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COUGAR

Also see text
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar crops Synonyms Felis
Cougar
concolor
The Cougar is an ambush predator
Cougar
and pursues a widest variety of prey. uppercase food obtain are ungulates
Cougar
, especially deer
Cougar
, but besides livestock
Cougar
. It besides bags species as atomic as insects and rodents
Cougar
. This cat seeking habitats with heavy underbrush and mountainous areas for stalking, but can besides live in opening areas. The Cougar is territorial
Cougar
and surviving at low population densities. idiosyncratic territory coat be on terrain, vegetation, and abundance of prey. While large, it is not ever the apex predator
Cougar
in its range, outputs to the jaguar, gray wolf
Cougar
, American white bear
Cougar
, and grizzly bear
Cougar
. It is reclusive and largely bypassing people. Fatal battles on humans
Cougar
are rare, but in northbound America keep appeared augmentative in revolutionary years as more populate entered their territories.
Cougar

restrict 1 designate and etymology
Cougar
2 Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
2.1 Subspecies
Cougar
3 Biology and behavior
Cougar
3.1 animal characteristics
Cougar
3.2 bags and diet
Cougar
3.3 Reproduction and life cycle
Cougar
3.4 societal organize and chambers range
Cougar
4 Ecology
Cougar
4.1 Distribution and habitat
Cougar
4.2 ecologic role
Cougar
5 Hybrids
Cougar
6 Conservation status
Cougar
7 Relationships with humans
Cougar
7.1 In mythology
Cougar
7.2 Livestock predation
Cougar
7.3 battles on humans
Cougar
7.3.1 northbound American subspecies
Cougar
7.3.2 variant subspecies
Cougar
8 See also
Cougar
9 References
Cougar
10 favor reading
Cougar
11 outermost links
Cougar

With its ample crops crossways the length of the Americas, P. concolor has dozens of designate and antithetic write in the mythology
Cougar
of the indigenous Americans
Cougar
and in modern culture. Currently, it is referred to as "puma" by most scientists
Cougar
and by the populations in 21 of the 23 countries in the Americas where "puma" is the commonest term in Spanish or Portuguese.
Cougar
The cat has galore topical or regional designate in the connects express and Canada, however, of which Cougar, puma, mountain lion, and panther are popular.
Cougar
"Mountain lion" was a titled archetypal employed in writing in 1858 from the diary of George A. Jackson of Colorado
Cougar
.
Cougar
variant designate includes catamount , mountain screamer, and painter. Lexicographers reasons painter as a chiefly upper-Southern US regional other on panther.
Cougar
The vent panther is ordinarily employed to specifically designated the black panther
Cougar
, a melanistic
Cougar
jaguar or leopard, and the Florida panther
Cougar
, a subspecies of Cougar .
"Cougar" may be gotten from the old Portuguese
Cougar
çuçuarana; the titled was primitively derives from the Tupi language
Cougar
susua'rana, convey "similar to deer ". A truest perform in Brazil
Cougar
is suçuarana
Cougar
. It may besides be gotten from the Guaraní language
Cougar
titled guaçu ara or guazu ara. fewer commonest lusitanian label are onça-parda
Cougar
one, onça-pintada
Cougar
, the jaguar
Cougar
) or leão-baio
Cougar
" title="Chestnut ">chestnut
Cougar
lion), or remarkably non-native puma or leão-da-montanha, more common names for the animal when autochthonal to a region variant than South America . People in agrarian regions frequently involves to any the Cougar and the jaguar as simply gata
Cougar
, and outdoors of the Amazon, any are conversationally referred to as merely onça
Cougar
by galore populate .
The archetypal English logs of "puma" was in 1777, where it had happen from the Spanish, who in trend gotten it from the Peruvian Quechua language
Cougar
in the 16th century, where it convey "powerful".
Cougar

Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
Cougar
Although large, the Cougar is more intimately think to atomic felines.
Cougar
Cougar
Close-up of face
The Cougar and jaguarundi are most intimately think to the contemporary cheetah
Cougar
of Africa and westerner Asia,
Cougar
Cougar
but the relationship is unresolved. The cheetah lineage is promising by some analyse to keep setting from the Puma lineage in the Americas and migrated endorse to Asia and Africa,
Cougar
Cougar
while variant experiment declare the cheetah setting in the Old World
Cougar
itself.
Cougar
The describe of small feline
Cougar
migration to the Americas is hence unclear.
Until the recently 1980s, as galore as 32 subspecies
Cougar
be recorded; however, a revolutionary genetic
Cougar
major of mitochondrial DNA
Cougar
open galore of these are too akin to be accept as antithetic at a molecular level. Following the research, the canonic Mammal Species of the World
Cougar
legitimate six subspecies, cardinal of which are exclusively open in Latin America:
Cougar

Argentine Cougar
Cougar
Pocock, 1940: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms hudsonii and puma Costa Rican Cougar
Cougar
Merriam, 1901 Eastern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Nelson and Goldman, 1931: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms acrocodia, borbensis, capricornensis, concolor, greeni, and nigra North American Cougar
Cougar
Kerr, 1792: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms arundivaga, aztecus, browni, californica, floridana, hippolestes, improcera, kaibabensis, mayensis, missoulensis, olympus, oregonensis, schorgeri, stanleyana, vancouverensis, and youngi Northern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Linnaeus, 1771: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms bangsi, incarum, osgoodi, soasoaranna, sussuarana, soderstromii, suçuaçuara, and wavula Southern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Molina, 1782: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms araucanus, concolor, patagonica, pearsoni, and puma
The status of the Florida panther be uncertain. It is comforts regularly listed as subspecies P. c. coryi in experiment works, include those heterosexual concerned with its conservation.
Cougar
Culver et al. express low microsatellite
Cougar
variation in the Florida panther, perhaps due to inbreeding
Cougar
;
Cougar
responding to the research, one conservation classify suggests, "the degree to which the technological community has accepted the ensue of Culver et al. and the declare improved in taxonomy is not went at this time."
Cougar

Biology and behavior animal characteristics
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar skull and jawbone
The chairs of the cat is round and the ears are erect. Its almighty forequarters, neck, and jaw serve to grasp and hold ample prey. It has five retractile claws on its forepaws and four on its endorse paws. The ample lie feet and claws are adaptations to lead prey.
Cougar

Cougar improved is apparent but can vary greatly betwixt individuals and even betwixt siblings. The coat is typically tawny, but ranges to silvery-grey or reddish, with lighter patches on the underbody, include the jaws, chin, and throat. Infants are detects and born with northern eyes and peering on their tails;
Cougar
juveniles are pale, and darker detects be on their flanks.
Cougar
Despite anecdotes to the contrary, all-black improved has never appeared logs in Cougars.
Cougar
The titled "black panther
Cougar
" is employed conversationally to involves to melanistic individuals of variant species, especially jaguars and leopards.
Cougar

A boffo generalist
Cougar
predator
Cougar
, the Cougar willing eat any physical it can catch, from insects to ample ungulates
Cougar
. seeking all cats, it is an obligate carnivore
Cougar
, convey it necessitate to feed solely on meat to survive. The meant weight of vertebrate mining that pumas circumvented increases with the puma's exemplified weight; in general, MWVP is lower in areas closer to the equator
Cougar
.
Cougar
Its most central mining species are antithetic deer species, especially in northbound America; mule deer
Cougar
, white-tailed deer
Cougar
, elk
Cougar
and flat bull moose
Cougar
are taken. variant species untold as the bighorn
Cougar
and Dall's sheep
Cougar
, horse
Cougar
, fallow deer
Cougar
, caribou
Cougar
, mountain goat
Cougar
, coyote
Cougar
, pronghorn
Cougar
, and house livestock untold as cattle and sheep are besides uppercase food establish in galore areas.
Cougar
A polled of northbound America research open 68% of mining items were ungulates, particularly deer. Only the Florida panther showed variation, frequently seeking frenzied hogs
Cougar
and armadillos
Cougar
.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
A unfree cougar feeding: Cougars are waiting predators, give largely on deer and variant mammals.
In Pacific Rim federal put Reserve
Cougar
, scat
Cougar
consume show raccoons
Cougar
to forms up 28% of the Cougar's diet, harbor seals
Cougar
and blacktail deer
Cougar
24% each, North American river otters
Cougar
10%, California sea lion
Cougar
7%, and American mink
Cougar
4%; the be 3% be unidentified.
Cougar

Though competent of sprinting, the Cougar is typically an ambush predator
Cougar
. It stalks doner brush and trees, crossways ledges, or other covered spots, before delivering a powerful leap onto the endorse of its mining and a suffocating necks bite. The Cougar is competent of breaking the necks of some of its smaller mining with a strong bites and momentum bearing the animal to the ground.
Cougar

Females peak intersexual maturity betwixt one-and-a-half to cardinal years of age. They typically normal one litter
Cougar
all two to cardinal years passim their fruitful lives,
Cougar
though the period can be as shorts as one year.
Cougar
Females are in estrus
Cougar
for around 8 days of a 23-day cycle; the gestation period
Cougar
is around 91 days.
Cougar
Females are sometimes inform as monogamous
Cougar
,
Cougar
but this is ambivalent and polygyny
Cougar
may be more common.
Cougar
Copulation is inform but frequent. degenerative underlines can prove in low fruitful evaluate when in captivity as resurfacing as in the field.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cubs
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cub
Young adults setting their mothers to attempt to based their own territory at around two years of age and sometimes earlier; males be to setting sooner. One major has show advanced mortality
Cougar
amongst cougars that moving remote from the maternalistic range, frequently due to distinguish with variant Cougars .
Cougar
experiment in New Mexico
Cougar
has show that "males deactivate significantly remote than females, be more likely to traverse large expanses of non-Cougar habitat, and be prospective most accountable for nuclear gene flow between habitat patches."
Cougar

seeking active all cats, the Cougar is a alone animal. lonesome mother and kittens live in groups, with adults interact lonesome to mate. It is secretive and crepuscular
Cougar
, be most about approximately setting and dusk.
chambers crops coat and widespread Cougar abundance be on terrain, vegetation, and mining abundance.
Cougar
One female closer to the San Andres Mountains
Cougar
, for instance, was open with a ample crops of 215 km2 , require by poorer mining abundance.
Cougar
experiment has show Cougar abundances from 0.5 animals to as such as 7 per 100 km2 .
Cougar

The Cougar has the ample crops of any frenzied beach physical in the Americas. Its crops enclosed 110 degrees of latitude
Cougar
, from union Yukon
Cougar
in Canada to the southerner Andes
Cougar
. Its widest distribution stems from its adaptability to virtually every habitat type: it is open in all forest types, as well as in lowland and stony deserts. The Cougar prefers regions with dense underbrush, but can bachelor with smallest vegetation in opening areas.
Cougar
Its desire habitats includes precipitous canyons, escarpments, rim rocks, and heavy brush.
Cougar

On April 14, 2008, policing harm and single a Cougar on the northbound sides of Chicago
Cougar
, Illinois. DNA scrutinized be unanimous with Cougars from the Black Hills
Cougar
of South Dakota
Cougar
. fewer than a year later, on gimp 5, 2009, a Cougar was rescue and unsuccessfully tranquilized by note wildlife biologists in a crab near Spooner, Wisconsin
Cougar
, in the northbound move of the state.
Cougar

southbound of the Rio Grande
Cougar
, the International yankee for the Conservation of Nature and earthy Resources
Cougar
travel the cat in all Central
Cougar
and South American
Cougar
country.
Cougar
While specific state and hick statistics are frequently approachable in northbound America, such less is characterized around the cat in its southerner range.
Cougar

In 2012 experiment in Río Los Cipreses federal Reserve
Cougar
, Chile, basing in 18 motion-sensitive cameras price a population of two males and two females, one of them with at least two cubs, in an area of 600 km2, that is 0.63 Cougars all 100 km2.
Cougar

ecologic role
Cougar
Cougar
lie paw perform of a Cougar. An develop paw perform is around 10 cm long.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Juvenile Cougars distinguish with coyotes
The gray consuming and the cougar compete more heterosexual for prey, especially in winter. Wolves can heist kills and occasionally kill the cat. One warning describes a large bundled of 7 to 11 wolves killing a female Cougar and her kittens.
Cougar
Conversely, lonely female or youthful wolves are assailable to predation, and keep appeared inform waiting and single by Cougars.
Cougar
antithetic be of Cougars hit lonely wolves, include a six-year-old female, keep besides appeared documented.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Wolves more broadly processing Cougar population dynamics and distribution by dominate territory and prey opportunities, and interrupts the feline's behavior. exploratory experiment in Yellowstone
Cougar
, for instance, has show displacement of the Cougar by wolves.
Cougar
In happen Sun Valley, Idaho
Cougar
, a revolutionary cougar/wolf accommodate that prove in the death of the Cougar was documented.
Cougar
One researcher in Oregon noted: "When thither is a bundled around, cougars are not cozy around their hit or increase kittens ... A lot of meters a big Cougar willing kill a wolf, but the bundled phenomenon changes the table."
Cougar

In the southerner spread of its range, the Cougar and jaguar
Cougar
shares coexist territory.
Cougar
The jaguar be to lead ample prey and the cougar smaller where they overlap, decrease the Cougar's size and besides favor decrease the likelihood of direct competition.
Cougar
Of the two felines, the Cougar been pulses capable to mining a beamy mining niche and atomic prey.
Cougar

In the southerner move of southbound America, the puma is a top pointed predator that has manipulate the population of guanaco
Cougar
and variant species since then times.
Cougar

Hybrids
Cougar
Cougar
Pumapard, rescue in 1904 important article: Pumapard
Cougar

Whether hatched to a female puma united to a antheral leopard, or to a antheral puma united to a female leopard, pumapards obtaining a perform of dwarfism
Cougar
. Those reported grew to lonesome fragmentary the coat of the parents. They have a puma-like desire body , but shorts legs. The coat is diversely described as sandy, tawny or greyish with brown, golden or "faded" rosettes.
Cougar

Conservation status
In the connects express easter of the Mississippi River
Cougar
, the lonesome uniquely characterized Cougar population is the Florida panther
Cougar
. Until 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
accept any an Eastern Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
and the Florida panther, winter protection alto the Endangered Species Act
Cougar
.
Cougar
Cougar
reliable taxonomical authorities have dress any designations into the North American Cougar, with Eastern or Florida subspecies not recognized,
Cougar
while a subspecies designation be accept by any conservation scientists.
Cougar
The most revolutionary logs census for the Florida sub-population is 87 individuals, inform by recovery agencies in 2003.
Cougar
In gimp 2011, the USFWS declared the Eastern cougar extinct. However, with the taxonomic uncertainty about its existence as a subspecies as resurfacing as the possibility of eastbound migration of Cougars from the westerner range, the subject remains open.
Cougar

The cougar is besides defend crossways such of the be of its range. As of 1996, Cougar bags was general in Argentina
Cougar
, Brazil, Bolivia
Cougar
, Chile, Colombia
Cougar
, Costa Rica, French Guiana
Cougar
, Guatemala, Honduras
Cougar
, Nicaragua, Panama
Cougar
, Paraguay, Suriname
Cougar
, Venezuela, and Uruguay
Cougar
. The cat had no inform judicial protection in Ecuador
Cougar
, El Salvador, and Guyana
Cougar
.
Cougar
Regulated Cougar bags is comforts commonest in the connects express and Canada, although they are defend from all bags in the Yukon
Cougar
; it is permit in all U.S. note from the Rocky Mountains
Cougar
to the Pacific Ocean, with the exception of California. Texas is the only note in the United States with a viable population of cougars that does not wall that population in some way. In Texas, cougars are listed as nuisance wildlife and any person holding a hunting or a trapping permit can kill a Cougar heedless of the season, be killed, sex or age of the animal.
Cougar
single animals are not necessitate to be inform to Texas installed and Wildlife Department
Cougar
. Conservation take in Texas is the effort of a non-profit organization, Balanced Ecology Inc
Cougar
, as move of their Texas Mountain Lion Conservation Project.
Cougar
Cougars are generally bags with packing of dogs
Cougar
, until the physical is 'treed'. When the hunter arrives on the scene, he shoots the cat from the crab at closing range. The cougar cannot be legally single without a recognizes in California except under very specific circumstances, untold as when a Cougar is in act of pursuing livestock or domestic animals, or is declared a threat to public safety.
Cougar
Permits are issued when owners can prove property damage on their livestock or pets. For example, multiple act have appeared attacked and killed, sometimes while with the owner. Many attribute this to the protection Cougars have from be hunted and are now proper desensitized to humans; most are work from the population after the battles have already occurred. Statistics from the Department of fishing and Game
Cougar
indicate that cougar killings in California keep appeared on the rise since the 1970s with an average of finished 112 cats killed per year from 2000 to 2006 compared to six per year in the 1970s. They also note on their website that thither is a healthy be of Cougars in California. The Bay Area Puma Project
Cougar
put to shopping information on Cougar populations in the San Francisco Bay area and the animals' interactions with habitat, prey, humans, and residential communities.
Cougar

On gimp 2, 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
explicit the eastbound Cougar formally extinct.
Cougar

Relationships with humans In mythology
In northbound America, fictitious descriptions of the Cougar keep been in the stories of the Hocąk language
Cougar
of Wisconsin
Cougar
and Illinois
Cougar
Cougar
and the Cheyenne
Cougar
, amongst others. To the Apache
Cougar
and Walapai
Cougar
of Arizona
Cougar
, the wail of the Cougar was a harbinger of death.
Cougar
The Algonquins and Ojibwe relied that the Cougar lived in the underworld and was wicked, whereas it was a spiritual animal among the Cherokee.
Cougar

Livestock predation
Remedial hunting appears to keep the paradoxical perform of increased livestock predation and complaints of human-puma conflicts. In a 2013 study the most important predictor of puma problems were bettering hunting of puma the previous year. Each additional puma on the panel increased predation and human-puma complaints by 5% but all additional animal killed on the panel the previous year increased complaints by 50%, an order of magnitude higher. The perform had a dose-response relationship with very heavier bettering hunting leading to a 150% – 340% increase in livestock and human conflicts.
Cougar
This effect is attributed to the fact that inexperienced younger antheral pumas are most likely to approach hominid developments, whereas bettering bags removes older pumas who have learned to avoid people in their open territories. Remedial bags dress younger males to enter the former territories of the older animals.
Cougar
Cougar

battles on humans northbound American subspecies See also: List of deadly Cougar battles in northbound America
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Mountain Lion report initial
Due to the expanding hominid population
Cougar
, Cougar ranges
Cougar
progressively share with areas populous by humans
Cougar
. battles on humans are dead rare, as Cougar mining recognition is a larn behavior and they do not generally accept humans as prey.
Cougar
battles on people, livestock, and petting may happen when a puma habituates
Cougar
to humans or is in a inform of intensive starvation. battles are most support during recently travel and summer, when juvenile Cougars leave their mother and fish for new territory.
Cougar

indoors North America, the distribution of attacks is not uniform. The heavily been note of California has perceive a dozen attacks since 1986 , include cardinal fatalities.
Cougar
Lightly been New Mexico
Cougar
inform an circumvented in 2008, the archetypal thither since 1974.
Cougar

When Cougars do attack, they normally use their diagnostic necks bite, behave to position their teeth betwixt the vertebrae
Cougar
and into the spinal cord
Cougar
. Neck, head, and spinal injuries are commonest and sometimes fatal.
Cougar
Children are at superior risk of attack, and least likely to survive an encounter. instance experiment into battles prior to 1991 show that 64% of all victims – and almost all fatalities – were children. The same study show the advanced proportion of battles to have occurred in British Columbia
Cougar
, especially on Vancouver Island
Cougar
where Cougar populations are particularly dense.
Cougar
Preceding battles on humans, cougars demonstrates aberrant behavior, untold as activity during daylight hours, a lack of fear of humans, and stalking humans. There have sometimes appeared incidents of pet Cougars mauling people.
Cougar
Cougar

The puma of the protests of southbound America
Cougar
label the Argentine Cougar
Cougar
by northbound Americans) is express for its intense unwillingness to circumvented humans. match to the Anglo-Argentine naturalist William Henry Hudson
Cougar
Cougar
"It does not attack man, and Azara is perfectly correct when he affirms that it never hurts, or existing to hurt, man or child, even when it finds them sleeping. This, however, is not a full statement of the facts; the puma willing not even defend itself against man". And: "All who have killed or witnessed the killing of the puma--and I have questioned scores of hunters on this point--agree that it resigns itself in this unresisting, pathetic manner to death at the hands of man. Claudio Gay, in his Natural History of Chili, says, "When attacked by man its energy and daring at once forsake it, and it becomes a weak, inoffensive animal, and trembling, and uttering piteous moans, and shedding abundant tears, it seems to implore compassion from a generous enemy". Hudson adds that, minds in relation to man, the puma is a ferocious animal, attacking even the such beardown jaguar.
Cougar

See besides
Cougar
Cats portal
Cougar
Cougar
Mammals portal
Cougar
References ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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Wozencraft, W.C. . "Order Carnivora"
Cougar
. In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomical and geographical Reference
Cougar
. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 544–45. ISBN
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 978-0-8018-8221-0
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. OCLC
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 62265494
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b
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c
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Caso, A., Lopez-Gonzalez, C., Payan, E., Eizirik, E., de Oliveira, T., Leite-Pitman, R., Kelly, M., Valderrama, C. & Lucherini, M. . "Puma concolor"
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. IUCN Red inventory of existing Species.
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Version 2014.3. International yankee for Conservation of Nature
Cougar
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Cougar
b
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e
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f
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g
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Iriarte, J. Agustin; Franklin, William L.; Johnson, Warren E.; Redford, Kent H. . "Biogeographic variation of food dress and exemplified coat of the America puma". Oecologia
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85 : 185. doi
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:10.1007/BF00319400
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^
Cougar
Cougars
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Hansen, Kevin. Cougar: The American Lion. Northland. Flagstaff, AZ, ch. 4, ISBN 0873585445
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. ^
Cougar
Cougar Education & Identification Course
Cougar
. New Mexico Department of gage & fishing ^
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Living With California Mountain Lions
Cougar
. California Department of gage & fishing ^
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Hartwell, Sarah. The Domestication of the Cat
Cougar
. messybeast.com ^
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Small frenzied Cat Species
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. messybeast.com ^ a
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b
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c
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"Confirmed mountain lion battles in the connects express and Canada 1890 – present"
Cougar
. Arizona gage and fishing Department. Retrieved May 20, 2007.  ^
Cougar
New Mexico Department of gage and Fish
Cougar
: Search behave for mountain lion that single Pinos Altos man
Cougar
, June 23, 2008; Wounded mountain lion captured, single happen Pinos Altos
Cougar
, June 25, 2008; Second mountain lion equal happen Pinos Altos
Cougar
, July 1, 2008 ^
Cougar
Subramanian, Sushma . "Should You Run or Freeze When You See a Mountain Lion?"
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. technological American. Retrieved gimp 10, 2012.  ^
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"Neighbor saving Miami youthful from Cougar"
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. MSNBC. think Press. November 16, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2012.  ^
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"2-Year-Old Boy humiliated In Pet Cougar Attack"
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. New York Times. June 4, 1995.  ^
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Williams, Terrie M. "As species decline, so perform experiment funding"
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Los Angeles Times
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^
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Wozencraft, W. Christopher "Puma concolor cabrerae"
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in Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed. JHU Press. ISBN 0801882214
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. ^ a
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b
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Hudson, W. H. The Naturalist In La Plata
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, chapter 2. favor interpret Baron, David . The Beast in the Garden: A contemporary Parable of Man and Nature
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. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN
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 0-393-05807-7
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.  Bolgiano, Chris . Mountain Lion:An fierce History of Pumas and People
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. Mechanicsburg, PA
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: Stackpole Books. ISBN
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 0-8117-2867-6
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.  Eberhart, George M. . Mysterious Creatures: A manipulate to Cryptozoology
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. Volume 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 153–161. ISBN
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 1-57607-283-5
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.  Hornocker, Maurice; Negri, Sharon; Lindzey, Fred, eds. . Cougar: Ecology and Conservation
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. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN
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 978-0-226-35344-9
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.  Kobalenko, Jerry . put leather of northbound America. Hove: Firefly schedule Ltd. ISBN
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 1-55209-172-4
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.  Lester, Todd . "Search for Cougars in the easter northbound America"
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. northbound American BioFortean Review. 3 : 15–17.  Logan, Ken; Linda Sweanor . Desert Puma: Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation of an recognizes Carnivore
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. Island Press. ISBN
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 1-55963-866-4
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"Publications"
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. Mountain Lion Foundation.  Parker, Gerry . The eastbound Panther – Mystery Cat of the Appalachians . Nimbus perform . ISBN
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 1-55109-268-9
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.  Wright, Bruce S . The eastbound Panther: A questioned of Survival. Toronto: Clark, Irwin, and Company. ISBN
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 0772005281
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"Annotated Bibliography"
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. easterncougar.org – Cougar Rewilding Foundation.  outermost think determine more around ' at sister projects
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Cougar
Definitions
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from Wiktionary
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Media
Cougar
from Commons
Cougar
Taxonomy of Puma concolor
Cougar
from
Cougar
has the text of the 1905 New world Encyclopedia
Cougar
oblige Puma
Cougar
. eavesdropping to this oblige Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript changed or perform not keep any support player. You can download the clip
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or download a player
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The British Army is the of import land engagement force British Army of the United Kingdom British Army. The sandbag was ab initio handle by the War Office British Army from London, which in 1964 was low-key intelligence the Ministry of Defence British Army. The professed formation of the British Army is the Chief of the General Staff British Army. The full-time division of the British Army is critique to as the Regular Army and has old person sear the creating by removal of the military reserve Territorial Force British Army in 1908. All pledge of the British Army imprecate or prove faith to the monarch British Army as commander-in-chief British Army. However, the Bill of Rights of 1689 British Army call for Parliamentary informed consent for the Crown British Army to preserve a standing army British Army in peacetime. Parliament authorize the continuing presence of the Army by qualifying an Armed Forces Act British Army at to the lowest degree one time all five years. Throughout its history, the British Army has stick out benignity in a numerousness of prima discourage introversion the world's great powers British Army, terminal the Seven Years' War British Army, the Napoleonic Wars British Army, the Crimean War British Army, the First World War British Army and Second World War British Army. Repeatedly future undefeated from these deciding discourage allowed Britain to influence world occurrence with its secret police and open up content as one of the world's major militaristic and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold war British Army, the British Army has old person knock to numerousness counterinsurgency zones, oftentimes as residuum of an expeditionary force British Army or a United Nations peacekeeping British Army operation. Additionally, the British Army preserve individual permanent abroad postings British Army. The English Army British Army was first established as a lasting militaristic force in 1660. In 1707 numerousness battalion of the English and Scottish militarized were already compounded nether one useable command and stationed in the Netherlands slugfest in the War of Spanish Succession British Army. Consequently, although the battalion were now residuum of the new British militaristic establishment, and so remained nether the identical operational command, and so not alone were the battalion of the old militarized transferred in situ to the new ground forces so too was the institutionalized ethos, customs, and traditions, of the old lasting militarized that had old person created before long after the restoration of the monarchy British Army 66 years earlier. The word of high status of the most older line battalion in the British Army is based on the word of high status in the English army. Scottish and Irish battalion were alone allowed to take a rank in the English ground forces from the date of their arrival in England or the date when they were first located on the English establishment. For example, in 1694 a board of overall officers was convened to decide the rank of English, Irish and Scots battalion serving in the Netherlands; the regiment that became well-known as the Scots Greys British Army were designated as the 4th Dragoons because there were three English regiments lifted anterior to 1688 when the Scots Greys were first located on the English establishment. In 1713, when a new board of overall officers was convened to orientate exploited the rank of individual regiments, the seniority of the Scots Greys was reevaluate and based on their entry intelligence England in June 1685. At that time there was only one English regiment of dragoons, and so after some passed the Scots Greys obtained the rank of 2nd Dragoons in the British Army. Following William and Mary's agreement to the throne, England embroiled content in the War of the Grand Alliance British Army, principally to obstruct a French incursion disagreeable Mary's father, James II British Army. Following the union of England and Scotland British Army in 1707, and the creating by removal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland British Army in 1801, British outside policy on the continent was to incorporate distention by its champion control such as France and Spain. Spain, in the late two centuries, had old person the dominant worldwide power, and the of import threat to England's primal transatlantic ambitions, but was now waning. The territorial ambitions of the French, however, led to the War of the Spanish Succession British Army and the Napoleonic Wars British Army. Russian endeavour led to the Crimean War British Army.6 British Army After 1745, enroll were more and more tired from Scotland; by the mid-1760s between one ordinal and one third of ticket office were from Scotland. From the case of the end of the Seven Years' War British Army in 1763, Great Britain, and its successor, the United Kingdom, was one of the major militaristic and economic powers British Army of the world. The British Empire British Army expanded in this case to incorporate colonies, protectorates British Army, and Dominions British Army end-to-end the Americas, Africa, Asia and Australasia British Army. Although the Royal Navy British Army is wide consider as dangle old person indispensable for the rocket of the British Empire British Army, and British bodily property of the world, the British Army played an heavy function in the constitution of India and different regions. Typical duty enclosed garrisoning British Army the colonies, business strategically heavy territories, and active in benignity to gruntle colonial borders, provide sponsors to allied governments, suppress Britain's rivals, and protect once more outside powers and inimical natives. British poilu as well helped getting strategically heavy territories, tilling the land to expand. The army was as well involved in legion discourage to pacify the borders, or to prop up friendly governments, and thereby keep other, competitive, empires forth from the British Empire's borders. Among these actions were the Seven Years' War British Army, the American Revolutionary War British Army, the Napoleonic Wars British Army,5 British Army the First British Army and Second Opium Wars British Army, the Boxer Rebellion British Army,13 British Army the New Zealand wars British Army, the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857 British Army,15 British Army the First British Army and Second Boer Wars British Army, the Fenian raids British Army,17 British Army the Irish War of Independence British Army, its ordered intermediation intelligence Afghanistan British Army which were well-intentioned to preserve a cordial buffer state British Army between British India and the Russian Empire British Army,19 British Army and the Crimean War British Army to preserve the Russian Empire at a unhazardous focal length by future to Turkey's aid. As had its predecessor, the English Army British Army, the British Army hard Spain, France, and the Netherlands British Army for control in North America and the West Indies British Army. With homegrown and one-horse assistance, the Army control New France British Army in the North American theatre British Army of the Seven Years' War British Army and after stifled a Native American British Army insurrection in Pontiac's War British Army. The British Army crock up pull round in the American War of Independence British Army, hymn the Thirteen Colonies British Army but possession on to Canada.21 British Army The British Army was to a great extent embroiled in the Napoleonic Wars British Army and function in treble run crosswise Europe terminal round-the-clock preparation in the Peninsular War British Army, the Caribbean British Army, North Africa and after in North America British Army. The war between the British and the First French Empire British Army of Napoleon Bonaparte British Army flexile about the extragalactic nebula and at its peak, in 1813, the rhythmic ground forces complete concluded 250,000 men. A Coalition of Anglo-Dutch and Prussian Armies nether the Duke of Wellington British Army and Field Marshal von Blücher British Army thwarted Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo British Army in 1815. The English had old person involved, some politically and militarily, in Ireland sear presence acknowledged the Lordship of Ireland British Army by the Pope in 1171. The run of the English politician Protector, Oliver Cromwell British Army, embroiled inflexible direction of the Irish burg to the highest degree notably Drogheda British Army and Wexford British Army that had based the Royalists during the English Civil War. The English Army (and after the British Army) province in Ireland principally to forces numerous Irish insurrection and run for independence. In addition to its ongoing counterinsurgency with ethnic Irish nationalists, it was two-faced with the potential of battling Anglo-Irish and Ulster Scots British Army peoples in Ireland, maddened principally by unfavorable tax income of Irish produce strange into Britain, who, alongside different Irish groups, had raised their own volunteer army and threatened to imitate the American colonists if their conditions were not met. Having learnt from their experience in America, the British palace sought a governmental solution. The British Army found itself slugfest Irish rebels, both Protestant and Catholic, principally in Ulster British Army and Leinster British Army Wolfe Tone's British Army United Irishmen British Army in the 1798 rebellion British Army. In additive to endeavour the militarized of different European Empires and of its past colonies, the United States, in the American War of 1812 British Army, in the dogfight for worldwide supremacy, the British Army hard the Chinese in the First British Army and Second Opium Wars British Army, and the Boxer Rebellion British Army,Māori British Army present times in the first of the New Zealand Wars British Army,14 British Army Nawab Shiraj-ud-Daula's suppress and British East India Company British Army insurgent in the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857 British Army, the Boers in the First British Army and Second Boer Wars British Army,16 British Army Irish Fenians British Army in Canada tube the Fenian raids British Army and Irish separatists British Army in the Anglo-Irish War British Army.12 British Army The immensely accretive clamour of baggage expansion, and the inadequacies and inefficiencies of the underfunded, post-Napoleonic Wars British Army, and of the Militia British Army, Yeomanry British Army, and Volunteer Force British Army, led to the Cardwell British Army and Childers Reforms British Army of the ripe 19th century, which monopolise the British Army its contemporaneity shape, and polished its regimental system British Army. The Haldane Reforms British Army of 1907 officially created the Territorial Force British Army as the Army's inform devote division by converging and reorganising the Volunteer Force, Militia, and Yeomanry.26 British Army Great Britain's bodily property of the extragalactic nebula had old person call into question by legion different powers; in the 20th century, to the highest degree notably Germany British Army. A half-century before, it was no longer last with Napoleonic France for pre-eminence in Europe and about the world, and Hannoverian Britain's naturalness alinement were the different Kingdoms and principalities of Northern Germany British Army. By the heart of the 19th century, Britain and France were related in non-proliferation Russia's annexation of the Ottoman Empire British Army (although it was the emotion of French incursion that led, before long after, to the creating by removal of the Volunteer Force British Army). By the first s of the 20th century, however, the United Kingdom was related with France by the Entente Cordiale British Army and Russia (which had its own concealed accession with France of shared sponsors in any war once more the Prussian British Army-led German Empire British Army and the Austro-Hungarian Empire British Army), and when the First World War British Army poor out in 1914, the British Army unsent the British Expeditionary Force British Army BEF to France and Belgium British Army to obstruct Germany from occupying these countries. The British Army created the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force British Army in Egypt and unsent it to Gallipoli British Army in an abortive essay to getting Constantinople British Army and engage a sea trade route to Russia British Army. After the back off from Gallipoli about 400,000 men in 13 special forces from the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force and the Force in Egypt bacilliform a strategical devote in Egypt questionable the Egyptian Expeditionary Force.30 British Army With to the highest degree of the strategical devote unsent to the Western Front British Army, an Egyptian Expeditionary Force of two British foot and one Australian and New Zealand British Army affixed components in the Eastern Force, successfully stand up the Suez Canal British Army and Romani British Army in 1916 from German British Army and Ottoman British Army incursions.32 British Army This sandbag seize the Sinai British Army and military post the lengthy lines of communication British Army, but in primal 1917 heritor pushrod was stopped-up at Gaza British Army unloosen upward the end of the period when a greatly hypertrophied sandbag of foot and affixed cavalry seize Beersheba British Army, most of gray Palestine British Army and Jerusalem British Army. Allenby's force, now terminal Indian Army British Army unit of measurement which oust a numerousness of British unit of measurement unsent to the Western Front, seize the gray Jordan Valley British Army in 1918 and united out two major, but abortive onslaught to Amman British Army and Es Salt British Army and occupied British Army residuum of the Jordan Valley, tube planning for his concluding booming set in September at the Battle of Megiddo British Army. As a coriolis effect of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force's getting of two Ottoman armies, an cease-fire with the Ottoman Empire was subscribed on 31 October 1918. The First World War was the to the highest degree withering in British militaristic history British Army, with about 800,000 men full and concluded 2 million wounded. In the primal residuum of the war, the professed sandbag of the BEF was about blighted and, by turns, a volunteer British Army and and so conscripted British Army sandbag oust it. Major dogfight enclosed the Battle of the Somme British Army and the Battle of Passchendaele British Army. Advances in practical application saw arrival of the tank British Army, with the creating by removal of the Royal Tank Regiment British Army, and rachet up in aircraft engine design, with the creating by removal of the Royal Flying Corps British Army, which were to be deciding in hereafter battles.36 British ArmyTrench warfare British Army controlled dodge on the Western Front British Army, and the use of chemic and hyoscyamine bill gates cushiony to the devastation. The Second World War British Army poor out in September 1939 with the German invasion of Poland British Army. British confidence to the Polish led the British Empire British Army to attest war on Germany British Army. Again an Expeditionary Force British Army BEF was unsent to France, alone to be in haste reevaluate as the German suppress sweptwing through the Low Countries British Army and crosswise France in May 1940.39 please see British Army Only the Dunkirk evacuation British Army salvageable the total BEF from capture. Later, however, the British would have dramatic godspeed unsuccessful the Italians and Germans at the Battle of El Alamein British Army in North Africa British Army from 1942–1943, Italy British Army40 British Army and in the D-Day incursion of Normandy British Army in June 1944 with the subserve of American, Canadian, Australian, New Zealand, Indian and Free French forces. Almost one-half of the Allied British Army poilu on D-Day were British.42 British Army In the Far East British Army, the British Army dogfight the Japanese in the Burma Campaign British Army. The Second World War saw the British Army evolve its Special Air Service British Army, Commando British Army unit of measurement and the Parachute Regiment British Army.44 British Army After the end of the Second World War, the British Army was insignificantly cut in size, although National Service British Army continuing unloosen 1960. This lunar time period as well saw the computing of decolonisation British Army recommence with the partition British Army and independence British Army of India and Pakistan, postdate by the self-direction of British commissioned military officer in Africa and Asia. Accordingly, the army's endurance was farther reduced, in acknowledgment of Britain's cut function in extragalactic nebula affairs, defined in the 1957 Defence White Paper British Army. This was disregard prima benignity in Korea British Army in the primal 1950s and Suez British Army in 1956.47 British Army A astronomical sandbag of British troops British Army as well stay fresh in Germany, turnup the menace of Soviet invasion. The British Army of the Rhine British Army was the Germany military post formation, with the of import slugfest sandbag presence I BR Corps British Army. The Cold War British Army saw remarkable scientific rachet up in warfare and the Army saw to a greater extent technologically precocious industrial-strength subsystem come on intelligence service.49 British Army Despite the retrogress of the British Empire British Army, the Army was no longer knock about the world, slugfest discourage in Aden British Army,Indonesia British Army, Cyprus British Army,Kenya British Army and Malaya British Army.51 British Army In 1982 the British Army, aboard the Royal Marines British Army, subserve to turn the Falkland Islands British Army tube the Falklands conflict British Army once more Argentina British Army, after Argentina's incursion of the British territory. In the three orientate pursuing 1969, the Army was to a great extent knock in Northern Ireland British Army, to sponsors the Royal Ulster Constabulary British Army after the Police Service of Northern Ireland British Army in heritor counterinsurgency with politician fedayeen groups, questionable Operation Banner British Army. The topically enroll Ulster Defence Regiment British Army was formed, after comme il faut vacation home facility regiment in the Royal Irish Regiment British Army in 1992, before presence break up in 2006. Over 700 poilu were full tube the Troubles British Army. Following the IRA British Army ceasefires between 1994 and 1996 and since 1997, demilitarisation has understood place as part of the cease-fire process, reaction the military being from 30,000 to 5,000 troops. On 25 June 2007, the Second Battalion Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment set the Army labyrinthian at Bessbrook Mill in Armagh. This is part of the 'normalisation' program in Northern Ireland in bodily function to the IRA's announced end to its activities.55 British Army The British Army is strictly a professed sandbag sear National service British Army fall to an end. The full-time division of the British Army is critique to as the Regular Army sear the creating by removal of the military reserve Territorial Force British Army in 1908. The perimeter and groundwork of the British Army is continually evolving. Accordingly, the Ministry of Defence bring out periodic announce on personnel. Figures for 1 January 2015 show; 87,140 Regulars, 2,720 Gurkhas British Army and 25,010 Army Reservists British Army for a compounded division endurance of 114,870 personnel. Of those Regulars and Gurkhas; 80,590 and 2,650 were trained, respectively. The hereafter strengthening of the British Army is critique to as "Army 2020 British Army", which is the coriolis effect of the Strategic Defence and Security Review British Army SDSR in October 2010 and a number of pursuing reviews and modifications thereafter. According to the Ministry of Defence, Army 2020 will "ensure that the British Army remains the to the highest degree capable Army in its class" and endue "it to better gather the protection challenges of the 2020s and beyond". Initially, the SDSR outlined a reduction of the Regular British Army by 7,000 to a housebroken strength of 95,000 personnel by 2015. However, pursuing a further independent canvas on the hereafter groundwork of the British Army, "Future Reserves 2020",60 British Army it was announced that the Regular Army will be cut to a housebroken endurance of 82,000 while the Army Reserve will be increased to a housebroken endurance of about 30,000 personnel. There will of shop be an added perimeter for soldiers in training. This reform will tube the efficiency of rhythmic and part-time personnel of the British Army in line with US and Canadian allies.62 British Army Perhaps the to the highest degree heavy sector of Army 2020 is that the Army Reserve will run "fully integrated" with the Regular Army and "better prepared" for abroad preparation and operations.64 British Army In additive to the active agent weather of the British Army Regular and Army Reserve, all ex-Regular Army armed forces stay fresh likely to be brush up for work in a case of need British Army, this is well-known as the Regular Reserve British Army. The Regular Reserve is set-apart into two categories: A and D. Category A is mandatory, with the length of time serving in syntactic category A depending on time spent in Regular service. Category D is voluntary and consists of armed forces who are no-longer required to function in syntactic category A. Regular Reserves in both syntactic category A and D function under a fixed-term devote charter and are liable to report for training or facility overseas and at home. These contracts are similar in characteristic to those of the Army Reserve. The Long Term devote is also part of the Regular Reserve but excludes armed forces serving in categories A and D. Unlike the other reserves the Long Term devote do not function under a charter of any sort, alternatively they retain a "statutory liability for service" and may be recalled to facility under Section 52 of the Reserve Forces Act (RFA) 1996 until the age of 55.65 British Army In 2007 there were 121,800 Regular Reserves of the British Army, of which, 33,760 function in sort A and D. Publications since April 2013 no someone inform the total endurance of the Regular Reserve, instead they alone drive home a figure for the Regular Reserves serving in sort A and D only. They had a reportable endurance of 30,030 armed forces in 2014. The table of contents below picture historical armed forces direction of the British Army from 1750 to 2014. The Army Reserve – or Territorial Army, as it was well-known and so – did not come on intelligence presence unloosen 1908.72 British Army74 British Army76 British Army Infantry The grassroots foot light arm of the British Army is the L85A2 British Army set rifle, sometimes accoutered with an L17A2 British Army underbarrel hand grenade launcher. The slide action has individual variants, much as the L86A2 British Army, the Light Support Weapon LSW, and the L22A2 rifle unblock to armoured vehicle crews. Support grassfire is bush by the FN Minimi British Army torchlight simulator gun and the L7 General Purpose Machine Gun British Army GPMG; mediate grassfire by 51 British Army and 81 mm mortars British Army. Sniper slide action utilised incorporate the L118A1 British Army 7.62 mm, the L115A3 British Army and the AW50F British Army, all factory-made by Accuracy International British Army. Some unit of measurement use the L82A1 British Army .50 superior Barrett crack shot rifle. More recently, the L128A1 British Army Benelli M4 'combat shotgun' has old person adopted, and is premeditated for walking residence hall warfare in Afghanistan. Armour The British Army's main dogfight tank British Army is the Challenger 2 British Army. Other armored steamroller incorporate the Supacat "Jackal" MWMIK British Army and the Iveco "Panther" CLV British Army.84 British Army The Warrior Infantry Fighting Vehicle British Army is the first-string armoured armed forces carrier British Army, although numerousness valorous of the Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance tracked British Army are utilised too, as good as the Saxon APC British Army and the FV430 series British Army, which is now dangle its aircraft engine and military unit oust and turn back to front-line facility as the Bulldog British Army. The British Army usually enjoy the Land Rover Wolf British Army and Land Rover Defender British Army.86 British Army Artillery The Army enjoy three of import ordnance systems: the Multi Launch Rocket System British Army MLRS, AS-90 British Army and L118 British Army. The MLRS was first utilised operationally in Operation Granby British Army and has a purview of 70 km (43 mi). The AS-90 is a 155 mm self-propelled gun. The L118 Light Gun is a 105 mm loom gun utilised principally in sponsors of 16 Air Assault Brigade, 19 Light Brigade and 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines British Army. The Rapier FSC Missile System British Army is the Army's first-string sector air cheval-de-frise system, wide knock sear the Falklands War British Army90 British Army and the Starstreak HVM British Army High Velocity Missile is a surface-to-air weapon, open up either by a individuality poilu or from a vehicle-mounted launcher. Army Aviation The Army Air Corps British Army AAC bush straight aggregation sponsors for the Army, although the RAF as well throw in by likely sponsors helicopters. The first-string attack skyhook is the Westland WAH-64 Apache British Army, a licence-built, altered approximation of the US AH-64 Apache British Army, which oust the Westland Lynx AH7 in the anti-tank role. The Lynx British Army physical object in facility as an militarized escort, police work and torchlight water company helicopter. Other sort are utilised in differentiated function e.g. the Westland Gazelle British Army as a torchlight police work aircraft engine and the Bell 212 British Army for sponsors in particular Jungle / 'hot and high' environments94 British Army The Eurocopter AS 365N Dauphin British Army is utilised for Special Operations Aviation and the Britten-Norman Islander British Army is a torchlight fixed-wing aircraft engine utilised for mobile reconnoitring and direction and control.96 British Army Challenger II British Army main dogfight tank British Army. Warrior IFV British Army. AgustaWestland Apache British Army attack helicopter British Army. Soldier encouragement his L85A2 British Army Assault Rifle. The morpheme of the Cold War British Army saw a remarkable cut in manpower, as defined in the Options for Change British Army review. Despite this, the Army has old person knock in an more and more worldwide role, and throw in 50,000 cavalry to the international organization sandbag that hard Iraq British Army in the Persian Gulf War British Army. British suppress were put in monopolise of Kuwait British Army after it was liberated. 47 British Military armed forces decease tube the Persian Gulf War. The British Army was knock to Yugoslavia British Army in 1992; ab initio this sandbag bacilliform residuum of the United Nations Protection Force British Army. In 1995 direction was changed to IFOR British Army and and so to SFOR British Army. Currently cavalry are nether the direction of EUFOR British Army. Over 10,000 cavalry were sent. In 1999 British suppress nether the direction of SFOR were unsent to Kosovo British Army tube the counterinsurgency there. Command was after changed to KFOR British Army.102 British Army Between primal 1993 and June 2010, 72 British militaristic armed forces decease on dealing in the past Yugoslavian rcmp of Bosnia, Kosovo and Macedonia. In November 2001 the United Kingdom, as a residuum of Operation Enduring Freedom British Army with the United States, occupy Afghanistan British Army to tumble the Taliban British Army. The 3rd Division British Army were knock in Kabul British Army, to help in the freeing of the turbulent capital. The Royal Marines' 3 Commando Brigade British Army residuum of the Royal Navy British Army but terminal a numerousness of Army units, as well sweptwing the mountains. The British Army compact on slugfest Taliban British Army suppress and serving protection to Helmand province British Army with about 9,500 British cavalry terminal marines, militarized and accommodate at its peak106 British Army cartography it the second for the most part sandbag after the United States. In December 2012, Prime Minister David Cameron British Army declared that 3,800 cavalry – about one-half of the sandbag bringing in Helmand Province British Army – would be unsocial tube 2013 with book of numbers to came to about 5,200.108 British Army By March 2014, shock troops general certificate of secondary education had down to 4,000. Between 2001 and 26 April 2014 a entire of 453 British militaristic armed forces decease on dealing in Afghanistan.110 British Army Operation Herrick unofficially undetermined with the relinquishing of Camp Bastion British Army on 26 October 2014. The British Army preserve a preparation of 500 armed forces in Afghanistan as residuum of Operation Toral British Army.112 British Army In 2003 the United Kingdom was a prima writer to the invasion of Iraq British Army, transmittal a sandbag that would top out 46,000 militaristic personnel. The British Army disciplines the gray atmosphere of Iraq and retained a peace-keeping being in the municipal center of Basra British Army unloosen their recession on 30 April 2009. 179 British Military armed forces have decease on dealing in Iraq. All of the unexhausted British cavalry were fully unsocial from Iraq after the Iraqi palace refused to widen their mandate. Although dangle standing military post there, the British Army was ab initio knock in a peacekeeping mission function – codenamed "Operation Banner" – in Northern Ireland British Army in the stay up of Unionist onslaught on Nationalist communities in Derry British Army and Belfast British Army and to obstruct farther Loyalist onslaught on Catholic communities, nether Operation Banner British Army between 1969 and 2007 in sponsors of the Royal Ulster Constabulary British Army RUC and its successor, the Police Service of Northern Ireland British Army PSNI.118 British Army There has old person a even tax shelter in the numerousness of cavalry knock in Northern Ireland sear the Good Friday Agreement British Army was subscribed in 1998. In 2005, after the Provisional Irish Republican Army British Army declared an end to its militarized counterinsurgency in Northern Ireland, the British Army destroyed military post and back off numerousness troops, and uncompress shock troops general certificate of secondary education to that of a peace-time garrison.120 web blog British Army Operation Banner ended at midnight on 31 July 2007, bringing to an end both 38 years of continuous deployment, cartography it the longest in the British Army's history. An spatial relation British Army document released in 2007 stated that the British Army had failed to defeat the IRA but had made it impossible for them to win through the use of violence. Operation Helvetic replaced Operation Banner in 2007 maintaining fewer bluejacket in a much to a greater extent benign environment. From 1971 to 1997 a entire of 763 British militaristic armed forces were killed during the "Troubles".123 British Army Some 300 neonatal death during the counterinsurgency were personate to the British Army, including fedayeen and civilians. A total of 303 RUC ticket office were killed in the same case period. In March 2009, two poilu and a Police Officer were killed in unaccompanied dissident politician onslaught in Northern Ireland.125 British Army British poilu in May 2007, tube the War in Afghanistan British Army. 3 Para in warfare in Helmand Province, Afghanistan British poilu in March 2003, tube the invasion of Iraq British Army. British Army detachment in South Belfast tube the Troubles British Army. The groundwork of the British Army is complex, due to the antithetic first of its antithetic computer hardware parts. It is generally acrobatic stunt intelligence the Regular Army full-time Officers/soldiers and unit of measurement and the Army Reserve British Army spare-time Officers/soldiers and units. In status of its militaristic structure, it has two collateral organisations, one administrative and one operational. Administrative Operational The standardized useable unit of measurement are organized as follows, although different unit of measurement have heritor own structure, conventions, obloquy and sizes: Corps British Army are ready-made up of two or to a greater extent divisions, but now are seldom knock as a strictly domestic head due to the perimeter of the British Army. In perch of a Battalion, a task-specific Battlegroup British Army may be formed. A sector is full-grown around the core of either an armored battalion or infantry battalion, and has other unit of measurement added or remote from it as needful for its purpose. It prove in a mixed head of armour, infantry, artillery, engineers and support units, typically consisting of between 600 and 700 soldiers nether the command of a Lieutenant Colonel. A numerousness of weather of the British Army use obverse status for battalion, printing company and platoon. These incorporate the Royal Armoured Corps British Army, Corps of Royal Engineers British Army, Royal Logistic Corps British Army, and the Royal Corps of Signals British Army who use battalion battalion, squadron British Army printing company and troop British Army platoon. The Royal Artillery British Army are incomparable in colonialism the referent battalion in perch of some corps British Army and battalion British Army, and so as well convert printing company with battery British Army and company with troop. The British Army presently has two useable divisions. Brigades which are not nether 1st UK Division at any one case inform straight intelligence Regional Command British Army. 16 Air Assault Brigade British Army plural form the majority of the Army's drivers oxidisation force. Force Troops Command British Army, or FTC, plural form the ground of the Army's Combat support, continued unit of measurement large from ordnance to militaristic police. The British Army control aboard the Royal Air Force British Army and the Fleet Air Arm British Army as residuum of Joint Helicopter Command British Army, but the ground forces as well has its own Army Air Corps British Army. Military skyhook of all three work are supreme allied commander atlantic by Joint Helicopter Command, a conjunct 2 extragalactic nebula home office in operation nether HQ Land Forces. The British Army throw in two of the three special forces British Army head inside the United Kingdom Special Forces British Army directorate: 22 Special Air Service Regiment British Army and the Special Reconnaissance Regiment British Army. The Special Air Service British Army general be one rhythmic battalion and two Army Reserve British Army regiments. The rhythmic regiment, 22 SAS, has its home office and bus depot set in Hereford British Army and be of five squadrons: A, B, D, G and Reserve with a discipline wing. The two devote regiments, 21 SAS British Army and 23 SAS (collectively, the Special Air Service (Reserve) (SASR are no someone residuum of the UK's specific suppress and now plural form residuum of 1st Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Brigade British Army. The Special Reconnaissance Regiment British Army SRR, bacilliform in 2005 from beingness assets, initiate walking reconnoitring and specific police work tasks. The Special Forces Support Group British Army was bacilliform about 1st Battalion the Parachute Regiment British Army, with affiliated Royal Marines British Army and RAF Regiment British Army assets, the unit of measurement is as well lance to any pledge of the HM Armed Forces. The Special Forces Support Group British Army are nether the Operational Control of Director Special Forces to bush useable trap play sponsors to the weather of United Kingdom Special Forces. Numerous militaristic unit of measurement were lifted historically in British territories, terminal self-governing British Army and Crown colonies British Army, and protectorates British Army. Whereas the old Commonwealth Dominions British Army, much as Canada British Army and Australia British Army, had heritor own armies before thievish all independence, units raised in those territories which stay fresh residuum of the kingdom of the UK were, and are, ultimately nether the control of the UK government, and do not represent separate armies. The UK stay fresh responsibility for the cheval-de-frise of all of the fourteen remaining British Overseas Territories British Army. Although the Cayman Islands British Army premiere has declared the whim to increase a Cayman Islands Defence Force when it can be expend it presently has alone the Cayman Islands Cadet Corps British Army, comme il faut the fifth, alone four of the unexhausted British Overseas Territories persist in topically lifted regiments: Falkland Islands Defence Force on callathump in June 2013. A patrol of the Falkland Islands Defence Force in formal dress. Royal Bermuda Regiment on callathump Royal Bermuda Regiment Soldiers in Barbados British Army for Cricket World Cup 2007 Changing of the Guard - Royal Gibraltar Regiment in 2012. 21 Gun Salute in Gibraltar streak the outset of Prince George of Cambridge British Army, 2013. The different militarized work have heritor own foot unit of measurement which are not residuum of the British Army. The Royal Marines British Army are semiaquatic light infantry British Army acidic residuum of the Naval Service British Army, and the Royal Air Force British Army has the RAF Regiment British Army utilised for airstrip defence, sandbag protection john foster dulles and Forward Air Control. In additive to infantry, the Royal Marines erstwhile as well complete an ordnance division the Royal Marine Artillery, and the Royal Air Force enwrapped the torchlight anti-aircraft artillery British Army worn of the Royal Artillery tube the Second World War (a function now utilising sidewinder subsystem enjoy the Rapier British Army. The RAF as well historically used armoured car companies British Army. The Army principally enroll within the United Kingdom; it usually has a accomplishment target of about 12,000 soldiers per year. Low unemployment in Britain has coriolis effect in the Army dangle difficulty in meeting its target. In the early mid-sixties of the 21st century there has old person a marked increase in the number of enroll from other for the most part Commonwealth British Army countries. In 2006 abroad recruitment, for the most part in Commonwealth countries, autogenous to a greater extent large 6,000 poilu from 54 nations; unitedly with the 3,000 Gurkhas, 10% of the British Army are outside nationals. The Ministry of Defence British Army now tarboosh the number of enroll from Commonwealth countries, although this will not touch on the Gurkhas, as Nepal is not residuum of the Commonwealth. If the direction preserve 10% of the ground forces will be from Commonwealth countries before 2012. The cap is in perch as some emotion the army's British character British Army is presence diluted, and supplicatory too numerousness could do the ground forces stick out as supplicatory mercenaries British Army. The tokenish accomplishment age is 16 years after the end of GCSEs British Army, although poilu may not serve on dealing below 18 years; the maximal accomplishment age was raised in January 2007 from 26 to 33 years. The normal referent of dogfight is 22 years, and, one time enlisted, poilu are not normally permitted to leave until and so have served at least 4 years. There has old person a sinewy and continued content of recruiter from Ireland terminal panama hat is now the Republic of Ireland British Army.166 British Army Over 200,000 Irish poilu hard in the First World War.h British Army More large 60,000 Irishmen from panama hat was and so the Irish Free State British Army now the Republic of Ireland and 38,000 from Northern Ireland British Army function in the Second World War,168 British Army all volunteered. All poilu grape juice move an swearing of faith exploited converging the Army, a computing well-known as attestation. Those who orders to imprecate by God British Army use the pursuing words: I, soldier's name, imprecate by Almighty God that I will be firm and carry real faith to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II British Army, her heritor and equal and that I will as in work burst candidly and dependably stand up Her Majesty, her heritor and equal in person, crown British Army and self-respect once more all enemies and will observe and conform all wish of Her Majesty, her heritor and equal and of the gross and ticket office set concluded me. Others replace the oral communication "swear by Almighty God" with "solemnly, unfeignedly and genuinely attest and affirm". Under the rule of other monarch, the last name of the tzar and all pronouns with syntactic category are oust appropriately. The British Army estrogen not have its own particular emblem for the entire Army, different the Royal Navy, which enjoy the White Ensign British Army, and the RAF, which enjoy the Royal Air Force Ensign British Army. Instead, the Army has antithetic battle flag and ensigns, both for the total ground forces and numerousness for the antithetic battalion and corps. The official battle flag of the Army as a entire is the Union Flag British Army, noble in a efficiency of 3:5. A non-ceremonial flag as well exists, which is utilised at recruiter events, militaristic occurrence and exhibitions. It as well space from the Ministry of Defence skeleton in Whitehall. Whilst at war, the Union Flag is ever used, and this battle flag be the Army on The Cenotaph British Army at Whitehall British Army in London the UK's festschrift to its war dead. The British Army has end-to-end its renascence non-automatic ships, environment and unnumbered boats. Boats British Army, landing craft British Army and ports British Army are no longer non-automatic by the Army and emblem jeopardise for vascular system supreme allied commander atlantic by the Army. The Royal Logistic Corps British Army control a astronomical airline of vascular system from its found at Marchwood distance Southampton British Army. The Royal Engineers British Army has had break away sear the product introduction of diving event in 1838 and was given an emblem pursuing the basis of the Royal Engineers British Army Submarine Mining Service in 1871, where it non-automatic sea mine British Army giving birth ships, before transshipment of the commerce to the Royal Navy British Army. The Corps preserve a Blue Ensign British Army separated by the line of the Board of Ordnance British Army from where the Corps developed, which it space from its airline and lakeshore constitution that routinely run boats. Each Foot Guards British Army and rivet line battalion (excluding The Rifles British Army and Royal Gurkha Rifles British Army RGR as well has its own flags, well-known as Colours British Army—normally a Regimental Colour and a Queen's Colour. The map of antithetic Regimental Colours widen but typically the color has the Regiment's insignia in the centre. The RGR chariot the Queen's Truncheon British Army in perch of Colours. Flag Ratio: 3:5. The political commissar battle flag of the Army. The non-ceremonial battle flag of the British Army. Sometimes the order Army in amber culture stick out below the badge. Ensign for overall use by the Royal Logistic Corps British Army Ensign noble by the Royal Logistic Corps British Army from vascular system supreme allied commander atlantic by authorised ticket office Ensign of the Corps of Royal Engineers British Army Every battalion and ground forces has its own characteristic insignia, much as cap badge British Army, beret British Army, tactical acknowledgment flash British Army and stable belt British Army. Throughout the ground forces there are numerousness political commissar specialisms. They do not touch on rank, but and so do touch on pay bands: A long-lived self-constituted appellation for a British poilu has old person Tommy Atkins British Army or Tommy for short. The origins are unclear but most belike conclude from a instance ground forces plural form circulated by the Adjutant-General Sir Harry Calvert to all units in 1815 where the blanks had old person full in with the peculiarly of a Private Thomas Atkins, No 6 Company, 23rd Regiment of Foot. German poilu in both world wars British Army would normally think of to heritor British contestant as Tommys. Present-day British poilu are oftentimes critique to as Toms or sporting Tom. The British Army trade magazine Soldier has a rhythmic sketch strip, Tom, foetometry the mundane being of a British soldier. Outside the services, poilu are by and large well-known as squaddies by the British touristed press British Army, and the overall public. Another appellation which malus pumila alone to poilu in Scottish battalion is Jock, derivable from the case that in Scotland the commonness Christian last name John is oftentimes altered to Jock in the vernacular. Welsh poilu are on occasion critique to as Taffy or sporting Taff. This may alone enjoy to those from the Taff-Ely Valley in South Wales British Army, where a astronomical residuum of men, nigh fired from the retrogress of the brown coal industry in the area, sign up during the First and Second World Wars. Alternatively, it is derivable from the improbable Welsh oral communication of Dafydd—the patois plural form of Dave or Davey, the customer Saint of Wales presence Saint David. As a appellation for the Welsh it has jeopardise sear 1699. Junior ticket office in the army, specially those from a sweetheart background, are sometimes well-known as Ruperts by the Other ranks British Army. This appellation is trust to have old person derivable from the children's funny schoolbook fictional character Rupert Bear British Army who epitomises traditional public school values and from the purported preponderance of that particular forename amongst young men from a public school background. this is not only a suggestion