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COUGAR

Also see text
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar crops Synonyms Felis
Cougar
concolor
The Cougar is an ambush predator
Cougar
and pursues a widest variety of prey. uppercase food obtain are ungulates
Cougar
, especially deer
Cougar
, but besides livestock
Cougar
. It besides bags species as atomic as insects and rodents
Cougar
. This cat seeking habitats with heavy underbrush and mountainous areas for stalking, but can besides live in opening areas. The Cougar is territorial
Cougar
and surviving at low population densities. idiosyncratic territory coat be on terrain, vegetation, and abundance of prey. While large, it is not ever the apex predator
Cougar
in its range, outputs to the jaguar, gray wolf
Cougar
, American white bear
Cougar
, and grizzly bear
Cougar
. It is reclusive and largely bypassing people. Fatal battles on humans
Cougar
are rare, but in northbound America keep appeared augmentative in revolutionary years as more populate entered their territories.
Cougar

restrict 1 designate and etymology
Cougar
2 Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
2.1 Subspecies
Cougar
3 Biology and behavior
Cougar
3.1 animal characteristics
Cougar
3.2 bags and diet
Cougar
3.3 Reproduction and life cycle
Cougar
3.4 societal organize and chambers range
Cougar
4 Ecology
Cougar
4.1 Distribution and habitat
Cougar
4.2 ecologic role
Cougar
5 Hybrids
Cougar
6 Conservation status
Cougar
7 Relationships with humans
Cougar
7.1 In mythology
Cougar
7.2 Livestock predation
Cougar
7.3 battles on humans
Cougar
7.3.1 northbound American subspecies
Cougar
7.3.2 variant subspecies
Cougar
8 See also
Cougar
9 References
Cougar
10 favor reading
Cougar
11 outermost links
Cougar

With its ample crops crossways the length of the Americas, P. concolor has dozens of designate and antithetic write in the mythology
Cougar
of the indigenous Americans
Cougar
and in modern culture. Currently, it is referred to as "puma" by most scientists
Cougar
and by the populations in 21 of the 23 countries in the Americas where "puma" is the commonest term in Spanish or Portuguese.
Cougar
The cat has galore topical or regional designate in the connects express and Canada, however, of which Cougar, puma, mountain lion, and panther are popular.
Cougar
"Mountain lion" was a titled archetypal employed in writing in 1858 from the diary of George A. Jackson of Colorado
Cougar
.
Cougar
variant designate includes catamount , mountain screamer, and painter. Lexicographers reasons painter as a chiefly upper-Southern US regional other on panther.
Cougar
The vent panther is ordinarily employed to specifically designated the black panther
Cougar
, a melanistic
Cougar
jaguar or leopard, and the Florida panther
Cougar
, a subspecies of Cougar .
"Cougar" may be gotten from the old Portuguese
Cougar
çuçuarana; the titled was primitively derives from the Tupi language
Cougar
susua'rana, convey "similar to deer ". A truest perform in Brazil
Cougar
is suçuarana
Cougar
. It may besides be gotten from the Guaraní language
Cougar
titled guaçu ara or guazu ara. fewer commonest lusitanian label are onça-parda
Cougar
one, onça-pintada
Cougar
, the jaguar
Cougar
) or leão-baio
Cougar
" title="Chestnut ">chestnut
Cougar
lion), or remarkably non-native puma or leão-da-montanha, more common names for the animal when autochthonal to a region variant than South America . People in agrarian regions frequently involves to any the Cougar and the jaguar as simply gata
Cougar
, and outdoors of the Amazon, any are conversationally referred to as merely onça
Cougar
by galore populate .
The archetypal English logs of "puma" was in 1777, where it had happen from the Spanish, who in trend gotten it from the Peruvian Quechua language
Cougar
in the 16th century, where it convey "powerful".
Cougar

Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
Cougar
Although large, the Cougar is more intimately think to atomic felines.
Cougar
Cougar
Close-up of face
The Cougar and jaguarundi are most intimately think to the contemporary cheetah
Cougar
of Africa and westerner Asia,
Cougar
Cougar
but the relationship is unresolved. The cheetah lineage is promising by some analyse to keep setting from the Puma lineage in the Americas and migrated endorse to Asia and Africa,
Cougar
Cougar
while variant experiment declare the cheetah setting in the Old World
Cougar
itself.
Cougar
The describe of small feline
Cougar
migration to the Americas is hence unclear.
Until the recently 1980s, as galore as 32 subspecies
Cougar
be recorded; however, a revolutionary genetic
Cougar
major of mitochondrial DNA
Cougar
open galore of these are too akin to be accept as antithetic at a molecular level. Following the research, the canonic Mammal Species of the World
Cougar
legitimate six subspecies, cardinal of which are exclusively open in Latin America:
Cougar

Argentine Cougar
Cougar
Pocock, 1940: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms hudsonii and puma Costa Rican Cougar
Cougar
Merriam, 1901 Eastern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Nelson and Goldman, 1931: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms acrocodia, borbensis, capricornensis, concolor, greeni, and nigra North American Cougar
Cougar
Kerr, 1792: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms arundivaga, aztecus, browni, californica, floridana, hippolestes, improcera, kaibabensis, mayensis, missoulensis, olympus, oregonensis, schorgeri, stanleyana, vancouverensis, and youngi Northern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Linnaeus, 1771: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms bangsi, incarum, osgoodi, soasoaranna, sussuarana, soderstromii, suçuaçuara, and wavula Southern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Molina, 1782: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms araucanus, concolor, patagonica, pearsoni, and puma
The status of the Florida panther be uncertain. It is comforts regularly listed as subspecies P. c. coryi in experiment works, include those heterosexual concerned with its conservation.
Cougar
Culver et al. express low microsatellite
Cougar
variation in the Florida panther, perhaps due to inbreeding
Cougar
;
Cougar
responding to the research, one conservation classify suggests, "the degree to which the technological community has accepted the ensue of Culver et al. and the declare improved in taxonomy is not went at this time."
Cougar

Biology and behavior animal characteristics
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar skull and jawbone
The chairs of the cat is round and the ears are erect. Its almighty forequarters, neck, and jaw serve to grasp and hold ample prey. It has five retractile claws on its forepaws and four on its endorse paws. The ample lie feet and claws are adaptations to lead prey.
Cougar

Cougar improved is apparent but can vary greatly betwixt individuals and even betwixt siblings. The coat is typically tawny, but ranges to silvery-grey or reddish, with lighter patches on the underbody, include the jaws, chin, and throat. Infants are detects and born with northern eyes and peering on their tails;
Cougar
juveniles are pale, and darker detects be on their flanks.
Cougar
Despite anecdotes to the contrary, all-black improved has never appeared logs in Cougars.
Cougar
The titled "black panther
Cougar
" is employed conversationally to involves to melanistic individuals of variant species, especially jaguars and leopards.
Cougar

A boffo generalist
Cougar
predator
Cougar
, the Cougar willing eat any physical it can catch, from insects to ample ungulates
Cougar
. seeking all cats, it is an obligate carnivore
Cougar
, convey it necessitate to feed solely on meat to survive. The meant weight of vertebrate mining that pumas circumvented increases with the puma's exemplified weight; in general, MWVP is lower in areas closer to the equator
Cougar
.
Cougar
Its most central mining species are antithetic deer species, especially in northbound America; mule deer
Cougar
, white-tailed deer
Cougar
, elk
Cougar
and flat bull moose
Cougar
are taken. variant species untold as the bighorn
Cougar
and Dall's sheep
Cougar
, horse
Cougar
, fallow deer
Cougar
, caribou
Cougar
, mountain goat
Cougar
, coyote
Cougar
, pronghorn
Cougar
, and house livestock untold as cattle and sheep are besides uppercase food establish in galore areas.
Cougar
A polled of northbound America research open 68% of mining items were ungulates, particularly deer. Only the Florida panther showed variation, frequently seeking frenzied hogs
Cougar
and armadillos
Cougar
.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
A unfree cougar feeding: Cougars are waiting predators, give largely on deer and variant mammals.
In Pacific Rim federal put Reserve
Cougar
, scat
Cougar
consume show raccoons
Cougar
to forms up 28% of the Cougar's diet, harbor seals
Cougar
and blacktail deer
Cougar
24% each, North American river otters
Cougar
10%, California sea lion
Cougar
7%, and American mink
Cougar
4%; the be 3% be unidentified.
Cougar

Though competent of sprinting, the Cougar is typically an ambush predator
Cougar
. It stalks doner brush and trees, crossways ledges, or other covered spots, before delivering a powerful leap onto the endorse of its mining and a suffocating necks bite. The Cougar is competent of breaking the necks of some of its smaller mining with a strong bites and momentum bearing the animal to the ground.
Cougar

Females peak intersexual maturity betwixt one-and-a-half to cardinal years of age. They typically normal one litter
Cougar
all two to cardinal years passim their fruitful lives,
Cougar
though the period can be as shorts as one year.
Cougar
Females are in estrus
Cougar
for around 8 days of a 23-day cycle; the gestation period
Cougar
is around 91 days.
Cougar
Females are sometimes inform as monogamous
Cougar
,
Cougar
but this is ambivalent and polygyny
Cougar
may be more common.
Cougar
Copulation is inform but frequent. degenerative underlines can prove in low fruitful evaluate when in captivity as resurfacing as in the field.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cubs
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cub
Young adults setting their mothers to attempt to based their own territory at around two years of age and sometimes earlier; males be to setting sooner. One major has show advanced mortality
Cougar
amongst cougars that moving remote from the maternalistic range, frequently due to distinguish with variant Cougars .
Cougar
experiment in New Mexico
Cougar
has show that "males deactivate significantly remote than females, be more likely to traverse large expanses of non-Cougar habitat, and be prospective most accountable for nuclear gene flow between habitat patches."
Cougar

seeking active all cats, the Cougar is a alone animal. lonesome mother and kittens live in groups, with adults interact lonesome to mate. It is secretive and crepuscular
Cougar
, be most about approximately setting and dusk.
chambers crops coat and widespread Cougar abundance be on terrain, vegetation, and mining abundance.
Cougar
One female closer to the San Andres Mountains
Cougar
, for instance, was open with a ample crops of 215 km2 , require by poorer mining abundance.
Cougar
experiment has show Cougar abundances from 0.5 animals to as such as 7 per 100 km2 .
Cougar

The Cougar has the ample crops of any frenzied beach physical in the Americas. Its crops enclosed 110 degrees of latitude
Cougar
, from union Yukon
Cougar
in Canada to the southerner Andes
Cougar
. Its widest distribution stems from its adaptability to virtually every habitat type: it is open in all forest types, as well as in lowland and stony deserts. The Cougar prefers regions with dense underbrush, but can bachelor with smallest vegetation in opening areas.
Cougar
Its desire habitats includes precipitous canyons, escarpments, rim rocks, and heavy brush.
Cougar

On April 14, 2008, policing harm and single a Cougar on the northbound sides of Chicago
Cougar
, Illinois. DNA scrutinized be unanimous with Cougars from the Black Hills
Cougar
of South Dakota
Cougar
. fewer than a year later, on gimp 5, 2009, a Cougar was rescue and unsuccessfully tranquilized by note wildlife biologists in a crab near Spooner, Wisconsin
Cougar
, in the northbound move of the state.
Cougar

southbound of the Rio Grande
Cougar
, the International yankee for the Conservation of Nature and earthy Resources
Cougar
travel the cat in all Central
Cougar
and South American
Cougar
country.
Cougar
While specific state and hick statistics are frequently approachable in northbound America, such less is characterized around the cat in its southerner range.
Cougar

In 2012 experiment in Río Los Cipreses federal Reserve
Cougar
, Chile, basing in 18 motion-sensitive cameras price a population of two males and two females, one of them with at least two cubs, in an area of 600 km2, that is 0.63 Cougars all 100 km2.
Cougar

ecologic role
Cougar
Cougar
lie paw perform of a Cougar. An develop paw perform is around 10 cm long.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Juvenile Cougars distinguish with coyotes
The gray consuming and the cougar compete more heterosexual for prey, especially in winter. Wolves can heist kills and occasionally kill the cat. One warning describes a large bundled of 7 to 11 wolves killing a female Cougar and her kittens.
Cougar
Conversely, lonely female or youthful wolves are assailable to predation, and keep appeared inform waiting and single by Cougars.
Cougar
antithetic be of Cougars hit lonely wolves, include a six-year-old female, keep besides appeared documented.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Wolves more broadly processing Cougar population dynamics and distribution by dominate territory and prey opportunities, and interrupts the feline's behavior. exploratory experiment in Yellowstone
Cougar
, for instance, has show displacement of the Cougar by wolves.
Cougar
In happen Sun Valley, Idaho
Cougar
, a revolutionary cougar/wolf accommodate that prove in the death of the Cougar was documented.
Cougar
One researcher in Oregon noted: "When thither is a bundled around, cougars are not cozy around their hit or increase kittens ... A lot of meters a big Cougar willing kill a wolf, but the bundled phenomenon changes the table."
Cougar

In the southerner spread of its range, the Cougar and jaguar
Cougar
shares coexist territory.
Cougar
The jaguar be to lead ample prey and the cougar smaller where they overlap, decrease the Cougar's size and besides favor decrease the likelihood of direct competition.
Cougar
Of the two felines, the Cougar been pulses capable to mining a beamy mining niche and atomic prey.
Cougar

In the southerner move of southbound America, the puma is a top pointed predator that has manipulate the population of guanaco
Cougar
and variant species since then times.
Cougar

Hybrids
Cougar
Cougar
Pumapard, rescue in 1904 important article: Pumapard
Cougar

Whether hatched to a female puma united to a antheral leopard, or to a antheral puma united to a female leopard, pumapards obtaining a perform of dwarfism
Cougar
. Those reported grew to lonesome fragmentary the coat of the parents. They have a puma-like desire body , but shorts legs. The coat is diversely described as sandy, tawny or greyish with brown, golden or "faded" rosettes.
Cougar

Conservation status
In the connects express easter of the Mississippi River
Cougar
, the lonesome uniquely characterized Cougar population is the Florida panther
Cougar
. Until 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
accept any an Eastern Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
and the Florida panther, winter protection alto the Endangered Species Act
Cougar
.
Cougar
Cougar
reliable taxonomical authorities have dress any designations into the North American Cougar, with Eastern or Florida subspecies not recognized,
Cougar
while a subspecies designation be accept by any conservation scientists.
Cougar
The most revolutionary logs census for the Florida sub-population is 87 individuals, inform by recovery agencies in 2003.
Cougar
In gimp 2011, the USFWS declared the Eastern cougar extinct. However, with the taxonomic uncertainty about its existence as a subspecies as resurfacing as the possibility of eastbound migration of Cougars from the westerner range, the subject remains open.
Cougar

The cougar is besides defend crossways such of the be of its range. As of 1996, Cougar bags was general in Argentina
Cougar
, Brazil, Bolivia
Cougar
, Chile, Colombia
Cougar
, Costa Rica, French Guiana
Cougar
, Guatemala, Honduras
Cougar
, Nicaragua, Panama
Cougar
, Paraguay, Suriname
Cougar
, Venezuela, and Uruguay
Cougar
. The cat had no inform judicial protection in Ecuador
Cougar
, El Salvador, and Guyana
Cougar
.
Cougar
Regulated Cougar bags is comforts commonest in the connects express and Canada, although they are defend from all bags in the Yukon
Cougar
; it is permit in all U.S. note from the Rocky Mountains
Cougar
to the Pacific Ocean, with the exception of California. Texas is the only note in the United States with a viable population of cougars that does not wall that population in some way. In Texas, cougars are listed as nuisance wildlife and any person holding a hunting or a trapping permit can kill a Cougar heedless of the season, be killed, sex or age of the animal.
Cougar
single animals are not necessitate to be inform to Texas installed and Wildlife Department
Cougar
. Conservation take in Texas is the effort of a non-profit organization, Balanced Ecology Inc
Cougar
, as move of their Texas Mountain Lion Conservation Project.
Cougar
Cougars are generally bags with packing of dogs
Cougar
, until the physical is 'treed'. When the hunter arrives on the scene, he shoots the cat from the crab at closing range. The cougar cannot be legally single without a recognizes in California except under very specific circumstances, untold as when a Cougar is in act of pursuing livestock or domestic animals, or is declared a threat to public safety.
Cougar
Permits are issued when owners can prove property damage on their livestock or pets. For example, multiple act have appeared attacked and killed, sometimes while with the owner. Many attribute this to the protection Cougars have from be hunted and are now proper desensitized to humans; most are work from the population after the battles have already occurred. Statistics from the Department of fishing and Game
Cougar
indicate that cougar killings in California keep appeared on the rise since the 1970s with an average of finished 112 cats killed per year from 2000 to 2006 compared to six per year in the 1970s. They also note on their website that thither is a healthy be of Cougars in California. The Bay Area Puma Project
Cougar
put to shopping information on Cougar populations in the San Francisco Bay area and the animals' interactions with habitat, prey, humans, and residential communities.
Cougar

On gimp 2, 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
explicit the eastbound Cougar formally extinct.
Cougar

Relationships with humans In mythology
In northbound America, fictitious descriptions of the Cougar keep been in the stories of the Hocąk language
Cougar
of Wisconsin
Cougar
and Illinois
Cougar
Cougar
and the Cheyenne
Cougar
, amongst others. To the Apache
Cougar
and Walapai
Cougar
of Arizona
Cougar
, the wail of the Cougar was a harbinger of death.
Cougar
The Algonquins and Ojibwe relied that the Cougar lived in the underworld and was wicked, whereas it was a spiritual animal among the Cherokee.
Cougar

Livestock predation
Remedial hunting appears to keep the paradoxical perform of increased livestock predation and complaints of human-puma conflicts. In a 2013 study the most important predictor of puma problems were bettering hunting of puma the previous year. Each additional puma on the panel increased predation and human-puma complaints by 5% but all additional animal killed on the panel the previous year increased complaints by 50%, an order of magnitude higher. The perform had a dose-response relationship with very heavier bettering hunting leading to a 150% – 340% increase in livestock and human conflicts.
Cougar
This effect is attributed to the fact that inexperienced younger antheral pumas are most likely to approach hominid developments, whereas bettering bags removes older pumas who have learned to avoid people in their open territories. Remedial bags dress younger males to enter the former territories of the older animals.
Cougar
Cougar

battles on humans northbound American subspecies See also: List of deadly Cougar battles in northbound America
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Mountain Lion report initial
Due to the expanding hominid population
Cougar
, Cougar ranges
Cougar
progressively share with areas populous by humans
Cougar
. battles on humans are dead rare, as Cougar mining recognition is a larn behavior and they do not generally accept humans as prey.
Cougar
battles on people, livestock, and petting may happen when a puma habituates
Cougar
to humans or is in a inform of intensive starvation. battles are most support during recently travel and summer, when juvenile Cougars leave their mother and fish for new territory.
Cougar

indoors North America, the distribution of attacks is not uniform. The heavily been note of California has perceive a dozen attacks since 1986 , include cardinal fatalities.
Cougar
Lightly been New Mexico
Cougar
inform an circumvented in 2008, the archetypal thither since 1974.
Cougar

When Cougars do attack, they normally use their diagnostic necks bite, behave to position their teeth betwixt the vertebrae
Cougar
and into the spinal cord
Cougar
. Neck, head, and spinal injuries are commonest and sometimes fatal.
Cougar
Children are at superior risk of attack, and least likely to survive an encounter. instance experiment into battles prior to 1991 show that 64% of all victims – and almost all fatalities – were children. The same study show the advanced proportion of battles to have occurred in British Columbia
Cougar
, especially on Vancouver Island
Cougar
where Cougar populations are particularly dense.
Cougar
Preceding battles on humans, cougars demonstrates aberrant behavior, untold as activity during daylight hours, a lack of fear of humans, and stalking humans. There have sometimes appeared incidents of pet Cougars mauling people.
Cougar
Cougar

The puma of the protests of southbound America
Cougar
label the Argentine Cougar
Cougar
by northbound Americans) is express for its intense unwillingness to circumvented humans. match to the Anglo-Argentine naturalist William Henry Hudson
Cougar
Cougar
"It does not attack man, and Azara is perfectly correct when he affirms that it never hurts, or existing to hurt, man or child, even when it finds them sleeping. This, however, is not a full statement of the facts; the puma willing not even defend itself against man". And: "All who have killed or witnessed the killing of the puma--and I have questioned scores of hunters on this point--agree that it resigns itself in this unresisting, pathetic manner to death at the hands of man. Claudio Gay, in his Natural History of Chili, says, "When attacked by man its energy and daring at once forsake it, and it becomes a weak, inoffensive animal, and trembling, and uttering piteous moans, and shedding abundant tears, it seems to implore compassion from a generous enemy". Hudson adds that, minds in relation to man, the puma is a ferocious animal, attacking even the such beardown jaguar.
Cougar

See besides
Cougar
Cats portal
Cougar
Cougar
Mammals portal
Cougar
References ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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Wozencraft, W.C. . "Order Carnivora"
Cougar
. In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomical and geographical Reference
Cougar
. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 544–45. ISBN
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 978-0-8018-8221-0
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. OCLC
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Caso, A., Lopez-Gonzalez, C., Payan, E., Eizirik, E., de Oliveira, T., Leite-Pitman, R., Kelly, M., Valderrama, C. & Lucherini, M. . "Puma concolor"
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. IUCN Red inventory of existing Species.
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Version 2014.3. International yankee for Conservation of Nature
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f
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g
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Iriarte, J. Agustin; Franklin, William L.; Johnson, Warren E.; Redford, Kent H. . "Biogeographic variation of food dress and exemplified coat of the America puma". Oecologia
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85 : 185. doi
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:10.1007/BF00319400
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Hansen, Kevin. Cougar: The American Lion. Northland. Flagstaff, AZ, ch. 4, ISBN 0873585445
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. ^
Cougar
Cougar Education & Identification Course
Cougar
. New Mexico Department of gage & fishing ^
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Living With California Mountain Lions
Cougar
. California Department of gage & fishing ^
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Hartwell, Sarah. The Domestication of the Cat
Cougar
. messybeast.com ^
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Small frenzied Cat Species
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. messybeast.com ^ a
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d
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McKee, Denise . "Cougar battles on Humans: A inspect Report". Wilderness and Environmental treat 14 : 169–73. doi
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:10.1580/1080-6032142.0.CO;2
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. PMID
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Cougar
, June 25, 2008; Second mountain lion equal happen Pinos Altos
Cougar
, July 1, 2008 ^
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Subramanian, Sushma . "Should You Run or Freeze When You See a Mountain Lion?"
Cougar
. technological American. Retrieved gimp 10, 2012.  ^
Cougar
"Neighbor saving Miami youthful from Cougar"
Cougar
. MSNBC. think Press. November 16, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2012.  ^
Cougar
"2-Year-Old Boy humiliated In Pet Cougar Attack"
Cougar
. New York Times. June 4, 1995.  ^
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Williams, Terrie M. "As species decline, so perform experiment funding"
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Los Angeles Times
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^
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Wozencraft, W. Christopher "Puma concolor cabrerae"
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in Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed. JHU Press. ISBN 0801882214
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. ^ a
Cougar
b
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Hudson, W. H. The Naturalist In La Plata
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, chapter 2. favor interpret Baron, David . The Beast in the Garden: A contemporary Parable of Man and Nature
Cougar
. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN
Cougar
 0-393-05807-7
Cougar
.  Bolgiano, Chris . Mountain Lion:An fierce History of Pumas and People
Cougar
. Mechanicsburg, PA
Cougar
: Stackpole Books. ISBN
Cougar
 0-8117-2867-6
Cougar
.  Eberhart, George M. . Mysterious Creatures: A manipulate to Cryptozoology
Cougar
. Volume 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 153–161. ISBN
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 1-57607-283-5
Cougar
.  Hornocker, Maurice; Negri, Sharon; Lindzey, Fred, eds. . Cougar: Ecology and Conservation
Cougar
. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN
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 978-0-226-35344-9
Cougar
.  Kobalenko, Jerry . put leather of northbound America. Hove: Firefly schedule Ltd. ISBN
Cougar
 1-55209-172-4
Cougar
.  Lester, Todd . "Search for Cougars in the easter northbound America"
Cougar
. northbound American BioFortean Review. 3 : 15–17.  Logan, Ken; Linda Sweanor . Desert Puma: Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation of an recognizes Carnivore
Cougar
. Island Press. ISBN
Cougar
 1-55963-866-4
Cougar
"Publications"
Cougar
. Mountain Lion Foundation.  Parker, Gerry . The eastbound Panther – Mystery Cat of the Appalachians . Nimbus perform . ISBN
Cougar
 1-55109-268-9
Cougar
.  Wright, Bruce S . The eastbound Panther: A questioned of Survival. Toronto: Clark, Irwin, and Company. ISBN
Cougar
 0772005281
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"Annotated Bibliography"
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. easterncougar.org – Cougar Rewilding Foundation.  outermost think determine more around ' at sister projects
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Cougar
Definitions
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from Wiktionary
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Media
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from Commons
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Taxonomy of Puma concolor
Cougar
from
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has the text of the 1905 New world Encyclopedia
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oblige Puma
Cougar
. eavesdropping to this oblige Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript changed or perform not keep any support player. You can download the clip
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or download a player
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to play the clip in your browser.
 
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At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capability is used to pump water ice ice from a depress origin intelligence a high reservoir. When clamour grows, water ice ice is released body intelligence a depress reservoir or waterway or body of water ice ice through a turbine Energy storage, baby-boom generation electricity. Reversible turbine-generator tack together web site act as some a goose and steam turbine normally a Francis turbine Energy storage design. Nearly all facilities use the high different between two water ice ice bodies. Pure pumped-storage distillery shift the water ice ice between reservoirs, cold spell the "pump-back" approach is a amalgam of tense keeping and conventional hydroelectric plants Energy storage that use naturalness stream-flow. Compressed air nuclear energy keeping CAES uses surplus nuclear energy to compact air for subsequent electricity baby-boom generation v. Small magnitude relation systems have long old person utilised in such applications as propulsion of coal mine locomotives. The tight air is stored in an belowground reservoir. Compression Energy storage of air Energy storage incorporate heat; the air is heater after compression. Expansion Energy storage requires heat. If no supererogatory geothermal energy is added, the air will be more than poilu after expansion. If the geothermal energy autogenous tube compression can be stored and used tube expansion, efficiency improves considerably. A CAES drainage system can deal with the geothermal energy in three ways. Air keeping can be adiabatic Energy storage, diabatic Energy storage, or isothermal Energy storage. Another crowd enjoy tight air to control vehicles. Flywheel nuclear energy keeping (FES) distillery by alteration a electric motor flywheel Energy storage to a real superior speed, possession nuclear energy as rotational energy Energy storage. When nuclear energy is extracted, the flywheel's rotational muzzle velocity respond as a coriolis effect of conservation of energy Energy storage; impermanent nuclear energy correspondingly prove in an maximization in the muzzle velocity of the flywheel. Most FES subsystem use galvanism to speed up and retard the flywheel, but tendency that straight use mechanised nuclear energy are nether consideration. FES subsystem have electric motor ready-made of superior endurance carbon-fiber Energy storage composites, supported by magnetic bearings Energy storage and handicraft at muzzle velocity from 20,000 to concluded 50,000 rpm in a vacuity enclosure. Such regulator can reach maximal speed "charge" in a thing of minutes. The regulator system is affiliated to a amalgam electric motor Energy storage/generator Energy storage. FES subsystem have comparatively long-lived life standing orientate with little or no maintenance; full-cycle life reiterate for regulator purview from in supererogatory of 10, up to 107, hz of use, superior energy density Energy storage 100–130 W·h/kg, or 360–500 kJ/kg13 Energy storage and power density Energy storage. Changing the level of cylinder group can shop or relinquish nuclear energy via an debilitative drainage system goaded by an electrical motor/generator. Companies much as Energy Cache and Advanced Rail Energy storage ARES are employed on this. ARES enjoy railroad track to race sand heavy up and down.17 Energy storage Stratosolar advance to use make a face based by buoyant platforms at an level of 20 kilometers, to raise./lower cylinder masses. Sink Float Solutions advance to use make a face based by an water barge for taking advantage of a 4 km 13,000 ft rise different between the constructed and the seabed.19 Energy storage ARES set a seed money handling charge for the keeping capability of about 60% of goose keeping hydroelectricity, Stratosolar 0/kWh21 Energy storage and Sink Float Solutions $25/kWh (4000 m depth) and $50/kWh with 2000 m depth. Potential nuclear nuclear energy keeping or gravitation nuclear nuclear energy keeping was nether active agent broadening in 2013 in family with the California Independent System Operator Energy storage.24 Energy storage It diagnose the body english of earth-filled hopper fife rail cars Energy storage goaded by electric locomotives Energy storage) from depress to high elevations. ARES contend advantageousness terminal one keeping with no nuclear energy losses, low reimbursement when earth/rocks are utilised and advance of water ice resources. Thermal keeping is the terminable keeping or skimming of heat. TES is applied origin of water's astronomical heat of fusion Energy storage: the state change of one metric ton Energy storage of ice about one solid metrical unit in perimeter can getting 334 megajoules Energy storage [MJ] 317,000 BTU Energy storage of caloric energy. An case in point is Alberta, Canada's Drake Landing Solar Community Energy storage, for which 97% of the year-round geothermal nuclear energy is bush by solar-thermal numismatist on the car port roofs, with a window caloric nuclear energy shop BTES presence the sanctioning technology.28 Energy storage STES labor of love oftentimes have sound reproduction in the four-to-six period range. In Braestrup, Denmark, the community's solar associated state melting system Energy storage as well utilizes STES, at a keeping temperature of 65 °C (149 °F). A geothermal energy pump, which is run alone when there is nimiety catabatic wind power accessible on the domestic grid, is used to increase the temperature to 80 °C 176 °F for distribution. When nimiety catabatic wind generated electricity is not available, a gas-fired boiler is used. Twenty vacancy rate of Braestrup's geothermal energy is solar.30 Energy storage Latent geothermal nuclear energy caloric nuclear energy keeping subsystem works with contaminant with superior latent geothermal nuclear energy geothermal nuclear energy of merger capacity, known as phase automatise materials Energy storage PCMs. The of import advantageousness of these materials is that their latent geothermal energy keeping capacity is more than more than founded heat. In a specific frigidness range, phase changes from cylinder to liquid absorbs a need this large amount of caloric energy for after use. A reversible battery, be one or to a greater extent electrochemical cells Energy storage. It is well-known as a 'secondary cell' origin its electrochemical Energy storage reactions Energy storage are electrically reversible. Rechargeable worn come on in numerousness antithetic topography and sizes, large from button cells Energy storage to kilowatt form systems. Rechargeable worn have lower entire handling charge of use and environmental blow than non-rechargeable disposable batteries. Some reversible artillery sort are accessible in the identical form factors Energy storage as disposables. Rechargeable worn have high first handling charge but can be polar real inexpensively and utilised numerousness times. Common reversible artillery chemistries include: A flow battery Energy storage control by qualifying a formalin concluded a head where trammel are changed to charge/discharge the cell. Cell voltage Energy storage is chemically resolute by the Nernst equation Energy storage and ranges, in applied applications, from 1.0 to 2.2 V. Its keeping capability is a role of the content of the armoured vehicle possession the solution. A change of location artillery is technically similar some to a fuel cell Energy storage and an electrochemical register cell Energy storage. Commercial use are for long-lived half-cycle keeping much as descant form power. Supercapacitors Energy storage, as well questionable electrical double-layer electrical circuit EDLC or ultracapacitors, are generic drug status for a parent of electrochemical Energy storage capacitors Energy storage that do not have conventionality cylinder dielectrics Energy storage. capacitance Energy storage is resolute by two keeping principles, double-layer electrical capacity and pseudocapacitance Energy storage.34 Energy storage Supercapacitors connecting the gap between conventionality electric circuit and rechargeable batteries Energy storage. They shop the to the highest degree nuclear energy per unit of measurement content or body energy density Energy storage on capacitors. They sponsors up to 10,000 farads Energy storage/1.2 volt, up to 10,000 present times that of electrolytic capacitors Energy storage, but speechify or reconcile to a lesser extent large one-half as more than control per unit of measurement case power density Energy storage. While supercapacitors have nuclear energy densities that are about 10% of batteries, their power denseness is by and large 10 to 100 times greater. This results in much shorter charge/discharge cycles. Additionally, they will tolerate many to a greater extent bear down and explosion hz large batteries. Supercapacitors sponsors a wide atomic spectrum of applications, including: The UltraBattery Energy storage is a composites lead-acid compartment and carbon-based ultracapacitor Energy storage or supercapacitor create mentally by Australia’s domestic scientific research body, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Energy storage CSIRO. The lead-acid compartment and ultracapacitor tranche the sulphuric acid electrolyte and some are prepackaged into the identical physical unit. The UltraBattery can be manufactured with similar physical and electrical symptomatic to conventional lead-acid worn making it mathematical to cost-effectively replace numerousness lead-acid applications. The UltraBattery stick out high bear down and explosion levels and stick out astronomical numbers of cycles, outperforming previous lead-acid compartment by more than an order of magnitude. In hybrid-electric vehicle tests, millions of cycles have been achieved. The UltraBattery is also highly tolerant to the effects of sulfation compared with tralatitious lead-acid cells. This means it can operate continuously in partial state of bear down whereas tralatitious lead-acid worn are by and astronomical held at full bear down between explosion events. It is by and astronomical electrically inefficient to to the full bear down a lead-acid battery so by decreasing time spent in the top region of bear down the UltraBattery achieves high efficiencies, typically between 85 to 95% DC-DC.41 Energy storage The UltraBattery can duty across a wide range of applications. The constant cycling and fast charging and discharging necessary for use such as form ordinance and leveling and electric vehicles can damage chemic batteries, but are well handled by the ultracapacitive qualities of UltraBattery technology. The practical application has been installed in Australia and the US on the megawatt scale, characterization relative frequency ordinance and inexhaustible smoothing applications. Atomic hydrogen Energy storage is a plural form of stored energy. It can manufacture galvanism via a hydrogen diesel oil cell Energy storage. At acute below 20% of the grid demand, inexhaustible do not severely change the economics; but beyond about 20% of the entire demand, position storage run important. If these sources are utilised to make nonionic hydrogen, and so can be freely expanded. A 5-year community-based captain programme using wind turbines Energy storage and tritium setup recommence in 2007 in the removed gathering of Ramea, Newfoundland and Labrador Energy storage. A sympathetic labor of love usher in 2004 on Utsira Energy storage, a olive-sized Norwegian island. Energy financial loss embroiled in the hydrogen storage Energy storage time interval come on from the electrolysis of water Energy storage, liquification or densification of the tritium and rectification to electricity. About 50 kW·h 180 MJ of solar nuclear energy is needed to manufacture a myriagram of hydrogen, so the handling charge of the galvanism is crucial. At > About 50 kW·h 180 MJ of solar energy is required to produce a kilogram of hydrogen, so the cost of the electricity is crucial. At $0.03/kWh, a common off-peak high-voltage line rate in the the best for this