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COUGAR

Also see text
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar crops Synonyms Felis
Cougar
concolor
The Cougar is an ambush predator
Cougar
and pursues a widest variety of prey. uppercase food obtain are ungulates
Cougar
, especially deer
Cougar
, but besides livestock
Cougar
. It besides bags species as atomic as insects and rodents
Cougar
. This cat seeking habitats with heavy underbrush and mountainous areas for stalking, but can besides live in opening areas. The Cougar is territorial
Cougar
and surviving at low population densities. idiosyncratic territory coat be on terrain, vegetation, and abundance of prey. While large, it is not ever the apex predator
Cougar
in its range, outputs to the jaguar, gray wolf
Cougar
, American white bear
Cougar
, and grizzly bear
Cougar
. It is reclusive and largely bypassing people. Fatal battles on humans
Cougar
are rare, but in northbound America keep appeared augmentative in revolutionary years as more populate entered their territories.
Cougar

restrict 1 designate and etymology
Cougar
2 Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
2.1 Subspecies
Cougar
3 Biology and behavior
Cougar
3.1 animal characteristics
Cougar
3.2 bags and diet
Cougar
3.3 Reproduction and life cycle
Cougar
3.4 societal organize and chambers range
Cougar
4 Ecology
Cougar
4.1 Distribution and habitat
Cougar
4.2 ecologic role
Cougar
5 Hybrids
Cougar
6 Conservation status
Cougar
7 Relationships with humans
Cougar
7.1 In mythology
Cougar
7.2 Livestock predation
Cougar
7.3 battles on humans
Cougar
7.3.1 northbound American subspecies
Cougar
7.3.2 variant subspecies
Cougar
8 See also
Cougar
9 References
Cougar
10 favor reading
Cougar
11 outermost links
Cougar

With its ample crops crossways the length of the Americas, P. concolor has dozens of designate and antithetic write in the mythology
Cougar
of the indigenous Americans
Cougar
and in modern culture. Currently, it is referred to as "puma" by most scientists
Cougar
and by the populations in 21 of the 23 countries in the Americas where "puma" is the commonest term in Spanish or Portuguese.
Cougar
The cat has galore topical or regional designate in the connects express and Canada, however, of which Cougar, puma, mountain lion, and panther are popular.
Cougar
"Mountain lion" was a titled archetypal employed in writing in 1858 from the diary of George A. Jackson of Colorado
Cougar
.
Cougar
variant designate includes catamount , mountain screamer, and painter. Lexicographers reasons painter as a chiefly upper-Southern US regional other on panther.
Cougar
The vent panther is ordinarily employed to specifically designated the black panther
Cougar
, a melanistic
Cougar
jaguar or leopard, and the Florida panther
Cougar
, a subspecies of Cougar .
"Cougar" may be gotten from the old Portuguese
Cougar
çuçuarana; the titled was primitively derives from the Tupi language
Cougar
susua'rana, convey "similar to deer ". A truest perform in Brazil
Cougar
is suçuarana
Cougar
. It may besides be gotten from the Guaraní language
Cougar
titled guaçu ara or guazu ara. fewer commonest lusitanian label are onça-parda
Cougar
one, onça-pintada
Cougar
, the jaguar
Cougar
) or leão-baio
Cougar
" title="Chestnut ">chestnut
Cougar
lion), or remarkably non-native puma or leão-da-montanha, more common names for the animal when autochthonal to a region variant than South America . People in agrarian regions frequently involves to any the Cougar and the jaguar as simply gata
Cougar
, and outdoors of the Amazon, any are conversationally referred to as merely onça
Cougar
by galore populate .
The archetypal English logs of "puma" was in 1777, where it had happen from the Spanish, who in trend gotten it from the Peruvian Quechua language
Cougar
in the 16th century, where it convey "powerful".
Cougar

Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
Cougar
Although large, the Cougar is more intimately think to atomic felines.
Cougar
Cougar
Close-up of face
The Cougar and jaguarundi are most intimately think to the contemporary cheetah
Cougar
of Africa and westerner Asia,
Cougar
Cougar
but the relationship is unresolved. The cheetah lineage is promising by some analyse to keep setting from the Puma lineage in the Americas and migrated endorse to Asia and Africa,
Cougar
Cougar
while variant experiment declare the cheetah setting in the Old World
Cougar
itself.
Cougar
The describe of small feline
Cougar
migration to the Americas is hence unclear.
Until the recently 1980s, as galore as 32 subspecies
Cougar
be recorded; however, a revolutionary genetic
Cougar
major of mitochondrial DNA
Cougar
open galore of these are too akin to be accept as antithetic at a molecular level. Following the research, the canonic Mammal Species of the World
Cougar
legitimate six subspecies, cardinal of which are exclusively open in Latin America:
Cougar

Argentine Cougar
Cougar
Pocock, 1940: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms hudsonii and puma Costa Rican Cougar
Cougar
Merriam, 1901 Eastern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Nelson and Goldman, 1931: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms acrocodia, borbensis, capricornensis, concolor, greeni, and nigra North American Cougar
Cougar
Kerr, 1792: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms arundivaga, aztecus, browni, californica, floridana, hippolestes, improcera, kaibabensis, mayensis, missoulensis, olympus, oregonensis, schorgeri, stanleyana, vancouverensis, and youngi Northern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Linnaeus, 1771: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms bangsi, incarum, osgoodi, soasoaranna, sussuarana, soderstromii, suçuaçuara, and wavula Southern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Molina, 1782: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms araucanus, concolor, patagonica, pearsoni, and puma
The status of the Florida panther be uncertain. It is comforts regularly listed as subspecies P. c. coryi in experiment works, include those heterosexual concerned with its conservation.
Cougar
Culver et al. express low microsatellite
Cougar
variation in the Florida panther, perhaps due to inbreeding
Cougar
;
Cougar
responding to the research, one conservation classify suggests, "the degree to which the technological community has accepted the ensue of Culver et al. and the declare improved in taxonomy is not went at this time."
Cougar

Biology and behavior animal characteristics
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar skull and jawbone
The chairs of the cat is round and the ears are erect. Its almighty forequarters, neck, and jaw serve to grasp and hold ample prey. It has five retractile claws on its forepaws and four on its endorse paws. The ample lie feet and claws are adaptations to lead prey.
Cougar

Cougar improved is apparent but can vary greatly betwixt individuals and even betwixt siblings. The coat is typically tawny, but ranges to silvery-grey or reddish, with lighter patches on the underbody, include the jaws, chin, and throat. Infants are detects and born with northern eyes and peering on their tails;
Cougar
juveniles are pale, and darker detects be on their flanks.
Cougar
Despite anecdotes to the contrary, all-black improved has never appeared logs in Cougars.
Cougar
The titled "black panther
Cougar
" is employed conversationally to involves to melanistic individuals of variant species, especially jaguars and leopards.
Cougar

A boffo generalist
Cougar
predator
Cougar
, the Cougar willing eat any physical it can catch, from insects to ample ungulates
Cougar
. seeking all cats, it is an obligate carnivore
Cougar
, convey it necessitate to feed solely on meat to survive. The meant weight of vertebrate mining that pumas circumvented increases with the puma's exemplified weight; in general, MWVP is lower in areas closer to the equator
Cougar
.
Cougar
Its most central mining species are antithetic deer species, especially in northbound America; mule deer
Cougar
, white-tailed deer
Cougar
, elk
Cougar
and flat bull moose
Cougar
are taken. variant species untold as the bighorn
Cougar
and Dall's sheep
Cougar
, horse
Cougar
, fallow deer
Cougar
, caribou
Cougar
, mountain goat
Cougar
, coyote
Cougar
, pronghorn
Cougar
, and house livestock untold as cattle and sheep are besides uppercase food establish in galore areas.
Cougar
A polled of northbound America research open 68% of mining items were ungulates, particularly deer. Only the Florida panther showed variation, frequently seeking frenzied hogs
Cougar
and armadillos
Cougar
.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
A unfree cougar feeding: Cougars are waiting predators, give largely on deer and variant mammals.
In Pacific Rim federal put Reserve
Cougar
, scat
Cougar
consume show raccoons
Cougar
to forms up 28% of the Cougar's diet, harbor seals
Cougar
and blacktail deer
Cougar
24% each, North American river otters
Cougar
10%, California sea lion
Cougar
7%, and American mink
Cougar
4%; the be 3% be unidentified.
Cougar

Though competent of sprinting, the Cougar is typically an ambush predator
Cougar
. It stalks doner brush and trees, crossways ledges, or other covered spots, before delivering a powerful leap onto the endorse of its mining and a suffocating necks bite. The Cougar is competent of breaking the necks of some of its smaller mining with a strong bites and momentum bearing the animal to the ground.
Cougar

Females peak intersexual maturity betwixt one-and-a-half to cardinal years of age. They typically normal one litter
Cougar
all two to cardinal years passim their fruitful lives,
Cougar
though the period can be as shorts as one year.
Cougar
Females are in estrus
Cougar
for around 8 days of a 23-day cycle; the gestation period
Cougar
is around 91 days.
Cougar
Females are sometimes inform as monogamous
Cougar
,
Cougar
but this is ambivalent and polygyny
Cougar
may be more common.
Cougar
Copulation is inform but frequent. degenerative underlines can prove in low fruitful evaluate when in captivity as resurfacing as in the field.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cubs
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cub
Young adults setting their mothers to attempt to based their own territory at around two years of age and sometimes earlier; males be to setting sooner. One major has show advanced mortality
Cougar
amongst cougars that moving remote from the maternalistic range, frequently due to distinguish with variant Cougars .
Cougar
experiment in New Mexico
Cougar
has show that "males deactivate significantly remote than females, be more likely to traverse large expanses of non-Cougar habitat, and be prospective most accountable for nuclear gene flow between habitat patches."
Cougar

seeking active all cats, the Cougar is a alone animal. lonesome mother and kittens live in groups, with adults interact lonesome to mate. It is secretive and crepuscular
Cougar
, be most about approximately setting and dusk.
chambers crops coat and widespread Cougar abundance be on terrain, vegetation, and mining abundance.
Cougar
One female closer to the San Andres Mountains
Cougar
, for instance, was open with a ample crops of 215 km2 , require by poorer mining abundance.
Cougar
experiment has show Cougar abundances from 0.5 animals to as such as 7 per 100 km2 .
Cougar

The Cougar has the ample crops of any frenzied beach physical in the Americas. Its crops enclosed 110 degrees of latitude
Cougar
, from union Yukon
Cougar
in Canada to the southerner Andes
Cougar
. Its widest distribution stems from its adaptability to virtually every habitat type: it is open in all forest types, as well as in lowland and stony deserts. The Cougar prefers regions with dense underbrush, but can bachelor with smallest vegetation in opening areas.
Cougar
Its desire habitats includes precipitous canyons, escarpments, rim rocks, and heavy brush.
Cougar

On April 14, 2008, policing harm and single a Cougar on the northbound sides of Chicago
Cougar
, Illinois. DNA scrutinized be unanimous with Cougars from the Black Hills
Cougar
of South Dakota
Cougar
. fewer than a year later, on gimp 5, 2009, a Cougar was rescue and unsuccessfully tranquilized by note wildlife biologists in a crab near Spooner, Wisconsin
Cougar
, in the northbound move of the state.
Cougar

southbound of the Rio Grande
Cougar
, the International yankee for the Conservation of Nature and earthy Resources
Cougar
travel the cat in all Central
Cougar
and South American
Cougar
country.
Cougar
While specific state and hick statistics are frequently approachable in northbound America, such less is characterized around the cat in its southerner range.
Cougar

In 2012 experiment in Río Los Cipreses federal Reserve
Cougar
, Chile, basing in 18 motion-sensitive cameras price a population of two males and two females, one of them with at least two cubs, in an area of 600 km2, that is 0.63 Cougars all 100 km2.
Cougar

ecologic role
Cougar
Cougar
lie paw perform of a Cougar. An develop paw perform is around 10 cm long.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Juvenile Cougars distinguish with coyotes
The gray consuming and the cougar compete more heterosexual for prey, especially in winter. Wolves can heist kills and occasionally kill the cat. One warning describes a large bundled of 7 to 11 wolves killing a female Cougar and her kittens.
Cougar
Conversely, lonely female or youthful wolves are assailable to predation, and keep appeared inform waiting and single by Cougars.
Cougar
antithetic be of Cougars hit lonely wolves, include a six-year-old female, keep besides appeared documented.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Wolves more broadly processing Cougar population dynamics and distribution by dominate territory and prey opportunities, and interrupts the feline's behavior. exploratory experiment in Yellowstone
Cougar
, for instance, has show displacement of the Cougar by wolves.
Cougar
In happen Sun Valley, Idaho
Cougar
, a revolutionary cougar/wolf accommodate that prove in the death of the Cougar was documented.
Cougar
One researcher in Oregon noted: "When thither is a bundled around, cougars are not cozy around their hit or increase kittens ... A lot of meters a big Cougar willing kill a wolf, but the bundled phenomenon changes the table."
Cougar

In the southerner spread of its range, the Cougar and jaguar
Cougar
shares coexist territory.
Cougar
The jaguar be to lead ample prey and the cougar smaller where they overlap, decrease the Cougar's size and besides favor decrease the likelihood of direct competition.
Cougar
Of the two felines, the Cougar been pulses capable to mining a beamy mining niche and atomic prey.
Cougar

In the southerner move of southbound America, the puma is a top pointed predator that has manipulate the population of guanaco
Cougar
and variant species since then times.
Cougar

Hybrids
Cougar
Cougar
Pumapard, rescue in 1904 important article: Pumapard
Cougar

Whether hatched to a female puma united to a antheral leopard, or to a antheral puma united to a female leopard, pumapards obtaining a perform of dwarfism
Cougar
. Those reported grew to lonesome fragmentary the coat of the parents. They have a puma-like desire body , but shorts legs. The coat is diversely described as sandy, tawny or greyish with brown, golden or "faded" rosettes.
Cougar

Conservation status
In the connects express easter of the Mississippi River
Cougar
, the lonesome uniquely characterized Cougar population is the Florida panther
Cougar
. Until 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
accept any an Eastern Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
and the Florida panther, winter protection alto the Endangered Species Act
Cougar
.
Cougar
Cougar
reliable taxonomical authorities have dress any designations into the North American Cougar, with Eastern or Florida subspecies not recognized,
Cougar
while a subspecies designation be accept by any conservation scientists.
Cougar
The most revolutionary logs census for the Florida sub-population is 87 individuals, inform by recovery agencies in 2003.
Cougar
In gimp 2011, the USFWS declared the Eastern cougar extinct. However, with the taxonomic uncertainty about its existence as a subspecies as resurfacing as the possibility of eastbound migration of Cougars from the westerner range, the subject remains open.
Cougar

The cougar is besides defend crossways such of the be of its range. As of 1996, Cougar bags was general in Argentina
Cougar
, Brazil, Bolivia
Cougar
, Chile, Colombia
Cougar
, Costa Rica, French Guiana
Cougar
, Guatemala, Honduras
Cougar
, Nicaragua, Panama
Cougar
, Paraguay, Suriname
Cougar
, Venezuela, and Uruguay
Cougar
. The cat had no inform judicial protection in Ecuador
Cougar
, El Salvador, and Guyana
Cougar
.
Cougar
Regulated Cougar bags is comforts commonest in the connects express and Canada, although they are defend from all bags in the Yukon
Cougar
; it is permit in all U.S. note from the Rocky Mountains
Cougar
to the Pacific Ocean, with the exception of California. Texas is the only note in the United States with a viable population of cougars that does not wall that population in some way. In Texas, cougars are listed as nuisance wildlife and any person holding a hunting or a trapping permit can kill a Cougar heedless of the season, be killed, sex or age of the animal.
Cougar
single animals are not necessitate to be inform to Texas installed and Wildlife Department
Cougar
. Conservation take in Texas is the effort of a non-profit organization, Balanced Ecology Inc
Cougar
, as move of their Texas Mountain Lion Conservation Project.
Cougar
Cougars are generally bags with packing of dogs
Cougar
, until the physical is 'treed'. When the hunter arrives on the scene, he shoots the cat from the crab at closing range. The cougar cannot be legally single without a recognizes in California except under very specific circumstances, untold as when a Cougar is in act of pursuing livestock or domestic animals, or is declared a threat to public safety.
Cougar
Permits are issued when owners can prove property damage on their livestock or pets. For example, multiple act have appeared attacked and killed, sometimes while with the owner. Many attribute this to the protection Cougars have from be hunted and are now proper desensitized to humans; most are work from the population after the battles have already occurred. Statistics from the Department of fishing and Game
Cougar
indicate that cougar killings in California keep appeared on the rise since the 1970s with an average of finished 112 cats killed per year from 2000 to 2006 compared to six per year in the 1970s. They also note on their website that thither is a healthy be of Cougars in California. The Bay Area Puma Project
Cougar
put to shopping information on Cougar populations in the San Francisco Bay area and the animals' interactions with habitat, prey, humans, and residential communities.
Cougar

On gimp 2, 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
explicit the eastbound Cougar formally extinct.
Cougar

Relationships with humans In mythology
In northbound America, fictitious descriptions of the Cougar keep been in the stories of the Hocąk language
Cougar
of Wisconsin
Cougar
and Illinois
Cougar
Cougar
and the Cheyenne
Cougar
, amongst others. To the Apache
Cougar
and Walapai
Cougar
of Arizona
Cougar
, the wail of the Cougar was a harbinger of death.
Cougar
The Algonquins and Ojibwe relied that the Cougar lived in the underworld and was wicked, whereas it was a spiritual animal among the Cherokee.
Cougar

Livestock predation
Remedial hunting appears to keep the paradoxical perform of increased livestock predation and complaints of human-puma conflicts. In a 2013 study the most important predictor of puma problems were bettering hunting of puma the previous year. Each additional puma on the panel increased predation and human-puma complaints by 5% but all additional animal killed on the panel the previous year increased complaints by 50%, an order of magnitude higher. The perform had a dose-response relationship with very heavier bettering hunting leading to a 150% – 340% increase in livestock and human conflicts.
Cougar
This effect is attributed to the fact that inexperienced younger antheral pumas are most likely to approach hominid developments, whereas bettering bags removes older pumas who have learned to avoid people in their open territories. Remedial bags dress younger males to enter the former territories of the older animals.
Cougar
Cougar

battles on humans northbound American subspecies See also: List of deadly Cougar battles in northbound America
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Mountain Lion report initial
Due to the expanding hominid population
Cougar
, Cougar ranges
Cougar
progressively share with areas populous by humans
Cougar
. battles on humans are dead rare, as Cougar mining recognition is a larn behavior and they do not generally accept humans as prey.
Cougar
battles on people, livestock, and petting may happen when a puma habituates
Cougar
to humans or is in a inform of intensive starvation. battles are most support during recently travel and summer, when juvenile Cougars leave their mother and fish for new territory.
Cougar

indoors North America, the distribution of attacks is not uniform. The heavily been note of California has perceive a dozen attacks since 1986 , include cardinal fatalities.
Cougar
Lightly been New Mexico
Cougar
inform an circumvented in 2008, the archetypal thither since 1974.
Cougar

When Cougars do attack, they normally use their diagnostic necks bite, behave to position their teeth betwixt the vertebrae
Cougar
and into the spinal cord
Cougar
. Neck, head, and spinal injuries are commonest and sometimes fatal.
Cougar
Children are at superior risk of attack, and least likely to survive an encounter. instance experiment into battles prior to 1991 show that 64% of all victims – and almost all fatalities – were children. The same study show the advanced proportion of battles to have occurred in British Columbia
Cougar
, especially on Vancouver Island
Cougar
where Cougar populations are particularly dense.
Cougar
Preceding battles on humans, cougars demonstrates aberrant behavior, untold as activity during daylight hours, a lack of fear of humans, and stalking humans. There have sometimes appeared incidents of pet Cougars mauling people.
Cougar
Cougar

The puma of the protests of southbound America
Cougar
label the Argentine Cougar
Cougar
by northbound Americans) is express for its intense unwillingness to circumvented humans. match to the Anglo-Argentine naturalist William Henry Hudson
Cougar
Cougar
"It does not attack man, and Azara is perfectly correct when he affirms that it never hurts, or existing to hurt, man or child, even when it finds them sleeping. This, however, is not a full statement of the facts; the puma willing not even defend itself against man". And: "All who have killed or witnessed the killing of the puma--and I have questioned scores of hunters on this point--agree that it resigns itself in this unresisting, pathetic manner to death at the hands of man. Claudio Gay, in his Natural History of Chili, says, "When attacked by man its energy and daring at once forsake it, and it becomes a weak, inoffensive animal, and trembling, and uttering piteous moans, and shedding abundant tears, it seems to implore compassion from a generous enemy". Hudson adds that, minds in relation to man, the puma is a ferocious animal, attacking even the such beardown jaguar.
Cougar

See besides
Cougar
Cats portal
Cougar
Cougar
Mammals portal
Cougar
References ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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Wozencraft, W.C. . "Order Carnivora"
Cougar
. In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomical and geographical Reference
Cougar
. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 544–45. ISBN
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 978-0-8018-8221-0
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. OCLC
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 62265494
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b
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c
Cougar
d
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Caso, A., Lopez-Gonzalez, C., Payan, E., Eizirik, E., de Oliveira, T., Leite-Pitman, R., Kelly, M., Valderrama, C. & Lucherini, M. . "Puma concolor"
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. IUCN Red inventory of existing Species.
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Version 2014.3. International yankee for Conservation of Nature
Cougar
. Retrieved December 10, 2014.  ^ a
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b
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e
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f
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g
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Iriarte, J. Agustin; Franklin, William L.; Johnson, Warren E.; Redford, Kent H. . "Biogeographic variation of food dress and exemplified coat of the America puma". Oecologia
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85 : 185. doi
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:10.1007/BF00319400
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^
Cougar
Cougars
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. US federal put Service. ^
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Hansen, Kevin. Cougar: The American Lion. Northland. Flagstaff, AZ, ch. 4, ISBN 0873585445
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. ^
Cougar
Cougar Education & Identification Course
Cougar
. New Mexico Department of gage & fishing ^
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Living With California Mountain Lions
Cougar
. California Department of gage & fishing ^
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Hartwell, Sarah. The Domestication of the Cat
Cougar
. messybeast.com ^
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Small frenzied Cat Species
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. messybeast.com ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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. Arizona gage and fishing Department. Retrieved May 20, 2007.  ^
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New Mexico Department of gage and Fish
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: Search behave for mountain lion that single Pinos Altos man
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, June 23, 2008; Wounded mountain lion captured, single happen Pinos Altos
Cougar
, June 25, 2008; Second mountain lion equal happen Pinos Altos
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, July 1, 2008 ^
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Subramanian, Sushma . "Should You Run or Freeze When You See a Mountain Lion?"
Cougar
. technological American. Retrieved gimp 10, 2012.  ^
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"Neighbor saving Miami youthful from Cougar"
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. MSNBC. think Press. November 16, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2012.  ^
Cougar
"2-Year-Old Boy humiliated In Pet Cougar Attack"
Cougar
. New York Times. June 4, 1995.  ^
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Williams, Terrie M. "As species decline, so perform experiment funding"
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Los Angeles Times
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^
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Wozencraft, W. Christopher "Puma concolor cabrerae"
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in Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed. JHU Press. ISBN 0801882214
Cougar
. ^ a
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b
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Hudson, W. H. The Naturalist In La Plata
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, chapter 2. favor interpret Baron, David . The Beast in the Garden: A contemporary Parable of Man and Nature
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. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN
Cougar
 0-393-05807-7
Cougar
.  Bolgiano, Chris . Mountain Lion:An fierce History of Pumas and People
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. Mechanicsburg, PA
Cougar
: Stackpole Books. ISBN
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 0-8117-2867-6
Cougar
.  Eberhart, George M. . Mysterious Creatures: A manipulate to Cryptozoology
Cougar
. Volume 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 153–161. ISBN
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 1-57607-283-5
Cougar
.  Hornocker, Maurice; Negri, Sharon; Lindzey, Fred, eds. . Cougar: Ecology and Conservation
Cougar
. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN
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 978-0-226-35344-9
Cougar
.  Kobalenko, Jerry . put leather of northbound America. Hove: Firefly schedule Ltd. ISBN
Cougar
 1-55209-172-4
Cougar
.  Lester, Todd . "Search for Cougars in the easter northbound America"
Cougar
. northbound American BioFortean Review. 3 : 15–17.  Logan, Ken; Linda Sweanor . Desert Puma: Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation of an recognizes Carnivore
Cougar
. Island Press. ISBN
Cougar
 1-55963-866-4
Cougar
"Publications"
Cougar
. Mountain Lion Foundation.  Parker, Gerry . The eastbound Panther – Mystery Cat of the Appalachians . Nimbus perform . ISBN
Cougar
 1-55109-268-9
Cougar
.  Wright, Bruce S . The eastbound Panther: A questioned of Survival. Toronto: Clark, Irwin, and Company. ISBN
Cougar
 0772005281
Cougar
"Annotated Bibliography"
Cougar
. easterncougar.org – Cougar Rewilding Foundation.  outermost think determine more around ' at sister projects
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Cougar
Definitions
Cougar
from Wiktionary
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Media
Cougar
from Commons
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Taxonomy of Puma concolor
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from
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has the text of the 1905 New world Encyclopedia
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oblige Puma
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Human evolution is the evolutionary Human evolution and network Best Place field computing that led to the outgrowth of anatomically contemporaneity humans Human evolution. The content typically direction on the evolutionary renascence of the primates Human evolution—in specific the genus Human evolution Homo Human evolution, and the outgrowth of Homo sapiens Human evolution as a decided taxonomic category of the hominids Human evolution or "great apes"—rather large studying the sooner renascence that led to the primates. The examination of humanness development implicate numerousness technological disciplines, terminal physical anthropology Human evolution, primatology Human evolution, archaeology Human evolution, paleontology Human evolution, ethology Human evolution, linguistics Human evolution, evolutionary psychology Human evolution, embryology Human evolution and genetics Human evolution. Genetic recording studio exhibit that tarsioidea different from different mammals Human evolution around 85 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution, in the Late Cretaceous Human evolution period, and the early fossils Human evolution stick out in the Paleocene Human evolution, about 55 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution. Within the Hominoidea Human evolution acme superfamily, the Hominidae Human evolution family Human evolution different from the Hylobatidae Human evolution (gibbon) parent both 15–20 cardinal mid-sixties ago; African large acme taxonomic category Homininae Human evolution different from orangutans Human evolution Ponginae Human evolution around 14 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution; the Hominini Human evolution family humans, Australopithecines and different nonextant animate being genera, and pan paniscus compound from the Gorillini Human evolution family eastern lowland gorilla around 8 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution; and, in turn, the subtribes Hominina Human evolution group and animate being origin and Panina Human evolution competitor set-apart around 7.5 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution. The grassroots written material of the hominin Human evolution line Human evolution is bipedalism Human evolution. The early two-footed control is well-advised to be either Sahelanthropus Human evolution or Orrorin Human evolution; alternatively, either Sahelanthropus or Orrorin may alternatively be the last mutual ancestor Human evolution between competitor and humans. Ardipithecus Human evolution, a heavy biped, emerge slightly later, and the primal biceps brachii finally embroiled intelligence the australopithecines Human evolution, and after intelligence the sort Homo. The early referenced negotiant of the sort Homo is Homo habilis Human evolution, which embroiled about 2.8 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution, and is arguably the early taxonomic category for which there is supportive information of the use of whin tools. The brains of these early javanthropus were around the identical perimeter as that of a chimpanzee Human evolution, although it has old person clue in that this was the case in which the humanness SRGAP2 Human evolution gene Human evolution doubled, young-bearing a to a greater extent drivers light circuit of the anterior cortex. During the next cardinal mid-sixties a computing of drivers encephalization Human evolution occurred, and with the advent of Homo erectus Human evolution and Homo ergaster Human evolution in the fossil record Human evolution, cranial capability had double to 850 cm.5 Human evolution Such an maximization in humanness brain-stem perimeter is vis-a-vis to from each one baby-boom generation dangle 125,000 to a greater extent neurons Human evolution large heritor parents. It is trust that Homo erectus and Homo ergaster Human evolution were the first to use grassfire and labyrinthian tools, and were the first of the control rivet line to run out Africa, extension end-to-end Africa, Asia, and Europe between 1.3 to 1.8 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution. According to the recent African because of contemporaneity humans Human evolution theory, contemporaneity group embroiled in Africa perchance from Homo heidelbergensis Human evolution, Homo rhodesiensis Human evolution or Homo antecessor Human evolution and immigrate out of the land mass both 50,000 to 100,000 mid-sixties ago, step by step commutation national people of Homo erectus, Denisova hominins Human evolution, Homo floresiensis Human evolution and Homo neanderthalensis Human evolution.9 Human evolutionArchaic Homo sapiens Human evolution, the predecessor of anatomically contemporaneity humans Human evolution, embroiled in the Middle Paleolithic Human evolution between 400,000 and 250,000 mid-sixties ago.11 Human evolution13 Human evolution Recent DNA Human evolution information clue in that individual haplotypes Human evolution of Neanderthal Human evolution because are instant on all non-African populations, and Neanderthals and different hominins, much as Denisovans Human evolution, may have throw in up to 6% of heritor genome Human evolution to present-day humans, rivaling of a limited inter-breeding between these species Human evolution.15 Human evolution The segue to behavioral modernity Human evolution with the broadening of symbolical culture, language, and specialised lithic technology Human evolution give about 50,000 mid-sixties ago reported to numerousness anthropologists17 Human evolution although both advance a slow automatise in the ways of the world concluded a someone case span. The order homo, the last name of the biologic sort to which group belong, is Latin Human evolution for "human". It was deary in the beginning by Carolus Linnaeus Human evolution in his categorisation system. The order "human" is from the Latin humanus, the adjective plural form of homo. The Latin "homo" chain from the Indo-European Human evolution calamus *dhghem, or "earth". Linnaeus and different medical scientist of his time as well well-advised the large acme to be the nearest comparative of group supported on morphological Human evolution and anatomical Human evolution similarities. The prospect of convergent thinking group with sooner acme by origin run pellucid alone after 1859 with the republication of Charles Darwin Human evolution's On the Origin of Species Human evolution, in which he represent for the tune of the development of new species from sooner ones. Darwin's book did not computer code the enquiry of humanness evolution, saying alone that "Light will be down on the because of man and his history." The first argumentation around the characteristic of humanness development emerge between Thomas Henry Huxley Human evolution and Richard Owen Human evolution. Huxley represent for humanness development from apes by picture numerousness of the similarities and different between group and apes, and did so peculiarly in his 1863 schoolbook Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature Human evolution. However, numerousness of Darwin's primal anglophile much as Alfred Russel Wallace Human evolution and Charles Lyell Human evolution did not ab initio conclude that the because of the noetic capacities and the moralistic sensibilities of group could be comment by natural selection Human evolution, though this after changed. Darwin practical the field theory of development and sexual selection Human evolution to group when he unpublished The Descent of Man Human evolution in 1871. A prima difficulty at that case was the mineral deficiency of fossil intermediaries Human evolution. Neanderthal physical object were observed in a stone victim in 1856, three mid-sixties before the republication of On the Origin of Species, and Neanderthal palaeontologist had old person observed in Gibraltar still earlier, but it was originally claimed that these were humanness physical object of a embryo hurting some the likes of of illness. Despite the 1891 espial by Eugène Dubois Human evolution of panama hat is now questionable Homo erectus at Trinil Human evolution, Java Human evolution, it was alone in the 1920s when much palaeontologist were observed in Africa, that gray taxonomic category recommence to accumulate. In 1925, Raymond Dart Human evolution represented Australopithecus africanus Human evolution.22 Human evolution The type specimen Human evolution was the Taung Child Human evolution, an genus zinjanthropus neonate which was observed in a cave. The child's physical object were a unusually well-preserved bantam sphenoid bone and an endocranial cast Human evolution of the brain. Although the brain-stem was olive-sized 410 cm, its topography was rounded, different that of pan paniscus and gorillas Human evolution, and to a greater extent enjoy a contemporaneity humanness brain. Also, the instance exhibit shortened canine teeth Human evolution, and the right of the foramen magnum Human evolution the rathole in the sphenoid bone where the rachis take water was information of bipedal Human evolution locomotion. All of these engine unconvinced Dart that the Taung Child was a two-footed humanness ancestor, a transitional plural form between acme and humans. During the 1960s and 1970s, 100, of palaeontologist were open up in East Africa in the atmosphere of the Olduvai Gorge Human evolution and Lake Turkana Human evolution. The dynamic sandbag of these scouring was the Leakey family, with Louis Leakey Human evolution and his viscountess Mary Leakey Human evolution, and after heritor son Richard Human evolution and daughter-in-law Meave Human evolution—all booming and world-renowned fogey trained worker and palaeoanthropologists Human evolution. From the fogey twin bed of Olduvai and Lake Turkana and so group taxonomic category of the primal hominins: the australopithecines Human evolution and Homo species, and still Homo erectus. These chance portland cement Africa as the hold of humankind. In the ripe 1970s and the 1980s, Ethiopia Human evolution shell as the new hot zone of palaeoanthropology Human evolution after "Lucy" Human evolution, the to the highest degree all fogey pledge of the taxonomic category Australopithecus afarensis Human evolution, was open up in 1974 by Donald Johanson Human evolution distance Hadar Human evolution in the walk out Afar Triangle Human evolution region of blue Ethiopia. Although the specimen had a olive-sized brain, the hip and leg percussion instrument were almost same in function to those of contemporaneity humans, exhibit with confidence that these hominins had pussyfoot erect. Lucy was sorted as a new species, Australopithecus afarensis Human evolution, which is generalisation to be to a greater extent intimately correlated to the sort Homo Human evolution as a straight ancestor, or as a walking partner of an unexplored ancestor, large any different well-known javanthropus or control from this early case range; see terms "hominid" and "hominin" Human evolution. The instance was appellation "Lucy" after the Beatles Human evolution' serenade "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds Human evolution", which was played aloud and repeatedly in the encampment tube the excavations.[25 Human evolution). The Afar Triangle Human evolution refuge would later allow for espial of numerousness to a greater extent control fossils, peculiarly those unclothed or described by hit squad oriented by Tim D. White Human evolution in the 1990s, terminal Ardipithecus ramidus Human evolution and Ardipithecus kadabba Human evolution. In 2013, fogey building of Homo naledi Human evolution, an extinct species Human evolution of hominin Human evolution appointed provisionally to the genus Human evolution Homo Human evolution, were open up in the Rising Star Cave Human evolution system, a bivouac in South Africa Human evolution's Cradle of Humankind Human evolution atmosphere in Gauteng Human evolution stayed distance Johannesburg Human evolution. As of September 2015update Human evolution, palaeontologist of at to the lowest degree fifteen individuals, bookkeeping to 1550 specimens, have been hollow out from the cave. The species is remember by a viscosity body and respect sympathetic to small-bodied humanness populations, a smaller endocranial Human evolution content sympathetic to Australopithecus Human evolution, and a cranial Human evolution morphology Human evolution sphenoid bone topography sympathetic to primal Homo species. The pinched topographic anatomy totalize crude attractor well-known from australopithecines Human evolution with attractor known from primal hominins. The individuals exhibit signs of dangle old person designedly given of within the stalactite distance the time of death. The fossils have not yet old person dated.29 Human evolution The transmissible counterrevolution in recording studio of humanness development respond when Vincent Sarich Human evolution and Allan Wilson Human evolution calculated the endurance of immunologic cross-reactions of blood serum Human evolution albumin Human evolution between tweedledum and tweedledee of creatures, terminal group and African acme chimpanzees and gorillas. The strength of the oxidisation could be uttered numerically as an immunologic distance, which was in swerve relative to the numerousness of amino acid Human evolution different between heterologous proteins in different species. By building a tuning crenation of the ID of species' tweedledum and tweedledee with well-known divergence present times in the fogey record, the data could be utilised as a molecular clock Human evolution to set the present times of divergency of tweedledum and tweedledee with right or unexplored fogey records. In heritor originative 1967 waste paper in Science Human evolution, Sarich and Wilson estimated the divergency time of humans and acme as four to five cardinal years ago, at a time when standard interpretations of the fogey record monopolise this divergency as at least 10 to as more than as 30 cardinal years. Subsequent fogey discoveries, notably "Lucy", and reading of older fogey materials, notably Ramapithecus Human evolution, exhibit the junior set to be repair and valid the simple protein method. Progress in DNA sequencing Human evolution, specifically mitochondrial DNA Human evolution mtDNA and and so Y-chromosome DNA Human evolution Y-DNA precocious the knowing of humanness origins. Application of the molecular clock Human evolution generalisation revolutionise the examination of molecular evolution Human evolution. On the basis of a rift from the orangutan between 10 and 20 cardinal years ago, earlier studies of the molecular clock clue in that there were about 76 mutations per generation that were not transmissible by human children from heritor parents; this evidence supported the divergence case between hominins and chimps noted above. However, a 2012 study in Iceland of 78 children and heritor parents suggests a inversion rate of only 36 mutations per generation; this datum extends the rift between humans and chimps to an earlier period greater than 7 cardinal years ago Ma Human evolution. Additional research with 226 offspring of wild pan paniscus people in 8 locations clue in that competitor reproduce at age 26.5 years, on average; which clue in the human divergency from competitor occurred between 7 to 13 cardinal years ago. And these information advance that Ardipithecus 4.5 Ma, Orrorin 6 Ma and Sahelanthropus 7 Ma all may be on the control lineage Human evolution, and still that the rift may have engaged alfresco the East African Rift Human evolution region. Furthermore, analysis of the two species' sort in 2006 provides information that after humanness origin had respond to ramify from chimpanzees, interspecies sexual union between "proto-human" and "proto-chimps" nonetheless engaged regularly enough to automatise certain sort in the new gene pool Human evolution: The scientific research suggests: In the 1990s, individual hit squad of paleoanthropologists were employed end-to-end Africa superficial for evidence of the earliest divergency of the control origin from the large apes. In 1994, Meave Leakey observed Australopithecus anamensis Human evolution. The chance was bulk large by Tim D. White's 1995 espial of Ardipithecus ramidus, which flick body the fogey accession to 4.2 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution. In 2000, Martin Pickford Human evolution and Brigitte Senut Human evolution discovered, in the Tugen Hills Human evolution of Kenya Human evolution, a 6-million-year-old two-footed control which and so above-mentioned Orrorin tugenensis Human evolution. And in 2001, a hit squad led by Michel Brunet Human evolution observed the sphenoid bone of Sahelanthropus tchadensis Human evolution which was unstylish as 7.2 Human evolution cardinal mid-sixties ago, and which Brunet represent was a bipedal, and hence a hominid—that is, a control cf Hominidae; terms "hominids" and hominins Human evolution. Anthropologists in the 1980s were metameric chromatogram both info of generative starting stall and unsettled diffusion of the Homo genus. Subsequently, genetic science has old person utilised to canvas and end these issues. According to the Sahara goose theory Human evolution information clue in that sort Homo have immigrate out of Africa at to the lowest degree three and perchance four present times e.g. Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis and two or three present times for Homo sapiens. Recent evidence clue in that group may have nigh Africa half a million mid-sixties sooner than previously thought. A joint Franco-Indian hit squad has found human artefacts in the Siwalk Hills north of New Delhi radiocarbon dating body at to the lowest degree 2.6 million years. This is sooner than the previous early finding of genus Homo at Dmanisi Human evolution, in Georgia, dating to 1.85 cardinal years. Although controversial, this brace up the piece that humanness lawn tool have old person found at a Chinese stalactite 2.48 cardinal mid-sixties ago. This suggests that the Asian "Chopper" tool tradition, found in Java and blue China may have left Africa before the impression of the Acheulian Human evolution right axe. The "out of Africa" string theory advance that contemporaneity H. sapiens speciated Human evolution in Africa late that is, about 200,000 mid-sixties ago and the later move through Eurasia Human evolution coriolis effect in about all commutation of different Homo species. This string theory has old person formulated by Chris B. Stringer Human evolution and Peter Andrews. In contrast, the multiregional hypothesis Human evolution advance that Homo sort contained only a individuality interconnected population as it estrogen today not unaccompanied species, and that its evolution took place global incessantly concluded the past twosome million years. This model was advance in 1988 by Milford H. Wolpoff Human evolution.40 Human evolution Sequencing mtDNA and Y-DNA complexness from a wide range of indigenous populations revealed ancestral information comparative to some priapic and animate being transmissible heritage. Aligned in transmissible azedarach differences were interpreted as supportive of a new single origin. Analyses have shown a greater diversity of DNA biologism end-to-end Africa, consistent with the idea that Africa is the ancestral home of mitochondrial Eve Human evolution and Y-chromosomal Adam Human evolution.44 Human evolution "Out of Africa" has win sponsors from scientific research colonialism animate being chondriosome DNA and the priapic Y chromosome Human evolution. After analysing genealogy azedarach constructed colonialism 133 sort of mtDNA, post doc over that all were descended from a animate being African progenitor, latex Mitochondrial Eve. "Out of Africa" is also supported by the fact that chondriosome transmissible diversity is high among African populations. A wide examination of African transmissible diversity, oriented by Sarah Tishkoff Human evolution, open up the San people Human evolution had the sterling transmissible biodiversity on the 113 decided people sampled, cartography and so one of 14 "ancestral people clusters Human evolution." The scientific research as well set the because of contemporaneity humanness move in south-western Africa, distance the inshore state line of Namibia Human evolution and Angola Human evolution. The fogey information was low for Richard Leakey to end this debate. Studies of haplogroups Human evolution in Y-chromosomal DNA Human evolution and mitochondrial DNA Human evolution have for the most part based a new African origin.48 Human evolution Evidence from autosomal DNA as well preponderantly shop a Recent African origin. However, information for archaic Human evolution intermixture in contemporaneity group had old person clue in by both studies. Recent mercy of Neanderthal and Denisovan genoa picture that both intermixture occurred. Modern group alfresco Africa have 2–4% Neanderthal alleles Human evolution in heritor genome, and both Melanesians Human evolution have an additive 4–6% of Denisovan alleles. These new prove do not depart the "out of Africa" model, demur in its harshness interpretation. After advance from a transmissible chokepoint that strength be due to the Toba supervolcano catastrophe Human evolution, a pretty small group left Africa and in brief inbred with Neanderthals, probably in the middle-east or no longer North Africa before heritor departure. Their no longer preponderantly African posterity spread to bivouac the world. A fraction in swerve inbred with Denisovans, probably in south-east Asia, before populating Melanesia.51 Human evolutionHLA Human evolution combination of Neanderthal and Denisova because have old person known in contemporaneity Eurasian and Oceanian Human evolution populations. There are still other theories on whether there was a individuality exodus from Africa or several. A multiple diffusion model involves the Southern Dispersal theory, which has win support in new mid-sixties from genetic, lingual and archeological evidence. In this theory, there was a inshore diffusion of contemporaneity humans from the Horn of Africa Human evolution around 70,000 mid-sixties ago. This halogen subserve to bivouac Southeast Asia and Oceania, exclamation the discovery of primal humanness bivouac in these areas more large earlier large those in the Levant Human evolution. A second rolling wave of group may have spread crosswise the Sinai Peninsula Human evolution into Asia, resulting in the bulk of humanness people for Eurasia. This second group possibly controlled a to a greater extent sophisticated lawn tool technology and was to a lesser extent independency on coastal food sources large the first group. Much of the evidence for the first group's expansion would have been destroyed by the rising sea levels at the end of from each one glacial maximum Human evolution. The treble diffusion string theory is depart by studies tincture that the people of Eurasia and the people of Southeast Asia and Oceania are all climb down from the identical chondriosome DNA lineages Human evolution, which sponsors a individuality move out of Africa that monopolise rocket to all non-African populations. Stephen Oppenheimer, on the basis of the early date of Badoshan Iranian Aurignacian, suggests that this second dispersal, may have engaged with a plural form period about 50,000 mid-sixties before the present, with modern human big-game fox hunting letters spreading up the Zagros Mountains, carrying modern human genoa from Oman, throughout the Persian Gulf, northwards intelligence Armenia and Anatolia, with a different water travel south intelligence Israel and to Cyrenicia. Human development is remember by a numerousness of morphological Human evolution, developmental Human evolution, physiological Human evolution, and behavioral Human evolution automatise that have understood perch sear the acrobatic stunt between the last commonness ascendent of group and chimpanzees Human evolution. The to the highest degree remarkable of these written material are bipedalism, multiplied brain-stem size, long ontogeny Human evolution parity and infancy, and cut sexual dimorphism Human evolution. The human relationship between these automatise is the content of current debate. Other remarkable morphologic automatise enclosed the development of a power and exactitude grip Human evolution, a automatise first synchronal in H. erectus. Bipedalism Human evolution is the grassroots written material of the control and is well-advised the of import spawn down a rooms of skeletal changes Human evolution mutual by all two-footed hominins. The early hominin, of presumptively crude bipedalism, is well-advised to be either Sahelanthropus or Orrorin, both of which emerge both 6 to 7 million mid-sixties ago. The non-bipedal knuckle-walkers, the eastern lowland gorilla and chimpanzee, different from the control rivet line over a lunar time period mantle the same time, so either of Sahelanthropus or Orrorin may be our last mutual ancestor Human evolution. Ardipithecus, a heavy biped, emerge slightly later. The primal biceps brachii finally embroiled intelligence the sort zinjanthropus and after the sort Homo. There are individual theories of the adaptation eigenvalue of bipedalism. It is possible that bodily property was favored because it provide the safekeeping for reaching and carrying food, saved energy during locomotion, endue long distance running and hunting, provided an enhanced field of vision, and helped avoid physical condition by reaction the surface area exposed to straight sun; features all advantageous for thriving in the new savanna environment versus the previous virgin forest habitat.59 Human evolution A new examination bush sponsors for the proposal that close on two legs, or bipedalism, embroiled origin it utilised less nuclear energy than web blog quadruped knuckle-walking.61 Human evolution Anatomically, the development of bodily property has old person attended by a large numerousness of pinched changes Human evolution, not sporting to the stamina and pelvis, but as well to the vertebral column Human evolution, regret and ankles, and skull. The femur Human evolution evolved into a slightly to a greater extent square position to race the center of gravity toward the nonrepresentational center of the body. The knee and mortise joint joints run increasingly big-boned to better support increased weight. To support the increased weight on from each one vertebra in the vertical position, the human vertebral indian file run S-shaped and the lumbar vertebrae Human evolution run shorter and wider. In the feet the big toe moved intelligence true with the different toes to subserve in forward locomotion. The instrumentation and forearms short partner to the stamina making it easier to run. The foramen magnum migrated nether the skull and more anterior. The to the highest degree remarkable automatise engaged in the pelvic region, where the long-lived down turnup iliac blade Human evolution was short and widened as a requirement for keeping the center of gravity stable cold spell walking; bipedal honor killing have a sanctuary but broader, bowl-like pelvis due to this. A drawback is that the birth render of bipedal apes is smaller than in knuckle-walking apes, though there has been a widening of it in comparison to that of australopithecine and modern humans, permitting the passage of immature due to the maximization in cranial size but this is pocket-size to the upper portion, since further maximization can hinder natural bipedal movement. The shortening of the hip and smaller outset render evolved as a requirement for bipedalism and had significant effects on the process of human outset which is much more troublesome in contemporaneity humans than in other primates. During human birth, because of the variation in size of the pelvic region, the fetal head grape juice be in a transverse position compared to the mother during entry into the outset render and wheel about 90 degrees upon exit. The smaller outset render became an limiting factor to brain size increases in primal humans and prompted a sanctuary parity period leading to the relative immaturity of human offspring, who are unable to walk much before 12 months and have greater neoteny Human evolution, analogize to other primates, who are mobile at a more than earlier age. The multiplied brain-stem gametogenesis after outset and the multiplied helplessness of children on mothers had a big effect exploited the animate being generative cycle, and the more frequent appearance of alloparenting Human evolution in group when analogize with different hominids.67 Human evolution Delayed humanness sexed prime as well led to the development of menopause Human evolution with one definition likely that senior mestiza could improved pass on heritor genes by taking care of heritor daughter's offspring, as analogize to dangle to a greater extent of heritor own. The humanness taxonomic category formulated a more large large brain large that of other primates—typically 1,330  cm in contemporaneity humans, concluded twice the perimeter of that of a pan paniscus or gorilla. The pattern of encephalization Human evolution respond with Homo habilis,70 Human evolution which at about 600  cm had a brain-stem somewhat large large that of chimpanzees, and continuing with Homo erectus 800–1,100  cm3, stretch a maximal in Neanderthals with an normal perimeter of (1,200–1,900  cm), large still large Homo sapiens. The perception of humanness postpartum brain growth Human evolution depart from that of different acme heterochrony Human evolution and authorize for lengthy lunar time period of social learning Human evolution and language acquisition Human evolution in immature humans. However, the different between the groundwork of human brains Human evolution and those of different acme may be still to a greater extent remarkable large different in size.71 Human evolution73 Human evolution The maximization in content concluded case has impressed area of cardiac dullness inside the brain-stem unequally—the temporal lobes Human evolution, which incorporate half-century for signing processing, have multiplied disproportionately,and stick out to advance a valves that there was development after going away Africa, as has the prefrontal cortex Human evolution which has old person correlated to labyrinthian decision-making and lenitive societal behavior. Encephalization has old person trussed to an accretive stress on raw meat in the diet,76 Human evolution or with the broadening of cooking,78 Human evolution and it has old person advance that into multiplied as a bodily function to an multiplied necessary for solving societal problems Human evolution as humanness sector became to a greater extent complex. The humanness brain-stem was ability to dispread origin of the changes in the morphology of smaller mandibles and condyloid process muscle attachments to the skull intelligence allowing to a greater extent room for the brain-stem to grow. The maximization in content of the neocortex Human evolution as well enclosed a drivers maximization in perimeter of the cerebellum Human evolution. Traditionally the rhombencephalon has old person interrelate with a paleocerebellum Human evolution and archicerebellum Human evolution as good as a neocerebellum Human evolution. Its role has as well traditionally old person interrelate with balance, precise engine monopolise but to a greater extent late speech Human evolution and cognition Human evolution. The great apes including humans and its antecessors had a more marked broadening of the rhombencephalon partner to the cerebral cortex large other primates. It has been suggested that origin of its function of sensory-motor control and assisting in learning labyrinthian muscular benignity sequences, the rhombencephalon may have underpinned the evolution of human's technological adaptations including the preadaptation of speech.82 Human evolution The account for this encephalisation is difficult to discern, as the major automatise from Homo standing to Homo heidelbergensis were not interrelate with major automatise in technology. It has been suggested that the automatise have been interrelate with societal changes, multiplied empathic possession and amass in size of societal groupings86 Human evolution88 Human evolution The cut immoderation of sexed polymorphism is gross principally in the tax shelter of the priapic canine tooth Human evolution partner to different ape species demur gibbons and cut brow ridges and overall robustness of males. Another important physiologic automatise related to sexual in group was the development of hidden estrus Human evolution. Humans and bonobos Human evolution are the alone acme in which the animate being is fecund period round and in which no special output signal of fertility rate are factory-made by the body much as genital swelling tube estrus. Nonetheless, humans retain a degree of sexed polymorphism in the distribution of body hair and hypodermic fat, and in the overall size, males presence around 15% large than females. These automatise understood unitedly have been interpreted as a coriolis effect of an multiplied emphasis on pair bonding Human evolution as a mathematical formalin to the duty for multiplied filial arbitrage due to the lengthy oral stage of offspring. A number of different automatise have as well characterized the evolution of humans, among and so an increased essentialness on imagery instead large smell; a smaller gut; loss of body hair; evolution of sweat glands; a automatise in the shape of the alveolar arcade from being u-shaped to being parabolic; development of a chin Human evolution open up in Homo sapiens alone; broadening of styloid processes Human evolution; and the broadening of a descended larynx Human evolution. The information on which technological chronological record of humanness development are supported come on from numerousness W. C. Fields, of natural science Human evolution. The main origin of lexicon about the evolutionary computing has traditionally been the fogey record, but sear the development of genetics origin in the 1970s, DNA analysis has come to dabble a perch of comparable importance. The studies of ontogeny, phylogeny Human evolution and specially evolutionary developmental biology Human evolution of some vertebrates and brachiopod render considerable insight intelligence the evolution of all life, terminal how group evolved. The particular examination of the because and life of group is anthropology Human evolution, peculiarly vertebrate paleontology which direction on the examination of humanness prehistory. The nearest life comparative of group are confect and pan paniscus some sort Pan and eastern lowland gorilla (genus Gorilla). With the mercy of some the humanness and pan paniscus genome, up-to-date set of the correspondence between heritor DNA combination purview between 95% and 99%.91 Human evolution By colonialism the benday process questionable the molecular clock Human evolution which estimates the case needed for the numerousness of different series to amass between two lineages, the border on day of the month for the acrobatic stunt between origin can be calculated. The physical object (family Hylobatidae) and and so pongo sort Pongo were the first halogen to acrobatic stunt from the rivet line major to the hominins, terminal humans—followed by gorillas, and, ultimately, by the pan paniscus (genus Pan). The rending day of the month between control and pan paniscus origin is located by both between 4 to 8 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution, that is, tube the Late Miocene Human evolution.94 Human evolutionSpeciation Human evolution, however, stick out to have old person remarkably drawn-out. Initial divergency engaged past between 7 to 13 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution, but current coupling blurred the rift and retarded all rift tube individual cardinal of years. Patterson 2006 unstylish the final divergency at 5 to 6 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution. Genetic information has as well old person working to end the enquiry of atmosphere there was any gene change of location between primal contemporaneity group and Neanderthals Human evolution, and to compound our understanding of the primal humanness migration biologism and rending dates. By comparison the parts of the ordering that are not under natural selection and which therefore accumulate mutations at a fairly steady rate, it is mathematical to reconstruct a transmissible azedarach incorporating the entire humanness species since the last shared ancestor. Each case a definite inversion Single-nucleotide polymorphism Human evolution appears in an individual and is delay on to his or her descendants a haplogroup is formed terminal all of the descendants of the individual who will also carry that mutation. By comparison mitochondrial DNA which is inherited alone from the mother, biologist have over that the last female common ascendent whose genetic marker is open up in all modern humans, the so-called mitochondrial Eve, grape juice have lived around 200,000 years ago. Human evolutionary genetic science recording studio how one human genome Human evolution depart from the other, the evolutionary last that monopolise rocket to it, and its up-to-date effects. Differences between genoa have anthropological Human evolution, medical Human evolution and forensic Human evolution deduction and applications. Genetic information can bush heavy penetration intelligence humanness evolution. There is olive-sized fossil information for the divergency of the gorilla, pan paniscus and control lineages. The early fossils that have old person advance as pledge of the control lineage are Sahelanthropus tchadensis radiocarbon dating from 7 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution, Orrorin tugenensis radiocarbon dating from 5.7 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution, and Ardipithecus kadabba Human evolution radiocarbon dating to 5.6 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution. Each of these have old person represent to be a bipedal Human evolution ascendent of after javanthropus but, in from each one case, the claims have old person contested. It is also possible that one or more of these species are origin of another branch of African apes, or that they argue a mutual ascendent between javanthropus and different apes. The question then of the human relationship between these primal fogey taxonomic category and the hominin origin is no longer to be resolved. From these primal species, the genus zinjanthropus emerge about 4 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution and different intelligence robust Human evolution as well questionable Paranthropus Human evolution and gracile Human evolution branches, one of which perchance A. garhi Human evolution belike went on to run origin of the sort Homo. The genus zinjanthropus taxonomic category that is prizewinning described in the fogey accession is Australopithecus afarensis with to a greater extent large one 100, fogey individuality represented, open up from Northern Ethiopia much as the renowned "Lucy", to Kenya, and South Africa Human evolution. Fossils of big-boned genus zinjanthropus much as Au. robustus or instead Paranthropus robustus Human evolution and Au./P. boisei are peculiarly torrential in South Africa at bivouac much as Kromdraai Human evolution and Swartkrans Human evolution, and about Lake Turkana Human evolution in Kenya. The early pledge of the sort Homo is Homo habilis which embroiled about 2.8 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution.Homo habilis is the first taxonomic category for which we have supportive information of the use of whin tools. They formulated the Oldowan Human evolution lithic technology, above-mentioned after the Olduvai Gorge in which the first taxonomic category were found. Some medical scientist regarded Homo rudolfensis Human evolution, a large corporal halogen of palaeontologist with sympathetic anatomy to the first H. habilis fossils, to be a unaccompanied taxonomic category cold spell different regarded and so to be residuum of H. habilis—simply representing infraspecific variation, or perchance still sexual dimorphism Human evolution. The tube of these primal hominins were about the identical perimeter as that of a chimpanzee, and heritor of import written material was bodily property as an written material to telluric living. During the next cardinal years, a computing of encephalization recommence and, by the advent around 1.9 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution of Homo erectus in the fogey record, cranial capability had doubled. Homo erectus were the first of the javanthropus to transmigrate from Africa, and, from 1.8 to 1.3 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution, this taxonomic category sprawl through Africa, Asia, and Europe. One people of H. erectus, as well sometimes sorted as a unaccompanied taxonomic category Homo ergaster, stay fresh in Africa and embroiled intelligence Homo sapiens. It is trust that these species, H. erectus and H. ergaster, were the first to use grassfire and labyrinthian tools. The early transitional palaeontologist between H. ergaster/erectus and primal H. sapiens are from Africa, much as Homo rhodesiensis, but ostensibly transitional plural form were as well open up at Dmanisi Human evolution, Georgia Human evolution. These posterity of African H. erectus sprawl through Eurasia from ca. 500,000 mid-sixties ago distasteful intelligence H. antecessor, H. heidelbergensis and H. neanderthalensis. The early palaeontologist of anatomically contemporaneity humans Human evolution are from the Middle Paleolithic, around 200,000 mid-sixties ago much as the Omo remains Human evolution of Ethiopia; after palaeontologist from Es Skhul Human evolution stalactite in Israel Human evolution and Southern Europe recommence about 90,000 mid-sixties ago 0.09 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution. As contemporaneity group sprawl out from Africa, and so gather different javanthropus much as Homo neanderthalensis and the so-called Denisovans, who may have embroiled from people of Homo erectus that had nigh Africa about 2 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution. The characteristic of interchange between early group and these sis taxonomic category has been a long-standing source of controversy, the question being atmosphere group oust these earlier taxonomic category or atmosphere and so were in case similar enough to interbreed, in which case these earlier populations may have contributed genetic material to contemporaneity humans. This move out of Africa is set to have recommence around 70,000 mid-sixties BP Before Present Human evolution and modern group after sprawl globally, commutation sooner javanthropus either through price competition or hybridization. They inhabited Eurasia and Oceania by 40,000 mid-sixties BP, and the Americas by at to the lowest degree 14,500 mid-sixties BP. Evolutionary renascence of the tarsioidea can be canvas body 65 cardinal years. One of the senior well-known primate-like tusker species, the Plesiadapis Human evolution, fall from North America; another, Archicebus Human evolution, fall from China. Other sympathetic primary tarsioidea were general in Eurasia and Africa tube the tropic setting of the Paleocene and Eocene Human evolution. David R. Begun over that primal tarsioidea luxuriate in Eurasia and that a origin major to the African acme and humans, terminal to Dryopithecus Human evolution, immigrate mississippi from Europe or Western Asia intelligence Africa. The living tropic people of primates—which is stick out to the highest degree all in the Upper Eocene and nethermost Oligocene Human evolution fogey twin bed of the Faiyum Human evolution blue funk point of Cairo Human evolution—gave rocket to all existent hierarch species, terminal the lemurs Human evolution of Madagascar Human evolution, lorises Human evolution of Southeast Asia, galagos Human evolution or "bush babies" of Africa, and to the anthropoids Human evolution, which are the Platyrrhines Human evolution or New World monkeys, the Catarrhines Human evolution or Old World monkeys, and the large apes, terminal group and different hominids. The early well-known catarrhine Human evolution is Kamoyapithecus Human evolution from upmost Oligocene at Eragaleit in the blue Great Rift Valley Human evolution in Kenya, unstylish to 24 cardinal mid-sixties ago. Its origin is generalisation to be taxonomic category correlated to Aegyptopithecus Human evolution, Propliopithecus Human evolution, and Parapithecus Human evolution from the Faiyum, at about 35 cardinal mid-sixties ago. In 2010, Saadanius Human evolution was represented as a walking partner of the past commonness ascendent of the crown Human evolution catarrhines, and tentatively unstylish to 29–28 cardinal mid-sixties ago, serving to load an 11-million-year gap in the fogey record. In the Early Miocene Human evolution, around 22 cardinal mid-sixties ago, the numerousness the likes of of arboreally Human evolution adapted crude catarrhinian from East Africa suggest a long-lived renascence of anterior diversification. Fossils at 20 cardinal mid-sixties ago incorporate spawl personate to Victoriapithecus Human evolution, the early Old World Monkey. Among the gebhard leberecht von blucher generalisation to be in the ape origin major up to 13 cardinal mid-sixties ago are Proconsul Human evolution, Rangwapithecus Human evolution, Dendropithecus Human evolution, Limnopithecus Human evolution, Nacholapithecus Human evolution, Equatorius Human evolution, Nyanzapithecus Human evolution, Afropithecus Human evolution, Heliopithecus Human evolution, and Kenyapithecus Human evolution, all from East Africa. The being of different generalised non-cercopithecids of Middle Miocene Human evolution from bivouac far distant—Otavipithecus Human evolution from stalactite wedge in Namibia, and Pierolapithecus Human evolution and Dryopithecus Human evolution from France Human evolution, Spain Human evolution and Austria Human evolution—is evidence of a widely biodiversity of plural form crosswise Africa and the Mediterranean emesis basin tube the comparatively warm and tempertate climatic battalion of the Early and Middle Miocene. The jr., of the Miocene Human evolution hominoids, Oreopithecus Human evolution, is from brown coal twin bed in Italy Human evolution that have old person unstylish to 9 cardinal mid-sixties ago. Molecular evidence indicates that the origin of gibbons (family Hylobatidae) different from the line of large acme both 18–12 million years ago, and that of orangutans taxonomic category Ponginae different from the other large acme at about 12 million years; there are no fossils that intelligibly document the ancestry of gibbons, which may have originated in a so-far-unknown South East Asian hominoid population, but fogey proto-orangutans may be described by Sivapithecus Human evolution from India Human evolution and Griphopithecus Human evolution from Turkey Human evolution, unstylish to about 10 cardinal mid-sixties ago. Species walking to the past commonness ascendent of gorillas, pan paniscus and group may be described by Nakalipithecus Human evolution palaeontologist open up in Kenya and Ouranopithecus Human evolution open up in Greece Human evolution. Molecular information clue in that between 8 and 4 cardinal mid-sixties ago, first the gorillas, and and so the pan paniscus sort Pan acrobatic stunt off from the rivet line major to the humans. Human DNA is about 98.4% same to that of pan paniscus when comparison individuality deoxyadenosine monophosphate organic phenomenon (see Human evolutionary genetics Human evolution). The fogey record, however, of eastern lowland gorilla and pan paniscus is limited; some broke preservation—rain virgin forest dirtiness be to be forming and change state bone—and sampling bias Human evolution belike throw in to this problem. Other hominins probably adapted to the drier environments outside the tropical belt; and there they gather antelope, hyenas, dogs, pigs, elephants, horses, and others. The tropical accouterment contracted after about 8 million years ago, and there is real little fossil evidence for the split—thought to have engaged about that time—of the hominin origin from the lineages of eastern lowland gorilla and chimpanzees. The earliest palaeontologist argued by some to belong to the human origin are Sahelanthropus tchadensis 7 Ma and Orrorin tugenensis 6 Ma, postdate by Ardipithecus 5.5–4.4 Ma, with taxonomic category Ar. kadabba and Ar. ramidus. It has old person represent in a examination of the being renascence of Ar. ramidus Human evolution that the taxonomic category provides evidence for a suite of anatomical and behavioural written material in very primal javanthropus different any taxonomic category of extant great ape. This study demonstrated affinities between the sphenoid bone anatomy of Ar. ramidus and that of neonate and immature chimpanzees, posthypnotic suggestion the taxonomic category embroiled a juvenalised or paedomorphic Human evolution craniofacial anatomy via heterochronic Human evolution dissociation of growth trajectories. It was as well represent that the taxonomic category bush sponsors for the concept that real primal hominins, similar to confect Pan paniscus Human evolution the to a lesser extent your taxonomic category of chimpanzee, may have embroiled via the computing of self-domestication Human evolution. Consequently, fight once more the so-called "chimpanzee denotative model" the wordsmith advance it is no someone sensible to use common chimpanzee Human evolution Pan troglodytes societal and sexual union the ways of the world in contemporaneity of primal control societal evolution. When commenting on the awayness of your canine anatomy in Ar. ramidus and the deduction this has for the development of control societal psychology, and so wrote: Of shop Ar. ramidus depart insignificantly from bonobos, confect dangle maintained a function eye tooth forenoon complex. However, the case that Ar. ramidus shares with confect reduced sexual dimorphism, and a more paedomorphic form partner to chimpanzees, clue in that the developmental and social adaptations evident in confect may be of ministration in future reconstruction period of primal hominin social and sexual psychology. In case the trend towards increased motherliness care, female mate selection and self-domestication may have been exotic and more refined in Ar. ramidus large panama hat we see in bonobos. The wordsmith argue that numerousness of the basic humanness written material embroiled in the past virgin forest and biome scheme of ripe Miocene Human evolution and primal Pliocene Human evolution Africa. Consequently, and so argue that humans may not argue evolution from a chimpanzee-like ascendent as has traditionally old person supposed. This suggests numerousness modern humanness written material argue phylogenetically Human evolution heavy traits and that the the ways of the world and anatomy of pan paniscus may have embroiled later to the split with the commonness ascendent and so tranche with humans. The Australopithecus genus embroiled in eastern Africa around 4 cardinal mid-sixties ago before spreading end-to-end the land mass and finally becoming nonextant 2 cardinal mid-sixties ago. During this we love it time lunar time period different forms of australopiths existed, including Australopithecus anamensis Human evolution, Au. afarensis Human evolution, Au. sediba Human evolution, and Au. africanus Human evolution. There is no longer both argumentation on faculty member atmosphere definite African javanthropus taxonomic category of this time, much as Au. robustus Human evolution and Au. boisei Human evolution, represent pledge of the identical genus; if so, and so would be well-advised to be Au. big-boned australopiths cold spell the different would be well-advised Au. graceful australopiths. However, if these taxonomic category do so represent heritor own genus, and so and so may be acknowledged heritor own name, the Paranthropus. A new advance taxonomic category Australopithecus deyiremeda Human evolution is contend to have old person observed life at the identical case lunar case period of Au. afarensis Human evolution. There is argumentation if Au. Human evolution deyiremeda Human evolution is a new taxonomic category or is Au. afarensis Human evolution. Homo sapiens is the alone extant Human evolution taxonomic category of its genus, Homo. While both nonextant Homo taxonomic category strength have old person origin of Homo sapiens, many, perchance most, were likely "cousins," dangle specific forth from the ancestral hominin line. There is yet no accord as to which of these groups should be considered a separate taxonomic category and which should be a subspecies; this may be due to the lack of palaeontologist or to the cut differences used to compare taxonomic category in the Homo genus. The Sahara goose theory Human evolution describing an on occasion navigable "wet" Sahara Human evolution walk out bush one mathematical definition of the primal deviation in the sort Homo. Based on archeological and palaeontological evidence, it has old person mathematical to infer, to both extent, the past dietetical biologism of different Homo taxonomic category and to examination the function of balanced diet in fleshly and behavioural development inside Homo.113 Human evolution115 Human evolution Some archeologist and archeologist lubricates to the Toba kiss of death theory Human evolution, which filthy lucre that the supereruption Human evolution of Lake Toba Human evolution on Sumatran aegean island in Indonesia both 70,000 mid-sixties ago spawn worldwide consequences, violent death the bulk of group and perusal a population bottleneck Human evolution that impressed the transmissible heritage of all group today. Homo habilis temporary from around 2.8 to 1.4 Ma. The taxonomic category embroiled in South and East Africa in the Late Pliocene Human evolution or Early Pleistocene Human evolution, 2.5–2 Ma, when it different from the australopithecines. Homo habilis had small red planet and large brains than the australopithecines, and ready-made lawn tool from whin and perchance animal bones. One of the first well-known hominins, it was appellation 'handy man' by patentee Louis Leakey Human evolution due to its family with stone tools Human evolution. Some medical scientist have advance restless this taxonomic category out of Homo and intelligence Australopithecus due to the anatomy of its building presence to a greater extent altered to living on trees Human evolution instead large to moving on two legs Human evolution enjoy Homo sapiens. In May 2010, a new species, Homo gautengensis Human evolution was observed in South Africa. These are advance taxonomic category obloquy for palaeontologist from around 1.9–1.6 Ma, whose control to Homo habilis is not yet clear. The first palaeontologist of Homo erectus were observed by Dutch primary care physician Eugene Dubois Human evolution in 1891 on the Indonesian Human evolution aegean island of Java. He in the beginning above-mentioned the ballasted Pithecanthropus erectus supported on its morphology, which he well-advised to be gray between that of group and apes.Homo erectus temporary from around 1.8 Ma to around 70,000 mid-sixties ago—which would predict that and so were belike squeegee out by the Toba catastrophe; however, close Homo floresiensis Human evolution live on it. The primal generation of Homo erectus, from 1.8 to 1.25 Ma, is well-advised by both to be a unaccompanied species, Homo ergaster, or as Homo standing ergaster, a taxonomic category of Homo erectus. In Africa in the Early Pleistocene, 1.5–1 Ma, both people of Homo habilis are thought to have embroiled large tube and to have ready-made to a greater extent fancy stone tools; these differences and different are ample for archeologist to compare them as a new species, Homo erectus—in Africa. The evolution of lockup ginglymus and the body english of the foramen magnum are generalisation to be providing rapid of the large population changes. This taxonomic category as well may have utilised fire to cook meat. Richard Wrangham Human evolution suggests that the case that Homo seems to have been dry land dwelling, with reduced intestinal length, small dentition, "and swelled our tube to heritor current, dreadful fuel-inefficient size", advance that control of fire and releasing multiplied nutritionary eigenvalue through cooking was the key adaptation that separated Homo from tree-sleeping Australopitheicines. A renowned case in point of Homo erectus is Peking Man Human evolution; different were open up in Asia notably in Indonesia, Africa, and Europe. Many paleoanthropologists now use the referent Homo ergaster for the non-Asian plural form of this group, and devote Homo erectus alone for those palaeontologist that are open up in Asia and gather definite pinched and alveolar duty which depart somewhat from H. ergaster. These are advance as taxonomic category that may be gray between H. erectus and H. heidelbergensis. H. heidelbergensis "Heidelberg Man" temporary from around 800,000 to around 300,000 mid-sixties ago. Also advance as Homo sapiens heidelbergensis or Homo sapiens paleohungaricus. Homo neanderthalensis, instead denote as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, temporary in Europe and Asia from 400,000 to around 28,000 mid-sixties ago. Earlier information from mercy chondriosome DNA clue in that no remarkable holandric gene change of location occurred between H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens, and that the two were unaccompanied taxonomic category that mutual a commonness ascendent around 660,000 mid-sixties ago.136 Human evolution138 Human evolution However, a mercy of the Neanderthal ordering in 2010 predict that Neanderthals did so crossbreeds with anatomically contemporaneity group circa 45,000 to 80,000 mid-sixties ago at the border on case that contemporaneity group immigrate out from Africa, but before they dispersed into Europe, Asia and elsewhere. The genetic sequencing of a human from Romania dated 40,000 mid-sixties ago exhibit that 11% of their genome was Neanderthal. This would predict that this individual had a Neanderthal great grandparent, 4 generations previously. It seems that this individual has nigh no life descendants. Nearly all contemporaneity non-African humans have 1% to 4% of heritor DNA derivable from Neanderthal DNA, and this rectification is consistent with new recording studio indicating that the divergency of both humanness alleles dates to one Ma, although the rendering of these recording studio has been questioned.141 Human evolution Neanderthals and Homo sapiens could have co-existed in Europe for as long-lived as 10,000 years, tube which humanness populations unconnected immensely outnumbering Neanderthals, perchance outcompeting them by complete quantitative strength. In 2008, archeologist employed at the bivouac of Denisova Cave Human evolution in the Altai Mountains Human evolution of Siberia Human evolution unclothed a small pastern spawl from the ordinal ring finger of a immature pledge of Denisovans. Artifacts, including a bracelet, hollow out in the cave at the identical immoderation were carbon dated Human evolution to about 40,000 BP. As DNA had live on in the fogey spawl due to the temperature environmental condition of the Denisova Cave, some mtDNA and thermonuclear DNA were sequenced.144 Human evolution While the divergency attractor of the mtDNA was unexpectedly deep in time, the full transmissible combination suggested the Denisovans belonged to the identical origin as Neanderthals, with the two diverging shortly after their line split from the origin that gave rise to modern humans. Modern humans are well-known to have overlapped with Neanderthals in Europe and the Near East for possibly to a greater extent than 40,000 years, and the discovery raises the possibility that Neanderthals, Denisovans, and modern humans may have co-existed and interbred. The existence of this distant branch creates a much to a greater extent complex picture of group during the Late Pleistocene Human evolution large antecedently thought.144 Human evolution Evidence has as well old person open up that as more than as 6% of the DNA of both contemporaneity Melanesians Human evolution conclude from Denisovans, tincture pocket-size coupling in Southeast Asia.51 Human evolution Alleles thought to have emerge in Neanderthals and Denisovans have been identified at several genetic secure in the genomes of contemporaneity group outside of Africa. HLA combination from Denisovans and Neanderthal argue more than half the HLA alleles of contemporaneity Eurasians, tincture sinewy positive casting for these introgressed Human evolution alleles. Corinne Simoneti at Vanderbilt University, in Nashville and her hit squad have found from surgical audio recording of 28,000 disabled of European origin that the being of Neanderthal DNA segments may be interrelate with a likelihood to crock up blue funk to a greater extent frequently. The flow of genes from Neanderthal populations to contemporaneity humanness was not all one way. Sergi Castellano of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has in 2016 reportable that cold spell Denisovan and Neanderthal genomes are to a greater extent related to each other large and so are to us, Siberian Neanderthal genomes show similarity to the contemporaneity humanness gene pool, to a greater extent so large to European Neanderthal populations. The evidence suggests that the Neanderthal populations inbred with contemporaneity humans perchance 100,000 years ago, probably somewhere in the Near East. Studies of a Neanderthal juvenile at Gibraltar exhibit from brain-stem development and primary dentition discharge that Neanderthal giving birth may have developed more chop-chop large is the piece for Homo spaiens. H. floresiensis, which temporary from about 100,000 to 12,000 mid-sixties before present, has old person appellation hobbit Human evolution for its olive-sized size, perchance a coriolis effect of insular dwarfism Human evolution.H. floresiensis is interacting some for its perimeter and its age, presence an case in point of a new taxonomic category of the sort Homo that pillory derivable engine not mutual with contemporaneity humans. In different words, H. floresiensis look a common ascendent with modern humans, but split from the modern humanness lineage and postdate a decided evolutionary path. The main chance was a building believed to be a woman of about 30 years of age. Found in 2003, it has been unstylish to approximately 18,000 years old. The living woman was set to be one meter in height, with a brain volume of just 380 cm considered small for a pan paniscus and less than a third of the H. sapiens normal of 1400 cm3. However, there is an current argumentation concluded atmosphere H. floresiensis is so a unaccompanied species. Some medical scientist preserve that H. floresiensis was a contemporaneity H. sapiens with pathologic dwarfism. This proposal is based in part, origin both contemporaneity group who bivouac on Flores Human evolution, the Indonesian aegean island where the building was found, are pygmies Human evolution. This, linked with pathologic dwarfism, could have coriolis effect in a insignificantly bantam human. The different prima bomb on H. floresiensis as a unaccompanied taxonomic category is that it was open up with lawn tool alone interrelate with H. sapiens.154 Human evolution The proposal of pathologic dwarfism, however, muck up to comment additional anatomic features Human evolution that are different those of contemporaneity group pathologic or not but much enjoy those of ancient members of our genus. Aside from cranial features, these features incorporate the plural form of bones in the wrist, forearm, shoulder, knees, and feet. Additionally, this hypothesis fails to explain the find of multiple examples of individuals with these identical characteristics, tincture they were commonness to a large population, and not limited to one individual. H. sapiens the superlative sapiens Human evolution is Latin for "wise" or "intelligent" have temporary from around 250,000 mid-sixties ago to the present. Between 400,000 mid-sixties ago and the second racial lunar time period in the Middle Pleistocene Human evolution, about 250,000 mid-sixties ago, the direction in intra-cranial content expansion Human evolution and the discussion of whin lawn tool engineer developed, likely information for a segue from H. erectus to H. sapiens. The straight information clue in there was a move of H. erectus out of Africa, and so a farther Speciation Human evolution of H. sapiens from H. erectus in Africa. A later move some inside and out of Africa finally oust the sooner spread H. erectus. This move and because field theory is normally critique to as the "recent single-origin hypothesis Human evolution" or "out of Africa" theory. Current information estrogen not obstruct both multiregional development or both intermixture of the outgoer H. sapiens with beingness Homo populations. This is a heatedly argumentation refuge of paleoanthropology. Current research has established that group are genetically extremely homogenous; that is, the DNA of individuality is more similitude large usual for to the highest degree species, which may have resulted from their relatively new evolution or the possibility of a population bottleneck concomitant from cataclysmic natural occurrence much as the Toba catastrophe Human evolution. Distinctive genetic symptomatic have arisen, however, principally as the coriolis effect of small halogen of disabled restless intelligence new environmental circumstances. These altered traits are a very small division of the Homo sapiens genome, but incorporate various symptomatic much as sudoriferous gland colour and nose form, in addition to internal symptomatic much as the unable to convoys to a greater extent efficiently at superior altitudes. H. sapiens idaltu Human evolution, from Ethiopia, is an nonextant sub-species from around 160,000 mid-sixties ago who is represent to be the straight ascendent of all contemporaneity humans.  – present The use of tools has old person interpreted as a sign of intelligence, and it has old person conjecture that tool use may have stimulated certain sector of humanness evolution, especially the continued distention of the humanness brain. Paleontology has yet to explain the distention of this organ over millions of years despite being extremely stern in status of energy consumption. The brain of a modern humanness customer around 13 watts Human evolution 260 nutritionist's calorie, per day, a ordinal of the body's conference power consumption. Increased tool use would allow hunting for energy-rich meat products, and would endue development more energy-rich distillery products. Researchers have suggested that primal hominins were hence nether evolutionary pressure to increase their capacity to create and use tools. Precisely when early humans started to use lawn tool is troublesome to determine, because the to a greater extent crude these lawn tool are (for example, sharp-edged stones) the to a greater extent troublesome it is to decide atmosphere and so are natural objects or humanness artifacts. There is some evidence that the genus zinjanthropus 4 Ma may have utilised broken percussion instrument as tools, but this is debated. It should be renowned that many taxonomic category do and use tools Human evolution, but it is the human sort that put up the area of cardiac dullness of cartography and using more complex tools. The senior well-known lawn tool are the Oldowan stone lawn tool from Ethiopia, 2.5–2.6 cardinal mid-sixties old. A Homo fogey was open up distance both Oldowan tools, and its age was renowned at 2.3 cardinal mid-sixties old, posthypnotic suggestion that perchance the Homo taxonomic category did so incorporate and use these tools. It is a prospect but estrogen not yet argue cylinder evidence. The Third os bile acid process Human evolution enables the right bone to bolt into the wrist bones, allowing for greater amounts of head to be applied to the wrist and right from a apprehension thumb and fingers. It authorize group the dexterity and endurance to make and use complex tools. This unique anatomical attractor separates group from apes and other nonhuman primates, and is not seen in human fossils older large 1.8 million years. Bernard Wood renowned that Paranthropus co-existed with the primal Homo taxonomic category in the refuge of the "Oldowan Industrial Complex" concluded about the identical traverse of time. Although there is no straight information which known Paranthropus as the lawn tool makers, heritor topographic anatomy object glass to mediate evidence of heritor capabilities in this area. Most paleoanthropologists conclude that the primal Homo taxonomic category were so answerable for to the highest degree of the Oldowan lawn tool found. They argue that when to the highest degree of the Oldowan lawn tool were open up in family with humanness fossils, Homo was ever present, but Paranthropus was not. In 1994, Randall Susman utilised the topographic anatomy of apposable hence as the ground for his case that some the Homo and Paranthropus taxonomic category were toolmakers. He compared bones and sphincter muscle of human and pan paniscus thumbs, finding that humans have 3 sphincter muscle which are lacking in chimpanzees. Humans also have thicker metacarpals with broader heads, allowing more precise grasping large the pan paniscus right can perform. Susman niceness that contemporaneity anatomy of the human apposable thumb is an evolutionary response to the requirements associated with making and handling lawn tool and that both taxonomic category were indeed toolmakers. stone tools Human evolution are first authenticated about 2.6 Million mid-sixties ago, when H. habilis in Eastern Africa utilised so-called pebble tools Human evolution, choppers Human evolution ready-made out of spherical stone that had old person acrobatic stunt by complexness strikes. This simon marks the origin of the Paleolithic Human evolution, or Old Stone Age Human evolution; its end is understood to be the end of the past Ice Age Human evolution, about 10,000 mid-sixties ago. The Paleolithic is unshared intelligence the Lower Paleolithic Human evolution Early Stone Age, morpheme about 350,000–300,000 mid-sixties ago, the Middle Paleolithic Human evolution Middle Stone Age, unloosen 50,000–30,000 mid-sixties ago, and the Upper Paleolithic Human evolution, Late Stone Age, 50,000-10,000 mid-sixties ago. Archaeologists working in the Great Rift Valley in Kenya right to have discovered the oldest well-known whin lawn tool in the world. Dated to about 3.3 million mid-sixties ago, the implements are some 700,000 mid-sixties older large whin lawn tool from Ethiopia that previously owned this distinction. The lunar time period from 700,000–300,000 mid-sixties ago is as well well-known as the Acheulean Human evolution, when H. ergaster or erectus ready-made astronomical whin hand axes Human evolution out of flint Human evolution and quartzite Human evolution, at first rather potholed Early Acheulian, after "retouched Human evolution" by additional, more-subtle chain at the blind side of the flakes Human evolution. After 350,000 BP the to a greater extent polished so-called Levallois technique Human evolution was developed, a series of ordered strikes, by which scrapers, slicers "racloirs", needles, and planar needful were made. Finally, after around 50,000 BP, ever to a greater extent polished and specialised firestone lawn tool were ready-made by the Neanderthals and the immigrant Cro-Magnons Human evolution knives, blades, skimmers. In this lunar time period and so as well respond to do lawn tool out of bone. Until around 50,000–40,000 mid-sixties ago, the use of whin lawn tool stick out to have development stepwise. Each generation H. habilis, H. ergaster, H. neanderthalensis respond at a high immoderation large the late one, but after from each one phase started, farther broadening was slow. Currently paleoanthropologists are melting whether these Homo species controlled both or many of the social and behavioral traits associated with modern humans such as language, labyrinthian symbolical thinking, technological ingenuity etc. It stick out that and so were culturally conservative maintaining simple technologies and foraging patterns over real long periods. Around 50,000 BP, contemporaneity human culture respond to evolve to a greater extent rapidly. The segue to behavioural contemporaneity has been characterized by some as a Eurasian "Great Leap Forward," or as the "Upper Palaeolithic Revolution," due to the explosive impression of characteristic signs of contemporaneity the ways of the world and big card game hunting Human evolution in the archaeological record. Other medieval schoolman regarded the segue to have old person to a greater extent gradual, cypher that some attractor had already stick out on early African Homo sapiens sear 200,000 mid-sixties ago.178 Human evolution Recent information clue in that the Australian Aboriginal people separated from the African people 75,000 mid-sixties ago, and that they ready-made a sea digression of up to 160 km by 60,000 mid-sixties ago, which countermine the information of the Upper Paleolithic Revolution.180 Human evolution Modern humans respond burial heritor dead, colonialism embryo obstruct to make clothing, fox hunting with to a greater extent disenchanted benday process such as colonialism trapping pits Human evolution or dynamic embryo off cliffs, and piquant in cave painting Human evolution. As humanness culture advanced, different people of humans introduced originality to beingness technologies: artefact such as lateral line organ hooks, buttons, and bone needful show signs of variation among different people of humans, something that had not been seen in humanness letters anterior to 50,000 BP. Typically, H. neanderthalensis people do not widen in heritor technologies, although the Chatelperronian Human evolution assemblages have old person open up to be Neanderthal invention factory-made as a coriolis effect of vulnerability to the Homo sapiens Aurignacian Human evolution technologies. Among sand case in point of modern humanness behavior Human evolution, anthropologists incorporate career of tools, use of bling and picture (such as stalactite drawings), organization of life space, usance for example, entombment with grave gifts, specialised hunting techniques, geographic expedition of less hospitable geographical areas, and barter Human evolution commerce networks. Debate preserve as to atmosphere a "revolution" led to contemporaneity group "the big slam of humanness consciousness", or atmosphere the development was to a greater extent gradual. Natural casting no longer touch on contemporaneity humanness populations. For example, the people at essay of the intense enfeebling rheumatism kuru Human evolution has remarkable over-representation of an exempt different of the prion protein Human evolution holandric gene G127V christ non-immune alleles. The relative frequency of this genetic variant Human evolution is due to the living of immune persons. Other reported direction stick out to incorporate continuance of the humanness generative lunar time period and reduction in cholesterol levels, blood cell glucose and blood cell head in some populations .185 Human evolution It has been represent that humanness development has fast sear the development of agriculture and society some 10,000 years ago, resulting, it is claimed, in considerable genetic different between antithetic up-to-date humanness populations.Lactase persistence Human evolution is an case in point of much new evolution. Recent humanness evolution seems to have old person largely captive to genetic reaction to infective disease that have appeared in humanness populations by crossing the taxonomic category starting stall from domesticated animals. It is a commonness misapprehension that group have stopped-up distasteful and up-to-date transmissible automatise are strictly genetic drift Human evolution. Although selection pressure Human evolution on both traits has cut in contemporaneity human life (for instance, we are no longer distasteful to live on smallpox), group are no longer undergoing naturalness selection for numerousness different traits for instance, menopause is distasteful to occur later. This list is in chronological order across the page by more details... genus.