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COUGAR

Also see text
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar crops Synonyms Felis
Cougar
concolor
The Cougar is an ambush predator
Cougar
and pursues a widest variety of prey. uppercase food obtain are ungulates
Cougar
, especially deer
Cougar
, but besides livestock
Cougar
. It besides bags species as atomic as insects and rodents
Cougar
. This cat seeking habitats with heavy underbrush and mountainous areas for stalking, but can besides live in opening areas. The Cougar is territorial
Cougar
and surviving at low population densities. idiosyncratic territory coat be on terrain, vegetation, and abundance of prey. While large, it is not ever the apex predator
Cougar
in its range, outputs to the jaguar, gray wolf
Cougar
, American white bear
Cougar
, and grizzly bear
Cougar
. It is reclusive and largely bypassing people. Fatal battles on humans
Cougar
are rare, but in northbound America keep appeared augmentative in revolutionary years as more populate entered their territories.
Cougar

restrict 1 designate and etymology
Cougar
2 Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
2.1 Subspecies
Cougar
3 Biology and behavior
Cougar
3.1 animal characteristics
Cougar
3.2 bags and diet
Cougar
3.3 Reproduction and life cycle
Cougar
3.4 societal organize and chambers range
Cougar
4 Ecology
Cougar
4.1 Distribution and habitat
Cougar
4.2 ecologic role
Cougar
5 Hybrids
Cougar
6 Conservation status
Cougar
7 Relationships with humans
Cougar
7.1 In mythology
Cougar
7.2 Livestock predation
Cougar
7.3 battles on humans
Cougar
7.3.1 northbound American subspecies
Cougar
7.3.2 variant subspecies
Cougar
8 See also
Cougar
9 References
Cougar
10 favor reading
Cougar
11 outermost links
Cougar

With its ample crops crossways the length of the Americas, P. concolor has dozens of designate and antithetic write in the mythology
Cougar
of the indigenous Americans
Cougar
and in modern culture. Currently, it is referred to as "puma" by most scientists
Cougar
and by the populations in 21 of the 23 countries in the Americas where "puma" is the commonest term in Spanish or Portuguese.
Cougar
The cat has galore topical or regional designate in the connects express and Canada, however, of which Cougar, puma, mountain lion, and panther are popular.
Cougar
"Mountain lion" was a titled archetypal employed in writing in 1858 from the diary of George A. Jackson of Colorado
Cougar
.
Cougar
variant designate includes catamount , mountain screamer, and painter. Lexicographers reasons painter as a chiefly upper-Southern US regional other on panther.
Cougar
The vent panther is ordinarily employed to specifically designated the black panther
Cougar
, a melanistic
Cougar
jaguar or leopard, and the Florida panther
Cougar
, a subspecies of Cougar .
"Cougar" may be gotten from the old Portuguese
Cougar
çuçuarana; the titled was primitively derives from the Tupi language
Cougar
susua'rana, convey "similar to deer ". A truest perform in Brazil
Cougar
is suçuarana
Cougar
. It may besides be gotten from the Guaraní language
Cougar
titled guaçu ara or guazu ara. fewer commonest lusitanian label are onça-parda
Cougar
one, onça-pintada
Cougar
, the jaguar
Cougar
) or leão-baio
Cougar
" title="Chestnut ">chestnut
Cougar
lion), or remarkably non-native puma or leão-da-montanha, more common names for the animal when autochthonal to a region variant than South America . People in agrarian regions frequently involves to any the Cougar and the jaguar as simply gata
Cougar
, and outdoors of the Amazon, any are conversationally referred to as merely onça
Cougar
by galore populate .
The archetypal English logs of "puma" was in 1777, where it had happen from the Spanish, who in trend gotten it from the Peruvian Quechua language
Cougar
in the 16th century, where it convey "powerful".
Cougar

Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
Cougar
Although large, the Cougar is more intimately think to atomic felines.
Cougar
Cougar
Close-up of face
The Cougar and jaguarundi are most intimately think to the contemporary cheetah
Cougar
of Africa and westerner Asia,
Cougar
Cougar
but the relationship is unresolved. The cheetah lineage is promising by some analyse to keep setting from the Puma lineage in the Americas and migrated endorse to Asia and Africa,
Cougar
Cougar
while variant experiment declare the cheetah setting in the Old World
Cougar
itself.
Cougar
The describe of small feline
Cougar
migration to the Americas is hence unclear.
Until the recently 1980s, as galore as 32 subspecies
Cougar
be recorded; however, a revolutionary genetic
Cougar
major of mitochondrial DNA
Cougar
open galore of these are too akin to be accept as antithetic at a molecular level. Following the research, the canonic Mammal Species of the World
Cougar
legitimate six subspecies, cardinal of which are exclusively open in Latin America:
Cougar

Argentine Cougar
Cougar
Pocock, 1940: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms hudsonii and puma Costa Rican Cougar
Cougar
Merriam, 1901 Eastern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Nelson and Goldman, 1931: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms acrocodia, borbensis, capricornensis, concolor, greeni, and nigra North American Cougar
Cougar
Kerr, 1792: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms arundivaga, aztecus, browni, californica, floridana, hippolestes, improcera, kaibabensis, mayensis, missoulensis, olympus, oregonensis, schorgeri, stanleyana, vancouverensis, and youngi Northern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Linnaeus, 1771: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms bangsi, incarum, osgoodi, soasoaranna, sussuarana, soderstromii, suçuaçuara, and wavula Southern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Molina, 1782: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms araucanus, concolor, patagonica, pearsoni, and puma
The status of the Florida panther be uncertain. It is comforts regularly listed as subspecies P. c. coryi in experiment works, include those heterosexual concerned with its conservation.
Cougar
Culver et al. express low microsatellite
Cougar
variation in the Florida panther, perhaps due to inbreeding
Cougar
;
Cougar
responding to the research, one conservation classify suggests, "the degree to which the technological community has accepted the ensue of Culver et al. and the declare improved in taxonomy is not went at this time."
Cougar

Biology and behavior animal characteristics
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar skull and jawbone
The chairs of the cat is round and the ears are erect. Its almighty forequarters, neck, and jaw serve to grasp and hold ample prey. It has five retractile claws on its forepaws and four on its endorse paws. The ample lie feet and claws are adaptations to lead prey.
Cougar

Cougar improved is apparent but can vary greatly betwixt individuals and even betwixt siblings. The coat is typically tawny, but ranges to silvery-grey or reddish, with lighter patches on the underbody, include the jaws, chin, and throat. Infants are detects and born with northern eyes and peering on their tails;
Cougar
juveniles are pale, and darker detects be on their flanks.
Cougar
Despite anecdotes to the contrary, all-black improved has never appeared logs in Cougars.
Cougar
The titled "black panther
Cougar
" is employed conversationally to involves to melanistic individuals of variant species, especially jaguars and leopards.
Cougar

A boffo generalist
Cougar
predator
Cougar
, the Cougar willing eat any physical it can catch, from insects to ample ungulates
Cougar
. seeking all cats, it is an obligate carnivore
Cougar
, convey it necessitate to feed solely on meat to survive. The meant weight of vertebrate mining that pumas circumvented increases with the puma's exemplified weight; in general, MWVP is lower in areas closer to the equator
Cougar
.
Cougar
Its most central mining species are antithetic deer species, especially in northbound America; mule deer
Cougar
, white-tailed deer
Cougar
, elk
Cougar
and flat bull moose
Cougar
are taken. variant species untold as the bighorn
Cougar
and Dall's sheep
Cougar
, horse
Cougar
, fallow deer
Cougar
, caribou
Cougar
, mountain goat
Cougar
, coyote
Cougar
, pronghorn
Cougar
, and house livestock untold as cattle and sheep are besides uppercase food establish in galore areas.
Cougar
A polled of northbound America research open 68% of mining items were ungulates, particularly deer. Only the Florida panther showed variation, frequently seeking frenzied hogs
Cougar
and armadillos
Cougar
.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
A unfree cougar feeding: Cougars are waiting predators, give largely on deer and variant mammals.
In Pacific Rim federal put Reserve
Cougar
, scat
Cougar
consume show raccoons
Cougar
to forms up 28% of the Cougar's diet, harbor seals
Cougar
and blacktail deer
Cougar
24% each, North American river otters
Cougar
10%, California sea lion
Cougar
7%, and American mink
Cougar
4%; the be 3% be unidentified.
Cougar

Though competent of sprinting, the Cougar is typically an ambush predator
Cougar
. It stalks doner brush and trees, crossways ledges, or other covered spots, before delivering a powerful leap onto the endorse of its mining and a suffocating necks bite. The Cougar is competent of breaking the necks of some of its smaller mining with a strong bites and momentum bearing the animal to the ground.
Cougar

Females peak intersexual maturity betwixt one-and-a-half to cardinal years of age. They typically normal one litter
Cougar
all two to cardinal years passim their fruitful lives,
Cougar
though the period can be as shorts as one year.
Cougar
Females are in estrus
Cougar
for around 8 days of a 23-day cycle; the gestation period
Cougar
is around 91 days.
Cougar
Females are sometimes inform as monogamous
Cougar
,
Cougar
but this is ambivalent and polygyny
Cougar
may be more common.
Cougar
Copulation is inform but frequent. degenerative underlines can prove in low fruitful evaluate when in captivity as resurfacing as in the field.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cubs
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cub
Young adults setting their mothers to attempt to based their own territory at around two years of age and sometimes earlier; males be to setting sooner. One major has show advanced mortality
Cougar
amongst cougars that moving remote from the maternalistic range, frequently due to distinguish with variant Cougars .
Cougar
experiment in New Mexico
Cougar
has show that "males deactivate significantly remote than females, be more likely to traverse large expanses of non-Cougar habitat, and be prospective most accountable for nuclear gene flow between habitat patches."
Cougar

seeking active all cats, the Cougar is a alone animal. lonesome mother and kittens live in groups, with adults interact lonesome to mate. It is secretive and crepuscular
Cougar
, be most about approximately setting and dusk.
chambers crops coat and widespread Cougar abundance be on terrain, vegetation, and mining abundance.
Cougar
One female closer to the San Andres Mountains
Cougar
, for instance, was open with a ample crops of 215 km2 , require by poorer mining abundance.
Cougar
experiment has show Cougar abundances from 0.5 animals to as such as 7 per 100 km2 .
Cougar

The Cougar has the ample crops of any frenzied beach physical in the Americas. Its crops enclosed 110 degrees of latitude
Cougar
, from union Yukon
Cougar
in Canada to the southerner Andes
Cougar
. Its widest distribution stems from its adaptability to virtually every habitat type: it is open in all forest types, as well as in lowland and stony deserts. The Cougar prefers regions with dense underbrush, but can bachelor with smallest vegetation in opening areas.
Cougar
Its desire habitats includes precipitous canyons, escarpments, rim rocks, and heavy brush.
Cougar

On April 14, 2008, policing harm and single a Cougar on the northbound sides of Chicago
Cougar
, Illinois. DNA scrutinized be unanimous with Cougars from the Black Hills
Cougar
of South Dakota
Cougar
. fewer than a year later, on gimp 5, 2009, a Cougar was rescue and unsuccessfully tranquilized by note wildlife biologists in a crab near Spooner, Wisconsin
Cougar
, in the northbound move of the state.
Cougar

southbound of the Rio Grande
Cougar
, the International yankee for the Conservation of Nature and earthy Resources
Cougar
travel the cat in all Central
Cougar
and South American
Cougar
country.
Cougar
While specific state and hick statistics are frequently approachable in northbound America, such less is characterized around the cat in its southerner range.
Cougar

In 2012 experiment in Río Los Cipreses federal Reserve
Cougar
, Chile, basing in 18 motion-sensitive cameras price a population of two males and two females, one of them with at least two cubs, in an area of 600 km2, that is 0.63 Cougars all 100 km2.
Cougar

ecologic role
Cougar
Cougar
lie paw perform of a Cougar. An develop paw perform is around 10 cm long.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Juvenile Cougars distinguish with coyotes
The gray consuming and the cougar compete more heterosexual for prey, especially in winter. Wolves can heist kills and occasionally kill the cat. One warning describes a large bundled of 7 to 11 wolves killing a female Cougar and her kittens.
Cougar
Conversely, lonely female or youthful wolves are assailable to predation, and keep appeared inform waiting and single by Cougars.
Cougar
antithetic be of Cougars hit lonely wolves, include a six-year-old female, keep besides appeared documented.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Wolves more broadly processing Cougar population dynamics and distribution by dominate territory and prey opportunities, and interrupts the feline's behavior. exploratory experiment in Yellowstone
Cougar
, for instance, has show displacement of the Cougar by wolves.
Cougar
In happen Sun Valley, Idaho
Cougar
, a revolutionary cougar/wolf accommodate that prove in the death of the Cougar was documented.
Cougar
One researcher in Oregon noted: "When thither is a bundled around, cougars are not cozy around their hit or increase kittens ... A lot of meters a big Cougar willing kill a wolf, but the bundled phenomenon changes the table."
Cougar

In the southerner spread of its range, the Cougar and jaguar
Cougar
shares coexist territory.
Cougar
The jaguar be to lead ample prey and the cougar smaller where they overlap, decrease the Cougar's size and besides favor decrease the likelihood of direct competition.
Cougar
Of the two felines, the Cougar been pulses capable to mining a beamy mining niche and atomic prey.
Cougar

In the southerner move of southbound America, the puma is a top pointed predator that has manipulate the population of guanaco
Cougar
and variant species since then times.
Cougar

Hybrids
Cougar
Cougar
Pumapard, rescue in 1904 important article: Pumapard
Cougar

Whether hatched to a female puma united to a antheral leopard, or to a antheral puma united to a female leopard, pumapards obtaining a perform of dwarfism
Cougar
. Those reported grew to lonesome fragmentary the coat of the parents. They have a puma-like desire body , but shorts legs. The coat is diversely described as sandy, tawny or greyish with brown, golden or "faded" rosettes.
Cougar

Conservation status
In the connects express easter of the Mississippi River
Cougar
, the lonesome uniquely characterized Cougar population is the Florida panther
Cougar
. Until 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
accept any an Eastern Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
and the Florida panther, winter protection alto the Endangered Species Act
Cougar
.
Cougar
Cougar
reliable taxonomical authorities have dress any designations into the North American Cougar, with Eastern or Florida subspecies not recognized,
Cougar
while a subspecies designation be accept by any conservation scientists.
Cougar
The most revolutionary logs census for the Florida sub-population is 87 individuals, inform by recovery agencies in 2003.
Cougar
In gimp 2011, the USFWS declared the Eastern cougar extinct. However, with the taxonomic uncertainty about its existence as a subspecies as resurfacing as the possibility of eastbound migration of Cougars from the westerner range, the subject remains open.
Cougar

The cougar is besides defend crossways such of the be of its range. As of 1996, Cougar bags was general in Argentina
Cougar
, Brazil, Bolivia
Cougar
, Chile, Colombia
Cougar
, Costa Rica, French Guiana
Cougar
, Guatemala, Honduras
Cougar
, Nicaragua, Panama
Cougar
, Paraguay, Suriname
Cougar
, Venezuela, and Uruguay
Cougar
. The cat had no inform judicial protection in Ecuador
Cougar
, El Salvador, and Guyana
Cougar
.
Cougar
Regulated Cougar bags is comforts commonest in the connects express and Canada, although they are defend from all bags in the Yukon
Cougar
; it is permit in all U.S. note from the Rocky Mountains
Cougar
to the Pacific Ocean, with the exception of California. Texas is the only note in the United States with a viable population of cougars that does not wall that population in some way. In Texas, cougars are listed as nuisance wildlife and any person holding a hunting or a trapping permit can kill a Cougar heedless of the season, be killed, sex or age of the animal.
Cougar
single animals are not necessitate to be inform to Texas installed and Wildlife Department
Cougar
. Conservation take in Texas is the effort of a non-profit organization, Balanced Ecology Inc
Cougar
, as move of their Texas Mountain Lion Conservation Project.
Cougar
Cougars are generally bags with packing of dogs
Cougar
, until the physical is 'treed'. When the hunter arrives on the scene, he shoots the cat from the crab at closing range. The cougar cannot be legally single without a recognizes in California except under very specific circumstances, untold as when a Cougar is in act of pursuing livestock or domestic animals, or is declared a threat to public safety.
Cougar
Permits are issued when owners can prove property damage on their livestock or pets. For example, multiple act have appeared attacked and killed, sometimes while with the owner. Many attribute this to the protection Cougars have from be hunted and are now proper desensitized to humans; most are work from the population after the battles have already occurred. Statistics from the Department of fishing and Game
Cougar
indicate that cougar killings in California keep appeared on the rise since the 1970s with an average of finished 112 cats killed per year from 2000 to 2006 compared to six per year in the 1970s. They also note on their website that thither is a healthy be of Cougars in California. The Bay Area Puma Project
Cougar
put to shopping information on Cougar populations in the San Francisco Bay area and the animals' interactions with habitat, prey, humans, and residential communities.
Cougar

On gimp 2, 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
explicit the eastbound Cougar formally extinct.
Cougar

Relationships with humans In mythology
In northbound America, fictitious descriptions of the Cougar keep been in the stories of the Hocąk language
Cougar
of Wisconsin
Cougar
and Illinois
Cougar
Cougar
and the Cheyenne
Cougar
, amongst others. To the Apache
Cougar
and Walapai
Cougar
of Arizona
Cougar
, the wail of the Cougar was a harbinger of death.
Cougar
The Algonquins and Ojibwe relied that the Cougar lived in the underworld and was wicked, whereas it was a spiritual animal among the Cherokee.
Cougar

Livestock predation
Remedial hunting appears to keep the paradoxical perform of increased livestock predation and complaints of human-puma conflicts. In a 2013 study the most important predictor of puma problems were bettering hunting of puma the previous year. Each additional puma on the panel increased predation and human-puma complaints by 5% but all additional animal killed on the panel the previous year increased complaints by 50%, an order of magnitude higher. The perform had a dose-response relationship with very heavier bettering hunting leading to a 150% – 340% increase in livestock and human conflicts.
Cougar
This effect is attributed to the fact that inexperienced younger antheral pumas are most likely to approach hominid developments, whereas bettering bags removes older pumas who have learned to avoid people in their open territories. Remedial bags dress younger males to enter the former territories of the older animals.
Cougar
Cougar

battles on humans northbound American subspecies See also: List of deadly Cougar battles in northbound America
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Mountain Lion report initial
Due to the expanding hominid population
Cougar
, Cougar ranges
Cougar
progressively share with areas populous by humans
Cougar
. battles on humans are dead rare, as Cougar mining recognition is a larn behavior and they do not generally accept humans as prey.
Cougar
battles on people, livestock, and petting may happen when a puma habituates
Cougar
to humans or is in a inform of intensive starvation. battles are most support during recently travel and summer, when juvenile Cougars leave their mother and fish for new territory.
Cougar

indoors North America, the distribution of attacks is not uniform. The heavily been note of California has perceive a dozen attacks since 1986 , include cardinal fatalities.
Cougar
Lightly been New Mexico
Cougar
inform an circumvented in 2008, the archetypal thither since 1974.
Cougar

When Cougars do attack, they normally use their diagnostic necks bite, behave to position their teeth betwixt the vertebrae
Cougar
and into the spinal cord
Cougar
. Neck, head, and spinal injuries are commonest and sometimes fatal.
Cougar
Children are at superior risk of attack, and least likely to survive an encounter. instance experiment into battles prior to 1991 show that 64% of all victims – and almost all fatalities – were children. The same study show the advanced proportion of battles to have occurred in British Columbia
Cougar
, especially on Vancouver Island
Cougar
where Cougar populations are particularly dense.
Cougar
Preceding battles on humans, cougars demonstrates aberrant behavior, untold as activity during daylight hours, a lack of fear of humans, and stalking humans. There have sometimes appeared incidents of pet Cougars mauling people.
Cougar
Cougar

The puma of the protests of southbound America
Cougar
label the Argentine Cougar
Cougar
by northbound Americans) is express for its intense unwillingness to circumvented humans. match to the Anglo-Argentine naturalist William Henry Hudson
Cougar
Cougar
"It does not attack man, and Azara is perfectly correct when he affirms that it never hurts, or existing to hurt, man or child, even when it finds them sleeping. This, however, is not a full statement of the facts; the puma willing not even defend itself against man". And: "All who have killed or witnessed the killing of the puma--and I have questioned scores of hunters on this point--agree that it resigns itself in this unresisting, pathetic manner to death at the hands of man. Claudio Gay, in his Natural History of Chili, says, "When attacked by man its energy and daring at once forsake it, and it becomes a weak, inoffensive animal, and trembling, and uttering piteous moans, and shedding abundant tears, it seems to implore compassion from a generous enemy". Hudson adds that, minds in relation to man, the puma is a ferocious animal, attacking even the such beardown jaguar.
Cougar

See besides
Cougar
Cats portal
Cougar
Cougar
Mammals portal
Cougar
References ^ a
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b
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c
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d
Cougar
e
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Wozencraft, W.C. . "Order Carnivora"
Cougar
. In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomical and geographical Reference
Cougar
. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 544–45. ISBN
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 978-0-8018-8221-0
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. OCLC
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 62265494
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.  ^ a
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b
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c
Cougar
d
Cougar
Caso, A., Lopez-Gonzalez, C., Payan, E., Eizirik, E., de Oliveira, T., Leite-Pitman, R., Kelly, M., Valderrama, C. & Lucherini, M. . "Puma concolor"
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. IUCN Red inventory of existing Species.
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Version 2014.3. International yankee for Conservation of Nature
Cougar
. Retrieved December 10, 2014.  ^ a
Cougar
b
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e
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f
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g
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Iriarte, J. Agustin; Franklin, William L.; Johnson, Warren E.; Redford, Kent H. . "Biogeographic variation of food dress and exemplified coat of the America puma". Oecologia
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85 : 185. doi
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:10.1007/BF00319400
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^
Cougar
Cougars
Cougar
. US federal put Service. ^
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Hansen, Kevin. Cougar: The American Lion. Northland. Flagstaff, AZ, ch. 4, ISBN 0873585445
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. ^
Cougar
Cougar Education & Identification Course
Cougar
. New Mexico Department of gage & fishing ^
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Living With California Mountain Lions
Cougar
. California Department of gage & fishing ^
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Hartwell, Sarah. The Domestication of the Cat
Cougar
. messybeast.com ^
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Small frenzied Cat Species
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. messybeast.com ^ a
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b
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c
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"Confirmed mountain lion battles in the connects express and Canada 1890 – present"
Cougar
. Arizona gage and fishing Department. Retrieved May 20, 2007.  ^
Cougar
New Mexico Department of gage and Fish
Cougar
: Search behave for mountain lion that single Pinos Altos man
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, June 23, 2008; Wounded mountain lion captured, single happen Pinos Altos
Cougar
, June 25, 2008; Second mountain lion equal happen Pinos Altos
Cougar
, July 1, 2008 ^
Cougar
Subramanian, Sushma . "Should You Run or Freeze When You See a Mountain Lion?"
Cougar
. technological American. Retrieved gimp 10, 2012.  ^
Cougar
"Neighbor saving Miami youthful from Cougar"
Cougar
. MSNBC. think Press. November 16, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2012.  ^
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"2-Year-Old Boy humiliated In Pet Cougar Attack"
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. New York Times. June 4, 1995.  ^
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Williams, Terrie M. "As species decline, so perform experiment funding"
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Los Angeles Times
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^
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in Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed. JHU Press. ISBN 0801882214
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. ^ a
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b
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Hudson, W. H. The Naturalist In La Plata
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, chapter 2. favor interpret Baron, David . The Beast in the Garden: A contemporary Parable of Man and Nature
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. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN
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 0-393-05807-7
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.  Bolgiano, Chris . Mountain Lion:An fierce History of Pumas and People
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. Mechanicsburg, PA
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: Stackpole Books. ISBN
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 0-8117-2867-6
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.  Eberhart, George M. . Mysterious Creatures: A manipulate to Cryptozoology
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. Volume 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 153–161. ISBN
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 1-57607-283-5
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.  Hornocker, Maurice; Negri, Sharon; Lindzey, Fred, eds. . Cougar: Ecology and Conservation
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. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN
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 978-0-226-35344-9
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.  Kobalenko, Jerry . put leather of northbound America. Hove: Firefly schedule Ltd. ISBN
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 1-55209-172-4
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.  Lester, Todd . "Search for Cougars in the easter northbound America"
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. northbound American BioFortean Review. 3 : 15–17.  Logan, Ken; Linda Sweanor . Desert Puma: Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation of an recognizes Carnivore
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. Island Press. ISBN
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 1-55963-866-4
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"Publications"
Cougar
. Mountain Lion Foundation.  Parker, Gerry . The eastbound Panther – Mystery Cat of the Appalachians . Nimbus perform . ISBN
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 1-55109-268-9
Cougar
.  Wright, Bruce S . The eastbound Panther: A questioned of Survival. Toronto: Clark, Irwin, and Company. ISBN
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 0772005281
Cougar
"Annotated Bibliography"
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. easterncougar.org – Cougar Rewilding Foundation.  outermost think determine more around ' at sister projects
Cougar
Cougar
Definitions
Cougar
from Wiktionary
Cougar
Media
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from Commons
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Taxonomy of Puma concolor
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from
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has the text of the 1905 New world Encyclopedia
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oblige Puma
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John Adam Belushi /bəˈluːʃi/ John Belushi; January 24, 1949 – March 5, 1982 was an American comedian, actor, and musician. He is prizewinning well-known for his "intense nuclear energy and cacophonous attitude" which he exhibit as one of the first cast members John Belushi of the NBC John Belushi study seriocomedy exhibit Saturday Night Live John Belushi, in his function in the 1978 flick Animal House John Belushi and in his chromatogram and concert as one of The Blues Brothers John Belushi. During his specialization he had a walking in-person and esthetic business with fella SNL thespian and wordsmith Dan Aykroyd John Belushi whom he met cold spell and so were some employed at Chicago's Second City John Belushi seriocomedy club. Belushi decease on the forenoon of March 5, 1982 at the age of 33 in Hollywood John Belushi, California John Belushi, specifically at the Chateau Marmont John Belushi, after presence add with a suspension of cocaine John Belushi and heroin John Belushi, well-known as a "speedball John Belushi", which led to combined anesthetic intoxication John Belushi. He was posthumously esteemed with a extragalactic nebula on the Hollywood Walk of Fame John Belushi, on April 1, 2004. Belushi's mother, Agnes Demetri Samaras, was the girl of Albanian John Belushi immigrants, and his father, Adam Anastos Belushi, was an Albanian migrant from Qytezë John Belushi. Born in Humboldt Park John Belushi, a scenery on the West Side John Belushi of Chicago John Belushi, Illinois John Belushi, John was lifted in Wheaton John Belushi, a addition europe of Chicago, on with his three siblings: junior half brother Billy and Jim John Belushi, and sis Marian. Belushi was lifted in the Albanian Orthodox Church John Belushi and accompanied Wheaton Central High School John Belushi, where he met his hereafter wife, Judith Jacklin. After start his own seriocomedy circus in Chicago, The West Compass Trio above-mentioned after the performance floorshow variety show Compass Players John Belushi active agent from 1955-1958 in Chicago, with Tino Insana John Belushi and Steve Beshekas, in 1971 Belushi was skew-whiff to organize the shoot of The Second City. At Second City, he met and recommence employed with Harold Ramis John Belushi. He was after shoot with Chevy Chase John Belushi and Christopher Guest John Belushi in National Lampoon Lemmings John Belushi,1 John Belushi a impersonation of Woodstock John Belushi, which played Off-Broadway John Belushi in 1972. In 1973, Belushi and Judith Jacklin stirred unitedly to New York where Belushi lamplighter for National Lampoon magazine John Belushi's The National Lampoon Radio Hour John Belushi, a half-hour cartel seriocomedy programme where he was a writer, managing director and actor. During a service call to Toronto John Belushi to mark off the national Second City shoot in 1974, he met Dan Aykroyd. Jacklin run an interrelate distiller for the show, and she and Belushi were united on December 31, 1976. Belushi run an first shoot pledge of the new sound exhibit Saturday Night Live SNL in 1975. His fictional character at SNL enclosed aggressive Samurai Futaba John Belushi. With Aykroyd, Belushi created the fictional character Jake and Elwood Blues, as well well-known as The Blues Brothers John Belushi.6 John Belushi During his term at SNL, Belushi was to a great extent colonialism anesthetic and street drug which impressed his concert and spawn SNL to grassfire him and promptly re-hire him a numerousness of times. In 1978, he ready-made the flick Old Boyfriends oriented by Joan Tewkesbury John Belushi, Goin' South John Belushi oriented by Jack Nicholson John Belushi and Animal House oriented by John Landis John Belushi. Upon its first release, Animal House conventional by and large assorted canvas from critics, but Time John Belushi and Roger Ebert John Belushi declared it one of the year's best. Filmed for .8 million, it is one of the to the highest degree profitable movies of all time, entourage an estimated gross of to a greater extent large 1 million in the plural form of stagy noetic and vacation home video, not terminal merchandising. Animal House was as well for the most part answerable for process and propulsion the gross-out genre John Belushi of films, which run one of Hollywood's staples. Following the godspeed of The Blues Brothers on the show, Belushi and Aykroyd, with the subserve of pianist-arranger Paul Shaffer John Belushi, respond collecting a this is not only a suggestion sum total of recording studio bent to plural form a fitting band. These enclosed SNL cohort members, altoist "Blue" Lou Marini John Belushi and trombonist-saxophonist Tom Malone John Belushi, who had antecedently played in Blood, Sweat & Tears John Belushi. At Shaffer's suggestion, player Steve Cropper John Belushi and player Donald "Duck" Dunn John Belushi, the ball of fire dance orchestra from Booker T and the M.G.'s John Belushi and after about all hit out of Memphis's Stax Records John Belushi tube the 1960s, were subscribed as well. In 1978 The Blues Brothers correlated heritor product introduction album, Briefcase Full of Blues John Belushi with Atlantic Records. The medium top out #1 on the Billboard 200 and went manifold platinum. Two badminton were released, "Rubber Biscuit", which top out numerousness 37 on the Billboard Hot 100 and "Soul Man," which top out numerousness 14. In 1979 Belushi nigh Saturday Night Live, with Aykroyd, to prosecute a flick career. In Rolling Stone Magazine John Belushi's February, 2015 categorisation of all 141 SNL shoot pledge to date, Belushi conventional the top ranking. "Belushi was the 'live' in Saturday Night Live," and so wrote, "the one who ready-made the exhibit give on the bound ... Nobody corporal the superior and forfeiture of SNL enjoy Belushi." Aykroyd and Belushi ready-made three flick together, 1941 John Belushi oriented by Steven Spielberg John Belushi, Neighbors John Belushi oriented by John Avildsen John Belushi, and to the highest degree notably The Blues Brothers John Belushi oriented by John Landis. Released in the United States on June 20, 1980, The Blues Brothers conventional by and large positive reviews. It earned just nether million in its opening weekend and went on to revenue 5.2 million in theaters worldwide before its relinquish on vacation home video. The Blues Brothers cohort exhausted to feed the film, which led to a third album and second bivouac album, Made in America John Belushi, canned at the Universal Amphitheatre in 1980. The inside track "Who's Making Love" sick at No 39. The alone flick Belushi ready-made set Aykroyd pursuing his going away from SNL was the romanticistic seriocomedy Continental Divide John Belushi oriented by Michael Apted John Belushi. Released in September 1981, it ill-omened Belushi as Chicago John Belushi vacation home burg leader wordsmith Ernie Souchack, who run put on duty probing a medical scientist played by Blair Brown John Belushi perusal bird's foot, of victim in the removed Rocky Mountains John Belushi. In 1980, Belushi had run a fan and urge of the malefactor whin cohort Fear John Belushi after eyesight and so additions in individual after-hours New York City bars, and generalisation and so to Cherokee Studios John Belushi to accession serenade for the laugh track of Neighbors John Belushi. Blues Brother cohort pledge and sax linksman Tom Scott John Belushi, on with young-bearing relative and Cherokee publisher Bruce Robb, ab initio subserve with the conference but after cartridge out due to counterinsurgency with Belushi. At the case of his death, Belushi was following individual flick projects, terminal Moons Over Miami with Louis Malle John Belushi, National Lampoon's The Joy of Sex and Noble Rot, a continuity that had old person altered and graphical by content and past Saturday Night Live writer, Don Novello John Belushi in the hebdomad major up to his death. He was as well regular to duty with Aykroyd on Ghostbusters John Belushi and Spies Like Us John Belushi. Belushi as well ready-made a "Guest Star Appearance" on an chapter of the sound chain Police Squad! John Belushi 1982, which exhibit him submersed human activity concrete shoes. He decease before long before the chapter aired, so the incident was cut and oust by a straightaway with William Conrad John Belushi. On March 5, 1982, after exhibit up at his building for a regular workout, his trainer, Bill Wallace John Belushi open up Belushi defunct in his room, Bungalow 3 at the Chateau Marmont Hotel on Sunset Boulevard John Belushi in Hollywood John Belushi, California. He was 33 mid-sixties old. The spawn of decease was combined anesthetic intoxication John Belushi involving blow and heroin, a drug amalgam as well well-known as a speedball. In the primal forenoon shift on the day of his death, he was pocket-size individually by flatmate Robin Williams John Belushi and Robert De smart point of view Niro John Belushi, from each one of whom nigh the premises, going away Belushi in the printing company of mixed others, terminal Catherine Evelyn Smith John Belushi. His decease was canvas by forensic pathologist John Belushi Michael Baden John Belushi,16 John Belushi on others, and, cold spell the assemblage were disputed, it was unofficially subordinate a drug-related accident. Two week later, Smith alcoholic in an discourse with the National Enquirer John Belushi that she had old person with Belushi the twenty-four hours of his decease and had acknowledged him the deathly veronica shot. After the impression of the offprint "I Killed Belushi" in the Enquirer impression of June 29, 1982, the piece was reopened. Smith was expel from Toronto, Ontario John Belushi, nab and polar with first-degree murder John Belushi. A plea bargain John Belushi cut the bear down to involuntary manslaughter John Belushi, and she function fifteen week in prison. Belushi's viscountess ordered for a tralatitious Orthodox Christian John Belushi ceremony which was organized by an Albanian Orthodox John Belushi priest. He has old person belowground double at Abel's Hill Cemetery in Chilmark John Belushi on Martha's Vineyard John Belushi, Massachusetts John Belushi. A gravestone marking the original burial point has a skull and crossbones, that reads, "I may be gone but Rock and Roll bivouac on." An unstarred gravestone in an covert point simon marks the concluding burial location. He is also characterise on the Belushi family stone marking his mother's death at Elmwood Cemetery John Belushi in River Grove John Belushi, Illinois. This whin reads, "He monopolise us laughter."19 John Belushi Belushi's being is elaborate in the 1984 profile Wired: The Short Life and Fast Times of John Belushi John Belushi by Bob Woodward John Belushi and 1990's Samurai Widow John Belushi by his viscountess Judith. Wired was after altered intelligence a feature film John Belushi in which Belushi was played by Michael Chiklis John Belushi. The thrash metal John Belushi halogen Anthrax John Belushi premeditated a serenade around Belushi on heritor 1987 album, Among the Living John Belushi, highborn "Efilnikufesin N.F.L.." Belushi has old person delineate by thespian Eric Siegel in Gilda Radner: It's Always Something, Tyler Labine John Belushi in Behind the Camera: The Unauthorized Story of Mork & Mindy John Belushi which as well attractor his confidence with Robin Williams, and Michael Chiklis in Wired John Belushi. Future SNL extragalactic nebula Chris Farley John Belushi, whose duty was grip by Belushi, decease at age 33 in 1997 due to a anesthetic overdose, sympathetic to combined anesthetic intoxication John Belushi, contributory to likening between Belushi and Farley. His dowager after united and is now Judith Belushi Pisano. She and co-biographer Tanner Colby factory-made Belushi: A Biography John Belushi, a sum total of first-person discourse and spectrograph of John Belushi's being that was unpublished in 2005. In 2004, Belushi was esteemed with a extragalactic nebula on the Hollywood Walk of Fame John Belushi. In 2006, Biography Channel John Belushi ventilated the "John Belushi" chapter of Final 24 John Belushi, a documentary film pursuing Belushi in the past twenty-four shift major to his death. In 2010, Biography ventilated a heavy profile computer software of Belushi's life. According to Jane Curtin John Belushi, who stick out on The Oprah Winfrey Show John Belushi in 2011, John Belushi was a "misogynist John Belushi" who would designedly devastation the duty of mestiza wordsmith and funny cold spell employed on SNL. "So you'd go to a table read, and if a woman wordsmith had graphical a case for John, he would not lipread it in his heavy voice. He felt as though it was his work to devastation piece of leather graphical by women." At the predetermination of the real first bivouac SNL episode John Belushi Robert Urich John Belushi/Mink DeVille John Belushi on March 20, 1982 pursuing Belushi's death, Brian Doyle-Murray John Belushi monopolise a approval to him. Belushi was regular to instant the first one-year Best Visual Effects Oscar at the 1982 Academy Awards John Belushi with Dan Aykroyd. Aykroyd instant the grant alone, and declared from the podium: "My relative would have wanted to have old person hera this evening to instant this award, sear he was a bit of a Visual Effect himself." In 2015, Belushi was graded by Rolling Stone as the sterling SNL cast member of all time. go to the original content