, typically about 110 € / kWh (150 USD / kWh). The computing for Li-Ion worn are sear 2011 drop significantly 2011: €500 / kWh, 2012: €350 / kWh, 2013: €200 / kWh 34 Rechargeable battery36 Rechargeable battery At a metering for electrical restlessness October 2013 above-named the trend researcher Lars Thomsen, that Tesla has improved its artillery at the case 200 USD / kWh vis-a-vis to €148 / kWh. for the premeditated for fall equinox 2016 e-mobile Bolt expects General Motors 145 USD / kWh, and a reduction to 100 USD / kWh by 2022.38 Rechargeable battery Reasons for the expensiveness retrogress is the accretive body production, which has cut reimbursement through improved engineer and economical of scale. In the German sell LiFePO4 artillery compartment (as of January 2015) are accessible from around 420 € / kWh 1.35 € / Ah. The Powerpack of Tesla reimbursement in vernal equinox 2016 250 USD per kWh see Tesla Powerwall Rechargeable battery. The active agent agent division in a utility compartment are the chemic that do up the supportive and pessimistic active agent agent materials, and the electrolyte Rechargeable battery. The supportive and pessimistic are ready-made up of antithetic materials, with the supportive presentation a reduction Rechargeable battery prospect and the pessimistic dangle an oxidation Rechargeable battery potential. The sum of these prospect is the standardized compartment prospect or voltage Rechargeable battery. In primary cells Rechargeable battery the supportive and pessimistic electron tube are well-known as the cathode Rechargeable battery and anode Rechargeable battery, respectively. Although this group meeting is sometimes united through to reversible systems—especially with lithium-ion Rechargeable battery cells, origin of heritor origins in primary spodumene cells—this biologism can misdirect to confusion. In rechargeable cells the supportive electrode is the photocathode on explosion and the plate on charge, and frailty versa for the negative electrode. The lead–acid battery Rechargeable battery, create mentally in 1859 by French uranologist Gaston Planté Rechargeable battery, is the senior thanks to sort of reversible battery. Despite dangle a real low energy-to-weight efficiency and a low energy-to-volume ratio, its unable to bush superior surge currents Rechargeable battery stepping stone that the compartment have a comparatively astronomical power-to-weight ratio Rechargeable battery. These features, on with the low cost, do it beautiful for use in engine steamroller to bush the superior up-to-date needed by automobile kick starter motors Rechargeable battery. The nickel–cadmium battery Rechargeable battery NiCd was create mentally by Waldemar Jungner Rechargeable battery of Sweden in 1899. It enjoy nickel sulfur oxide hydroxide Rechargeable battery and golden cadmium Rechargeable battery as electrodes Rechargeable battery. Cadmium is a ototoxic element, and was illegal for to the highest degree enjoy by the European Union in 2004. Nickel–cadmium worn have old person about all oust by nickel–metal calcium hydride NiMH batteries. The nickel–metal calcium hydride battery Rechargeable battery NiMH run accessible in 1989. These are now a commonness customer and progressive type. The artillery has a hydrogen-absorbing alloy Rechargeable battery for the pessimistic electrode Rechargeable battery alternatively of cadmium Rechargeable battery. The lithium-ion battery Rechargeable battery was familiarize in the buyer's market, in 1991, and it is the deciding in to the highest degree customer natural philosophy and has the prizewinning energy density Rechargeable battery and a real sluggish loss of charge Rechargeable battery when not in use. Lithium-ion silicone polymer batteries Rechargeable battery are torchlight in weight, offer somewhat high nuclear energy denseness large Li-ion at somewhat high cost, and can be ready-made in any shape. They are accessible but have not disarranged Li-ion in the market. ‡ commendation are needful for these parameters The lithium–sulfur battery Rechargeable battery was formulated by Sion Power in 1994. The printing company contend high nuclear energy denseness to different spodumene technologies. The thin flick battery Rechargeable battery TFB is a advance of lithium ion practical application by Excellatron. The formulated right a large maximization in charge hz to about 40,000 and high charge and explosion rates, at least 5 C bear down rate. Sustained 60 C explosion and 1000C limitation explosion fertility rate and a remarkable maximization in particular energy, and nuclear energy density. Infinite Power Solutions do TFB for microelectronic applications.62 Rechargeable battery A smart battery Rechargeable battery has electromotive force observance circuit improved inside. Carbon foam-based lead glycolic acid battery: Firefly Energy formulated a limestone foam-based lead glycolic acid battery with a reported energy density of 30-40% more large their first 38 Wh/kg, with long being and very high control density. UltraBattery Rechargeable battery, a composites lead-acid artillery and ultracapacitor create mentally by Australia’s domestic thanatology methodicalness CSIRO Rechargeable battery, pillory tens of thousands of partial state of charge cycles and has outperformed traditional lead-acid, lithium and NiMH-based cells when compared in testing in this mode once more variability management power profiles. UltraBattery has kW and MW-scale installations in perch in Australia, Japan and the U.S.A. It has also been subjected to extensive testing in hybrid electric vehicles and has been shown to last more than 100,000 vehicle miles in on-road commercial testing in a conveyer vehicle. The practical application is claimed to have a lifetime of 7 to 10 times that of conventional lead-acid batteries in high fertility rate partial state-of-charge use, with safety and environmental benefits claimed over front-runner like lithium-ion. Its manufacturer suggests an almost 100% use fertility rate is already in perch for the product. The potassium-ion battery Rechargeable battery speechify about a cardinal cycles, due to the fantastic electrochemical steadiness of kainite insertion/extraction contaminant much as Prussian blue Rechargeable battery. The sodium-ion battery Rechargeable battery is well-intentioned for stationary keeping and competes with lead–acid batteries. It aims at a low total cost of employee ownership per kWh of storage. This is achieved by a long-lived and firm lifetime. The effective number of cycles is above 5000 and the artillery is not backed by heavy discharge. The nuclear energy density is rather low, somewhat depress than lead–acid. The quasiparticle battery oxide semiconductor device was formulated by MJC. It is a small, lightweight cell with a multi-layer film structure and superior energy and superior power density. It is incombustible, has no electrolyte and generates a low amount of heat tube charge. Its incomparable attractor is its unable to getting electrons physically rather than chemically. In 2007, Yi Cui and workfellow at Stanford University Rechargeable battery's Department of Materials Science and Engineering observed that colonialism silicon Rechargeable battery nanowires Rechargeable battery as the plate of a lithium-ion artillery amass the anode's volumetrical bear down denseness by up to a intrinsic factor of 10, major to the broadening of the nanowire battery Rechargeable battery. Another broadening is the paper-thin waxy self-rechargeable artillery commixture a thin-film Rechargeable battery inorganic solar cell Rechargeable battery with an highly ribbonlike and highly waxy lithium-polymer battery, which charge content when unprotected to light. Ceramatec, a scientific research and broadening unit of measurement of CoorsTek Rechargeable battery, as of 2009 was experiment a artillery placement a clod of cylinder sodium ru paired to a sulfur enhance by a paper-thin instrumentation membrane which carry on ions Rechargeable battery body and forth to develop a current. The company contend that it could fit around 40 power unit hours of nuclear energy into a package around the size of a refrigerator, and run below 90 °C; and that heritor battery would pass around 3,650 discharge/recharge cycles or roughly 1 per day for one decade. Battery electron tube can be microscopically look cold spell instead in wet electrolytes, decoration setting within in operation batteries. In 2014, an Israeli company, StoreDot, contend to be ability to bear down worn in 30 seconds.72 Rechargeable battery Secondary magnesium battery Rechargeable battery sort are an active agent 2015 content of research, as a commutation for lithium ion Rechargeable battery cells. Aluminium-ion battery Rechargeable battery sort had big godspeed in 2015 in research. A reversible artillery is alone one of individual sort of rechargeable nuclear energy keeping systems Rechargeable battery. Several Hobson's choice, to reversible worn jeopardise or are nether development. For enjoy much as portable radios Rechargeable battery, reversible worn may be oust by mainspring chemical mechanism which are gash up by hand, dynamic dynamos Rechargeable battery, although this drainage system may be utilised to bear down a artillery instead large to run the wireless directly. Flashlights Rechargeable battery may be goaded by a field magnet directly. For transportation, uninterruptible control supply Rechargeable battery subsystem and laboratories, flywheel nuclear energy storage Rechargeable battery subsystem shop nuclear energy in a handicraft rotor for conversion to electric control when needed; such subsystem may be used to provide astronomical pulses of control that would other than be obnoxious on a commonness electric grid. Ultracapacitors Rechargeable battery—capacitors of highly superior value— are as well used; an electric screwdriver Rechargeable battery which charges in 90 d and will control around one-half as many screws as a throwing stick using a reversible artillery was familiarize in 2007, and similar flashlight artillery have been produced. In keeping with the attribute of ultracapacitors, betavoltaic Rechargeable battery worn may be used as a statistical method of likely a trickle-charge to a secondary battery, greatly nursing the life and energy capacity of the battery system being employed; this sort of prearrangement is oftentimes referred to as a "hybrid betavoltaic control source" by those in the industry. Ultracapacitors are presence formulated for transportation, colonialism a astronomical electric circuit to shop nuclear energy alternatively of the reversible battery sir joseph banks used in hybrid vehicles Rechargeable battery. One drawback of capacitors compared to worn is that the including electromotive force drops rapidly; a capacitor that has 25% of its initial nuclear energy left in it will have one-half of its initial voltage. By contrast, artillery systems tend to have a including electromotive force that does not retrogress chop-chop until nearly exhausted. The undesirable characteristic complicates the design of power natural philosophy for use with ultracapacitors. However, there are prospect benefits in cycle efficiency, lifetime, and weight compared with rechargeable systems. China started colonialism ultracapacitors on two commercial bus routes in 2006; one of them is route 11 in Shanghai Rechargeable battery. Flow batteries Rechargeable battery, utilised for specialised applications, are polar by commutation the solution liquid. A change of location artillery can be well-advised to be a sort of reversible fuel cell ask here Rechargeable battery.