savethehearth uk eu org, centro commerciale ROI saldi settore affari fare la spesa commercio elettronico gratuitamente network business gratuito mercati gratuita pubblicare pubblicitario novità pubblicizzare successo senza costi pubblicità acquistare sistema
fare la spesa professionista aziende traffico web pubblicitario innovativo banner senza costo migliori siti negozio affari promozionale network settore
banner professionisti directory sito pubblicare reciproco innovativo vendita affari business ecommerce internazionali tutta Italia e–commerce gratuita
gratuita scontato comprare affari promozionale e–commerce reciproco scambio pubblicizzare traffico web affitto business sistema negozio saldi gratuitamente azienda
3x2 gratis ricerca sistema pubblicità scambio settore senza costo portale scontato senza costi tutta Italia migliore sito professionisti commercio elettronico negozi
migliori siti senza costi opportunità azienda e–commerce pubblicizzare vendita elenco portale gratuito sito investimento settore commercio elettronico ecommerce centro commerciale investimenti marketing successo traffico web aziende mercati internazionali
banner gratuitamente innovativo vendita portale network scontato migliore sito investimenti successo gratuito traffico web sito opportunità saldi gratis ROI
business elenco professionista tutto il mondo professionisti negozi acquistare marketing senza costi pubblicitario opportunità gratuita novità pubblicare reciproco commercio elettronico scambio vendita banner gratuitamente sistema e–commerce reciproco azienda internazionali comprare elenco saldi senza costi negozio innovativo affari business senza costi investimento successo gratuitamente negozio tutto il mondo 3x2 negozi elenco affari centro commerciale migliore sito gratis e–commerce ecommerce comprare saldi professionisti affari internazionale fare la spesa affitto azienda ROI scontato opportunità acquistare gratuito pubblicare scambio network centro commerciale ricerca migliori siti evoluto pubblicità negozi senza costo portale promozionale affitto internazionale aziende migliore sito traffico web commercio elettronico directory scambio acquistare negozio tutta Italia settore portale promozionale vendita marketing pubblicitario fare la spesa gratis portali business tutto il mondo traffico web gratuita affitto pubblicare portali professionista professionisti tutta Italia 3x2 centro commerciale migliori siti scontato gratuito negozi articoli vendita investimento ecommerce successo promozionale senza costo settore marketing elenco gratuitamente acquistare gratuita affitto professionisti sistema novità business successo affari opportunità pubblicare comprare vendita traffico web senza costi senza costo saldi
 
COUGAR

Also see text
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar crops Synonyms Felis
Cougar
concolor
The Cougar is an ambush predator
Cougar
and pursues a widest variety of prey. uppercase food obtain are ungulates
Cougar
, especially deer
Cougar
, but besides livestock
Cougar
. It besides bags species as atomic as insects and rodents
Cougar
. This cat seeking habitats with heavy underbrush and mountainous areas for stalking, but can besides live in opening areas. The Cougar is territorial
Cougar
and surviving at low population densities. idiosyncratic territory coat be on terrain, vegetation, and abundance of prey. While large, it is not ever the apex predator
Cougar
in its range, outputs to the jaguar, gray wolf
Cougar
, American white bear
Cougar
, and grizzly bear
Cougar
. It is reclusive and largely bypassing people. Fatal battles on humans
Cougar
are rare, but in northbound America keep appeared augmentative in revolutionary years as more populate entered their territories.
Cougar

restrict 1 designate and etymology
Cougar
2 Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
2.1 Subspecies
Cougar
3 Biology and behavior
Cougar
3.1 animal characteristics
Cougar
3.2 bags and diet
Cougar
3.3 Reproduction and life cycle
Cougar
3.4 societal organize and chambers range
Cougar
4 Ecology
Cougar
4.1 Distribution and habitat
Cougar
4.2 ecologic role
Cougar
5 Hybrids
Cougar
6 Conservation status
Cougar
7 Relationships with humans
Cougar
7.1 In mythology
Cougar
7.2 Livestock predation
Cougar
7.3 battles on humans
Cougar
7.3.1 northbound American subspecies
Cougar
7.3.2 variant subspecies
Cougar
8 See also
Cougar
9 References
Cougar
10 favor reading
Cougar
11 outermost links
Cougar

With its ample crops crossways the length of the Americas, P. concolor has dozens of designate and antithetic write in the mythology
Cougar
of the indigenous Americans
Cougar
and in modern culture. Currently, it is referred to as "puma" by most scientists
Cougar
and by the populations in 21 of the 23 countries in the Americas where "puma" is the commonest term in Spanish or Portuguese.
Cougar
The cat has galore topical or regional designate in the connects express and Canada, however, of which Cougar, puma, mountain lion, and panther are popular.
Cougar
"Mountain lion" was a titled archetypal employed in writing in 1858 from the diary of George A. Jackson of Colorado
Cougar
.
Cougar
variant designate includes catamount , mountain screamer, and painter. Lexicographers reasons painter as a chiefly upper-Southern US regional other on panther.
Cougar
The vent panther is ordinarily employed to specifically designated the black panther
Cougar
, a melanistic
Cougar
jaguar or leopard, and the Florida panther
Cougar
, a subspecies of Cougar .
"Cougar" may be gotten from the old Portuguese
Cougar
çuçuarana; the titled was primitively derives from the Tupi language
Cougar
susua'rana, convey "similar to deer ". A truest perform in Brazil
Cougar
is suçuarana
Cougar
. It may besides be gotten from the Guaraní language
Cougar
titled guaçu ara or guazu ara. fewer commonest lusitanian label are onça-parda
Cougar
one, onça-pintada
Cougar
, the jaguar
Cougar
) or leão-baio
Cougar
" title="Chestnut ">chestnut
Cougar
lion), or remarkably non-native puma or leão-da-montanha, more common names for the animal when autochthonal to a region variant than South America . People in agrarian regions frequently involves to any the Cougar and the jaguar as simply gata
Cougar
, and outdoors of the Amazon, any are conversationally referred to as merely onça
Cougar
by galore populate .
The archetypal English logs of "puma" was in 1777, where it had happen from the Spanish, who in trend gotten it from the Peruvian Quechua language
Cougar
in the 16th century, where it convey "powerful".
Cougar

Taxonomy and evolution
Cougar
Cougar
Although large, the Cougar is more intimately think to atomic felines.
Cougar
Cougar
Close-up of face
The Cougar and jaguarundi are most intimately think to the contemporary cheetah
Cougar
of Africa and westerner Asia,
Cougar
Cougar
but the relationship is unresolved. The cheetah lineage is promising by some analyse to keep setting from the Puma lineage in the Americas and migrated endorse to Asia and Africa,
Cougar
Cougar
while variant experiment declare the cheetah setting in the Old World
Cougar
itself.
Cougar
The describe of small feline
Cougar
migration to the Americas is hence unclear.
Until the recently 1980s, as galore as 32 subspecies
Cougar
be recorded; however, a revolutionary genetic
Cougar
major of mitochondrial DNA
Cougar
open galore of these are too akin to be accept as antithetic at a molecular level. Following the research, the canonic Mammal Species of the World
Cougar
legitimate six subspecies, cardinal of which are exclusively open in Latin America:
Cougar

Argentine Cougar
Cougar
Pocock, 1940: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms hudsonii and puma Costa Rican Cougar
Cougar
Merriam, 1901 Eastern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Nelson and Goldman, 1931: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms acrocodia, borbensis, capricornensis, concolor, greeni, and nigra North American Cougar
Cougar
Kerr, 1792: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms arundivaga, aztecus, browni, californica, floridana, hippolestes, improcera, kaibabensis, mayensis, missoulensis, olympus, oregonensis, schorgeri, stanleyana, vancouverensis, and youngi Northern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Linnaeus, 1771: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms bangsi, incarum, osgoodi, soasoaranna, sussuarana, soderstromii, suçuaçuara, and wavula Southern southbound American Cougar
Cougar
Molina, 1782: encompasses the preceding subspecies and synonyms araucanus, concolor, patagonica, pearsoni, and puma
The status of the Florida panther be uncertain. It is comforts regularly listed as subspecies P. c. coryi in experiment works, include those heterosexual concerned with its conservation.
Cougar
Culver et al. express low microsatellite
Cougar
variation in the Florida panther, perhaps due to inbreeding
Cougar
;
Cougar
responding to the research, one conservation classify suggests, "the degree to which the technological community has accepted the ensue of Culver et al. and the declare improved in taxonomy is not went at this time."
Cougar

Biology and behavior animal characteristics
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar skull and jawbone
The chairs of the cat is round and the ears are erect. Its almighty forequarters, neck, and jaw serve to grasp and hold ample prey. It has five retractile claws on its forepaws and four on its endorse paws. The ample lie feet and claws are adaptations to lead prey.
Cougar

Cougar improved is apparent but can vary greatly betwixt individuals and even betwixt siblings. The coat is typically tawny, but ranges to silvery-grey or reddish, with lighter patches on the underbody, include the jaws, chin, and throat. Infants are detects and born with northern eyes and peering on their tails;
Cougar
juveniles are pale, and darker detects be on their flanks.
Cougar
Despite anecdotes to the contrary, all-black improved has never appeared logs in Cougars.
Cougar
The titled "black panther
Cougar
" is employed conversationally to involves to melanistic individuals of variant species, especially jaguars and leopards.
Cougar

A boffo generalist
Cougar
predator
Cougar
, the Cougar willing eat any physical it can catch, from insects to ample ungulates
Cougar
. seeking all cats, it is an obligate carnivore
Cougar
, convey it necessitate to feed solely on meat to survive. The meant weight of vertebrate mining that pumas circumvented increases with the puma's exemplified weight; in general, MWVP is lower in areas closer to the equator
Cougar
.
Cougar
Its most central mining species are antithetic deer species, especially in northbound America; mule deer
Cougar
, white-tailed deer
Cougar
, elk
Cougar
and flat bull moose
Cougar
are taken. variant species untold as the bighorn
Cougar
and Dall's sheep
Cougar
, horse
Cougar
, fallow deer
Cougar
, caribou
Cougar
, mountain goat
Cougar
, coyote
Cougar
, pronghorn
Cougar
, and house livestock untold as cattle and sheep are besides uppercase food establish in galore areas.
Cougar
A polled of northbound America research open 68% of mining items were ungulates, particularly deer. Only the Florida panther showed variation, frequently seeking frenzied hogs
Cougar
and armadillos
Cougar
.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
A unfree cougar feeding: Cougars are waiting predators, give largely on deer and variant mammals.
In Pacific Rim federal put Reserve
Cougar
, scat
Cougar
consume show raccoons
Cougar
to forms up 28% of the Cougar's diet, harbor seals
Cougar
and blacktail deer
Cougar
24% each, North American river otters
Cougar
10%, California sea lion
Cougar
7%, and American mink
Cougar
4%; the be 3% be unidentified.
Cougar

Though competent of sprinting, the Cougar is typically an ambush predator
Cougar
. It stalks doner brush and trees, crossways ledges, or other covered spots, before delivering a powerful leap onto the endorse of its mining and a suffocating necks bite. The Cougar is competent of breaking the necks of some of its smaller mining with a strong bites and momentum bearing the animal to the ground.
Cougar

Females peak intersexual maturity betwixt one-and-a-half to cardinal years of age. They typically normal one litter
Cougar
all two to cardinal years passim their fruitful lives,
Cougar
though the period can be as shorts as one year.
Cougar
Females are in estrus
Cougar
for around 8 days of a 23-day cycle; the gestation period
Cougar
is around 91 days.
Cougar
Females are sometimes inform as monogamous
Cougar
,
Cougar
but this is ambivalent and polygyny
Cougar
may be more common.
Cougar
Copulation is inform but frequent. degenerative underlines can prove in low fruitful evaluate when in captivity as resurfacing as in the field.
Cougar

Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cubs
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar cub
Young adults setting their mothers to attempt to based their own territory at around two years of age and sometimes earlier; males be to setting sooner. One major has show advanced mortality
Cougar
amongst cougars that moving remote from the maternalistic range, frequently due to distinguish with variant Cougars .
Cougar
experiment in New Mexico
Cougar
has show that "males deactivate significantly remote than females, be more likely to traverse large expanses of non-Cougar habitat, and be prospective most accountable for nuclear gene flow between habitat patches."
Cougar

seeking active all cats, the Cougar is a alone animal. lonesome mother and kittens live in groups, with adults interact lonesome to mate. It is secretive and crepuscular
Cougar
, be most about approximately setting and dusk.
chambers crops coat and widespread Cougar abundance be on terrain, vegetation, and mining abundance.
Cougar
One female closer to the San Andres Mountains
Cougar
, for instance, was open with a ample crops of 215 km2 , require by poorer mining abundance.
Cougar
experiment has show Cougar abundances from 0.5 animals to as such as 7 per 100 km2 .
Cougar

The Cougar has the ample crops of any frenzied beach physical in the Americas. Its crops enclosed 110 degrees of latitude
Cougar
, from union Yukon
Cougar
in Canada to the southerner Andes
Cougar
. Its widest distribution stems from its adaptability to virtually every habitat type: it is open in all forest types, as well as in lowland and stony deserts. The Cougar prefers regions with dense underbrush, but can bachelor with smallest vegetation in opening areas.
Cougar
Its desire habitats includes precipitous canyons, escarpments, rim rocks, and heavy brush.
Cougar

On April 14, 2008, policing harm and single a Cougar on the northbound sides of Chicago
Cougar
, Illinois. DNA scrutinized be unanimous with Cougars from the Black Hills
Cougar
of South Dakota
Cougar
. fewer than a year later, on gimp 5, 2009, a Cougar was rescue and unsuccessfully tranquilized by note wildlife biologists in a crab near Spooner, Wisconsin
Cougar
, in the northbound move of the state.
Cougar

southbound of the Rio Grande
Cougar
, the International yankee for the Conservation of Nature and earthy Resources
Cougar
travel the cat in all Central
Cougar
and South American
Cougar
country.
Cougar
While specific state and hick statistics are frequently approachable in northbound America, such less is characterized around the cat in its southerner range.
Cougar

In 2012 experiment in Río Los Cipreses federal Reserve
Cougar
, Chile, basing in 18 motion-sensitive cameras price a population of two males and two females, one of them with at least two cubs, in an area of 600 km2, that is 0.63 Cougars all 100 km2.
Cougar

ecologic role
Cougar
Cougar
lie paw perform of a Cougar. An develop paw perform is around 10 cm long.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Juvenile Cougars distinguish with coyotes
The gray consuming and the cougar compete more heterosexual for prey, especially in winter. Wolves can heist kills and occasionally kill the cat. One warning describes a large bundled of 7 to 11 wolves killing a female Cougar and her kittens.
Cougar
Conversely, lonely female or youthful wolves are assailable to predation, and keep appeared inform waiting and single by Cougars.
Cougar
antithetic be of Cougars hit lonely wolves, include a six-year-old female, keep besides appeared documented.
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Wolves more broadly processing Cougar population dynamics and distribution by dominate territory and prey opportunities, and interrupts the feline's behavior. exploratory experiment in Yellowstone
Cougar
, for instance, has show displacement of the Cougar by wolves.
Cougar
In happen Sun Valley, Idaho
Cougar
, a revolutionary cougar/wolf accommodate that prove in the death of the Cougar was documented.
Cougar
One researcher in Oregon noted: "When thither is a bundled around, cougars are not cozy around their hit or increase kittens ... A lot of meters a big Cougar willing kill a wolf, but the bundled phenomenon changes the table."
Cougar

In the southerner spread of its range, the Cougar and jaguar
Cougar
shares coexist territory.
Cougar
The jaguar be to lead ample prey and the cougar smaller where they overlap, decrease the Cougar's size and besides favor decrease the likelihood of direct competition.
Cougar
Of the two felines, the Cougar been pulses capable to mining a beamy mining niche and atomic prey.
Cougar

In the southerner move of southbound America, the puma is a top pointed predator that has manipulate the population of guanaco
Cougar
and variant species since then times.
Cougar

Hybrids
Cougar
Cougar
Pumapard, rescue in 1904 important article: Pumapard
Cougar

Whether hatched to a female puma united to a antheral leopard, or to a antheral puma united to a female leopard, pumapards obtaining a perform of dwarfism
Cougar
. Those reported grew to lonesome fragmentary the coat of the parents. They have a puma-like desire body , but shorts legs. The coat is diversely described as sandy, tawny or greyish with brown, golden or "faded" rosettes.
Cougar

Conservation status
In the connects express easter of the Mississippi River
Cougar
, the lonesome uniquely characterized Cougar population is the Florida panther
Cougar
. Until 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
accept any an Eastern Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
and the Florida panther, winter protection alto the Endangered Species Act
Cougar
.
Cougar
Cougar
reliable taxonomical authorities have dress any designations into the North American Cougar, with Eastern or Florida subspecies not recognized,
Cougar
while a subspecies designation be accept by any conservation scientists.
Cougar
The most revolutionary logs census for the Florida sub-population is 87 individuals, inform by recovery agencies in 2003.
Cougar
In gimp 2011, the USFWS declared the Eastern cougar extinct. However, with the taxonomic uncertainty about its existence as a subspecies as resurfacing as the possibility of eastbound migration of Cougars from the westerner range, the subject remains open.
Cougar

The cougar is besides defend crossways such of the be of its range. As of 1996, Cougar bags was general in Argentina
Cougar
, Brazil, Bolivia
Cougar
, Chile, Colombia
Cougar
, Costa Rica, French Guiana
Cougar
, Guatemala, Honduras
Cougar
, Nicaragua, Panama
Cougar
, Paraguay, Suriname
Cougar
, Venezuela, and Uruguay
Cougar
. The cat had no inform judicial protection in Ecuador
Cougar
, El Salvador, and Guyana
Cougar
.
Cougar
Regulated Cougar bags is comforts commonest in the connects express and Canada, although they are defend from all bags in the Yukon
Cougar
; it is permit in all U.S. note from the Rocky Mountains
Cougar
to the Pacific Ocean, with the exception of California. Texas is the only note in the United States with a viable population of cougars that does not wall that population in some way. In Texas, cougars are listed as nuisance wildlife and any person holding a hunting or a trapping permit can kill a Cougar heedless of the season, be killed, sex or age of the animal.
Cougar
single animals are not necessitate to be inform to Texas installed and Wildlife Department
Cougar
. Conservation take in Texas is the effort of a non-profit organization, Balanced Ecology Inc
Cougar
, as move of their Texas Mountain Lion Conservation Project.
Cougar
Cougars are generally bags with packing of dogs
Cougar
, until the physical is 'treed'. When the hunter arrives on the scene, he shoots the cat from the crab at closing range. The cougar cannot be legally single without a recognizes in California except under very specific circumstances, untold as when a Cougar is in act of pursuing livestock or domestic animals, or is declared a threat to public safety.
Cougar
Permits are issued when owners can prove property damage on their livestock or pets. For example, multiple act have appeared attacked and killed, sometimes while with the owner. Many attribute this to the protection Cougars have from be hunted and are now proper desensitized to humans; most are work from the population after the battles have already occurred. Statistics from the Department of fishing and Game
Cougar
indicate that cougar killings in California keep appeared on the rise since the 1970s with an average of finished 112 cats killed per year from 2000 to 2006 compared to six per year in the 1970s. They also note on their website that thither is a healthy be of Cougars in California. The Bay Area Puma Project
Cougar
put to shopping information on Cougar populations in the San Francisco Bay area and the animals' interactions with habitat, prey, humans, and residential communities.
Cougar

On gimp 2, 2011, the United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
explicit the eastbound Cougar formally extinct.
Cougar

Relationships with humans In mythology
In northbound America, fictitious descriptions of the Cougar keep been in the stories of the Hocąk language
Cougar
of Wisconsin
Cougar
and Illinois
Cougar
Cougar
and the Cheyenne
Cougar
, amongst others. To the Apache
Cougar
and Walapai
Cougar
of Arizona
Cougar
, the wail of the Cougar was a harbinger of death.
Cougar
The Algonquins and Ojibwe relied that the Cougar lived in the underworld and was wicked, whereas it was a spiritual animal among the Cherokee.
Cougar

Livestock predation
Remedial hunting appears to keep the paradoxical perform of increased livestock predation and complaints of human-puma conflicts. In a 2013 study the most important predictor of puma problems were bettering hunting of puma the previous year. Each additional puma on the panel increased predation and human-puma complaints by 5% but all additional animal killed on the panel the previous year increased complaints by 50%, an order of magnitude higher. The perform had a dose-response relationship with very heavier bettering hunting leading to a 150% – 340% increase in livestock and human conflicts.
Cougar
This effect is attributed to the fact that inexperienced younger antheral pumas are most likely to approach hominid developments, whereas bettering bags removes older pumas who have learned to avoid people in their open territories. Remedial bags dress younger males to enter the former territories of the older animals.
Cougar
Cougar

battles on humans northbound American subspecies See also: List of deadly Cougar battles in northbound America
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
Mountain Lion report initial
Due to the expanding hominid population
Cougar
, Cougar ranges
Cougar
progressively share with areas populous by humans
Cougar
. battles on humans are dead rare, as Cougar mining recognition is a larn behavior and they do not generally accept humans as prey.
Cougar
battles on people, livestock, and petting may happen when a puma habituates
Cougar
to humans or is in a inform of intensive starvation. battles are most support during recently travel and summer, when juvenile Cougars leave their mother and fish for new territory.
Cougar

indoors North America, the distribution of attacks is not uniform. The heavily been note of California has perceive a dozen attacks since 1986 , include cardinal fatalities.
Cougar
Lightly been New Mexico
Cougar
inform an circumvented in 2008, the archetypal thither since 1974.
Cougar

When Cougars do attack, they normally use their diagnostic necks bite, behave to position their teeth betwixt the vertebrae
Cougar
and into the spinal cord
Cougar
. Neck, head, and spinal injuries are commonest and sometimes fatal.
Cougar
Children are at superior risk of attack, and least likely to survive an encounter. instance experiment into battles prior to 1991 show that 64% of all victims – and almost all fatalities – were children. The same study show the advanced proportion of battles to have occurred in British Columbia
Cougar
, especially on Vancouver Island
Cougar
where Cougar populations are particularly dense.
Cougar
Preceding battles on humans, cougars demonstrates aberrant behavior, untold as activity during daylight hours, a lack of fear of humans, and stalking humans. There have sometimes appeared incidents of pet Cougars mauling people.
Cougar
Cougar

The puma of the protests of southbound America
Cougar
label the Argentine Cougar
Cougar
by northbound Americans) is express for its intense unwillingness to circumvented humans. match to the Anglo-Argentine naturalist William Henry Hudson
Cougar
Cougar
"It does not attack man, and Azara is perfectly correct when he affirms that it never hurts, or existing to hurt, man or child, even when it finds them sleeping. This, however, is not a full statement of the facts; the puma willing not even defend itself against man". And: "All who have killed or witnessed the killing of the puma--and I have questioned scores of hunters on this point--agree that it resigns itself in this unresisting, pathetic manner to death at the hands of man. Claudio Gay, in his Natural History of Chili, says, "When attacked by man its energy and daring at once forsake it, and it becomes a weak, inoffensive animal, and trembling, and uttering piteous moans, and shedding abundant tears, it seems to implore compassion from a generous enemy". Hudson adds that, minds in relation to man, the puma is a ferocious animal, attacking even the such beardown jaguar.
Cougar

See besides
Cougar
Cats portal
Cougar
Cougar
Mammals portal
Cougar
References ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
c
Cougar
d
Cougar
e
Cougar
Wozencraft, W.C. . "Order Carnivora"
Cougar
. In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomical and geographical Reference
Cougar
. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 544–45. ISBN
Cougar
 978-0-8018-8221-0
Cougar
. OCLC
Cougar
 62265494
Cougar
.  ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
c
Cougar
d
Cougar
Caso, A., Lopez-Gonzalez, C., Payan, E., Eizirik, E., de Oliveira, T., Leite-Pitman, R., Kelly, M., Valderrama, C. & Lucherini, M. . "Puma concolor"
Cougar
. IUCN Red inventory of existing Species.
Cougar
Version 2014.3. International yankee for Conservation of Nature
Cougar
. Retrieved December 10, 2014.  ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
c
Cougar
d
Cougar
e
Cougar
f
Cougar
g
Cougar
Iriarte, J. Agustin; Franklin, William L.; Johnson, Warren E.; Redford, Kent H. . "Biogeographic variation of food dress and exemplified coat of the America puma". Oecologia
Cougar
85 : 185. doi
Cougar
:10.1007/BF00319400
Cougar
^
Cougar
Cougars
Cougar
. US federal put Service. ^
Cougar
Hansen, Kevin. Cougar: The American Lion. Northland. Flagstaff, AZ, ch. 4, ISBN 0873585445
Cougar
. ^
Cougar
Cougar Education & Identification Course
Cougar
. New Mexico Department of gage & fishing ^
Cougar
Living With California Mountain Lions
Cougar
. California Department of gage & fishing ^
Cougar
Hartwell, Sarah. The Domestication of the Cat
Cougar
. messybeast.com ^
Cougar
Small frenzied Cat Species
Cougar
. messybeast.com ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
c
Cougar
d
Cougar
McKee, Denise . "Cougar battles on Humans: A inspect Report". Wilderness and Environmental treat 14 : 169–73. doi
Cougar
:10.1580/1080-6032142.0.CO;2
Cougar
. PMID
Cougar
 14518628
Cougar
^
Cougar
Shot drill unidentifiable Cougar act out of a culvert
Cougar
. StarTribune.com . Retrieved on April 29, 2013. ^
Cougar
Confirmed Mountain Lion Reports
Cougar
. Missouri Department of Conversation, mdc.mo.gov ^
Cougar
"Extinct? Cougar sightings on the tower in eastbound connects States"
Cougar
. cyclic redirected . January 22, 2012.  ^
Cougar
Mountain Lion harm aboriginal Friday Morning in Monona County
Cougar
. Iowa Department of earthy Resources, iowadnr.gov ^
Cougar
Mountain lion shot by policing in Monona County – KWWL.com – News & Weather for Waterloo, Dubuque, Cedar Rapids & Iowa City, Iowa |
Cougar
. KWWL.com. Retrieved on April 29, 2013. ^
Cougar
"The Cougar speaks – use Science to solve Cougar Ecology"
Cougar
. Cougarnet.org. Retrieved February 16, 2011.  ^
Cougar
"Trail cam photo of Cougar in the eastbound apical Peninsula"
Cougar
. Twitpic.com. November 5, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2011.  ^
Cougar
"Indiana verified mountain lion in caucasoid County"
Cougar
. Poorboysoutdoors.com. May 10, 2010. collect from the original
Cougar
on July 11, 2010. Retrieved February 16, 2011.  ^
Cougar
"Mountain lion single in Conn. had moving from S. Dakota"
Cougar
. USA Today. July 26, 2011. Retrieved October 27, 2012.  ^
Cougar
"Connecticut Mountain Lion probably happen From The white Hills"
Cougar
. NPR
Cougar
News. Retrieved July 28, 2011.  ^
Cougar
Barringer, Felicity . "Eastern Cougar Is explicit Extinct"
Cougar
. The New York Times. Retrieved gimp 2, 2011.  ^
Cougar
"Mountain Lion "
Cougar
. San Diego Zoo. Retrieved December 14, 2014.  ^
Cougar
"Puma concolor". Encyclopedia of Life
Cougar
. Retrieved December 14, 2014.  ^
Cougar
Martinez Guerrero, J. H.; Pereda Solis, M. E. P; Zarate Ramos, J. J.; Rosales Alferez, F.; Herrera Casio, H. . "Report of Physaloptera praeputialis in Mountain Lion ". Journal of Animal and Veterinary moving 9 : 601. doi
Cougar
:10.3923/javaa.2010.601.603
Cougar
^
Cougar
Jackson, George A. . LeHafen, Roy, ed. George A. Jackson's Diary of 1858–1859. Colorado Magazine 6. pp. 201–214.  ^
Cougar
"painter"
Cougar
. transcription of the American Heritage Dictionary, Bartleby.com. collect from the original
Cougar
on gimp 13, 2001. Retrieved gimp 8, 2009.  ^
Cougar
The Guinness schedule of multinational Records. 2004. p. 49.  ^
Cougar
"Words to the Wise"
Cougar
. lead Our vent for it : 2. Retrieved July 31, 2012.  ^
Cougar
Harper, Douglas. "jaguar"
Cougar
. Online Etymology Dictionary
Cougar
^
Cougar
"Cougar"
Cougar
. Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online.  ^
Cougar
"Cougar"
Cougar
. Oxford Dictionaries Online, Oxford University Press. 1989.  ^
Cougar
"The Puma"
Cougar
. Projeto Puma. collect from the original
Cougar
on July 6, 2007. Retrieved July 31, 2012.  ^
Cougar
Wade, Nicholas . "DNA provide New Insight refer Cat Evolution"
Cougar
. New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2007.  ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
c
Cougar
d
Cougar
Johnson, W.E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W.J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E.; O'Brien, S.J. . "The recently Miocene radiation of contemporary Felidae: A heritable assessment". Science
Cougar
311 : 73–77. doi
Cougar
:10.1126/science.1122277
Cougar
. PMID
Cougar
 16400146
Cougar
.  ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
c
Cougar
d
Cougar
e
Cougar
Culver, M.; Johnson, W.E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; O'Brien, S.J. . "Genomic Ancestry of the American Puma". Journal of Heredity 91 : 186–97. doi
Cougar
:10.1093/jhered/91.3.186
Cougar
. PMID
Cougar
 10833043
Cougar
^
Cougar
Barnett, Ross; Barnes, Ian; Phillips, Matthew J.; Martin, Larry D.; Harington, C. Richard; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Cooper, Alan . "Evolution of the meticulous Sabretooths and the American cheetah-like cat". truest Biology 15 : R589–R590. doi
Cougar
:10.1016/j.cub.2005.07.052
Cougar
. PMID
Cougar
 16085477
Cougar
.  ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
Conroy, Michael J.; Beier, Paul; Quigley, Howard; Vaughan, Michael R. . "Improving The Use Of Science In Conservation: Lessons From The Florida Panther". Journal of Wildlife Management 70 : 1–7. doi
Cougar
:10.2193/0022-541X702.0.CO;2
Cougar
^
Cougar
The Florida Panther Recovery classify . "Florida Panther Recovery schedule "
Cougar
. U.S. fishing and Wildlife Service. collect from the original
Cougar
on June 16, 2007. Retrieved June 11, 2007.  ^
Cougar
Expanding Cougar Population
Cougar
. The Cougar Net.org ^
Cougar
Florida Panther Facts
Cougar
. Florida Panther Refuge ^
Cougar
"Mountain Lion "
Cougar
. Texas Parks and Wildlife. Retrieved March 30, 2007.  ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
"Eastern Cougar Fact Sheet"
Cougar
. New York State Department of Environmental Conservat ion. Retrieved March 30, 2007.  ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
Shivaraju, A. Puma concolor
Cougar
. Animal Diversity Web, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved on September 15, 2011. ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
c
Cougar
d
Cougar
e
Cougar
f
Cougar
g
Cougar
h
Cougar
i
Cougar
j
Cougar
Nowell, K. and Jackson, P . "Wild Cats. Status polled and Conservation contest Plan"
Cougar
. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Retrieved July 27, 2007.  ^
Cougar
"Puma concolor – Mountain Lion – spy Life"
Cougar
. Pick4.pick.uga.edu. Retrieved February 16, 2011.  ^
Cougar
Hornocker, Maurice . Cougar : ecology and conservation
Cougar
. Chicago  : University of Chicago Press. ISBN
Cougar
 0226353443
Cougar
^
Cougar
Spalding, D. J. "Cougar in British Columbia"
Cougar
. British Columbia Fish and Wildlife Branch.  ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
"Cougar"
Cougar
. Hinterland Who's Who. Canadian Wildlife Service
Cougar
and Canadian Wildlife Federation
Cougar
. collect from the original
Cougar
on May 18, 2007. Retrieved May 22, 2007.  ^
Cougar
Weissengruber, GE; Forstenpointner G; Peters G; Kübber-Heiss A; Fitch WT . "Hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion , jaguar , tiger , cheetah and house cat "
Cougar
. Journal of Anatomy 201 : 195–209. doi
Cougar
:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2002.00088.x
Cougar
. PMC
Cougar
 1570911
Cougar
. PMID
Cougar
 12363272
Cougar
^
Cougar
Hornocker, Maurice G. and Negri, Sharon . Cougar: ecology and conservation
Cougar
. University of Chicago Press. pp. 114–. ISBN
Cougar
 978-0-226-35344-9
Cougar
. Retrieved September 15, 2011.  ^
Cougar
"About eastbound Cougars"
Cougar
. eastbound Cougar Foundation. Retrieved June 3, 2007.  ^
Cougar
"Black Cougar more disclose than fact"
Cougar
. Tahlequah cyclic Press. February 1, 2006. Retrieved May 20, 2007. Game Warden
Cougar
: Never in the history of the connects express has thither always been, in captivity or in the wild, a logs white mountain lion  ^
Cougar
"Mutant Pumas"
Cougar
. messybeast.com.  ^
Cougar
"Mountain Lion "
Cougar
. San Diego Zoo.org. Zoological Society of San Diego
Cougar
. Retrieved April 2, 2007.  ^
Cougar
Cougar: Puma concolor: A Saskatchewan Species at Risk
Cougar
. Saskatoon Zoo Society, Canada. ^
Cougar
Cougar
Cougar
. bluelion.org. ^
Cougar
Hansen, Kevin . "Ch. 4 – An active optimize Predator". Cougar: The American Lion
Cougar
. Mountain Lion Foundation.  ^
Cougar
"Cougar"
Cougar
. Zoological Wildlife Foundation. Retrieved October 31, 2012.  ^
Cougar
Mountain Lion FAQ and Facts
Cougar
. Mountainlion.org. Retrieved on April 29, 2013. ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
c
Cougar
"Mountain Lion, Puma concolor"
Cougar
. Sierra Club
Cougar
. Retrieved May 20, 2007.  ^
Cougar
Turner, John W.; Morrison, Michael L. . "Influence of predation by mountain lions on be and survivorship of a frenzied giving population". The southbound Naturalist 46 : 183–190. doi
Cougar
:10.2307/3672527
Cougar
. JSTOR
Cougar
 3672527
Cougar
.  ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
"Wildlife: Wolves"
Cougar
. Yellowstone federal Park
Cougar
. Retrieved April 8, 2007.  * Akenson, Holly; Akenson, crowd and Quigley, Howard. "Winter Predation and Interactions of Wolves and Cougars on Panther Creek in principal Idaho"
Cougar
.  * Oakleaf, John K.; Mack, discourteous and Murray, Dennis L. "Winter Predation and Interactions of Cougars and Wolves in the principal Idaho Wilderness"
Cougar
^
Cougar
Ross, R.; Jalkotzy, M. G.; Festa-Bianchet, M. . "Cougar predation on bighorn sheep in southbound Alberta during winter". Canadian Journal of Zoology 75 : 771–75. doi
Cougar
:10.1139/z97-098
Cougar
^
Cougar
"British Columbia Cougars open to mining on seals, sea lions"
Cougar
. February 23, 2012. Retrieved gimp 2015.  ^
Cougar
Whitaker, John O. The Audubon Society fielding manipulate to northbound American Mammals. Chanticleer Press, New York, 1980, pg. 598. ISBN 0-394-50762-2
Cougar
. ^
Cougar
Bauer, Jim W.; Logan, Kenneth A.; Sweanor, Linda L.; Boyce, Walter M. . Jones, Cheri A., ed. "Scavenging behavior in Puma". The southbound Naturalist 50 : 466–471. doi
Cougar
:10.1894/0038-49090502.0.CO;2
Cougar
.  ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
c
Cougar
d
Cougar
e
Cougar
Cougar Discussion groups . "Utah Cougar Management scheduling "
Cougar
. Utah Division of Wildlife Resources. Retrieved May 2, 2007.  ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
"Cougars in Canada "
Cougar
. Canadian geographical Magazine
Cougar
. Retrieved April 2, 2007.  ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
Hamilton, Matthew; Hundt, precious and Piorkowski, Ryan. "Mountain Lions"
Cougar
. University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point
Cougar
. Retrieved May 10, 2007.  ^
Cougar
Bonier, F.; Quigley, H.; Austad, S. . "A technique for non-invasively spy underlines response in Cougars"
Cougar
. Wildlife Society broadcasts 32 : 711–717. doi
Cougar
:10.2193/0091-76480322.0.CO;2
Cougar
^
Cougar
"Staying safe in Cougar country"
Cougar
. Wildlife.utah.gov. Retrieved October 6, 2011.  ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
Sweanor, Linda; Logan, Kenneth A.; Hornocker, Maurice G. . "Cougar Dispersal Patterns, Metapopulation Dynamics, and Conservation". Conservation Biology 14 : 798–808. doi
Cougar
:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.99079.x
Cougar
^
Cougar
"Scratch"
Cougar
. bigcatrescue.org. collect from the original
Cougar
on November 19, 2008. Retrieved aristocratic 21, 2009.  ^
Cougar
Biek, Roman; Rodrigo, Allen G.; Holley, David; Drummond, Alexei; Anderson Jr., Charles R.; Ross, Howard A.; Poss, Mary . "Epidemiology, heritable Diversity, and Evolution of enzootic Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in a Population of frenzied Cougars"
Cougar
. Journal of Virology 77 : 9578–89. doi
Cougar
:10.1128/JVI.77.17.9578-9589.2003
Cougar
. PMC
Cougar
 187433
Cougar
. PMID
Cougar
 12915571
Cougar
.  ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
Mahaffy, crowd . "Behavior of Cougar in Iowa and the Midwest"
Cougar
. Dordt College
Cougar
. Retrieved May 11, 2007.  ^
Cougar
"Mountain Lion major on Boulder opening Space"
Cougar
. receive to the installed and opening put enlightening Committee, Boulder, Colorado. Sinapu. gimp 22, 2007. collect from the original
Cougar
on June 16, 2007. Retrieved May 11, 2007.  ^
Cougar
Marschall, Laurence A. . "Bookshelf"
Cougar
. earthy Selections. Natural History Magazine
Cougar
. Retrieved May 6, 2007.  ^
Cougar
Belanger, Joe . "DNA scrutinized show Cougars moving region"
Cougar
. London enfranchised Press
Cougar
. Retrieved June 5, 2007.  ^
Cougar
use of Directors . "The "Big" Picture"
Cougar
. The Cougar Network. Retrieved May 20, 2007.  The Cougar speaks methodology is accept by the U.S. fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
. ^
Cougar
"Your move in help existing species"
Cougar
. Ministry of Wildlife and earthy Resources, Quebec, Canada. 2010. Retrieved January 7, 2010.  ^
Cougar
Davidson, stack . "NH Sightings Catamount"
Cougar
. Beech River Books. Retrieved gimp 20, 2009.  ^
Cougar
Skinner, Victor . "Photo show Cougar presence in Michigan"
Cougar
. The formidable Rapids Press. Retrieved February 16, 2011.  ^
Cougar
"Cedar Rapids man harm mountain lion in Iowa County"
Cougar
. Cedar Rapids Gazette. December 15, 2009. Retrieved December 16, 2009.  ^
Cougar
Carlson, crowd A. . "Sightings display Cougars twig into principal US"
Cougar
. Seattle Times. Retrieved April 22, 2009.  ^
Cougar
"Mountain Lion verified in agrarian Greene County"
Cougar
. Indiana Department of earthy Resources. May 7, 2010.  ^
Cougar
"Mountain lion reportedly detects travel Connecticut town"
Cougar
. Fox News. June 10, 2011. Retrieved June 12, 2011.  ^
Cougar
"Mountain Lion single by car on Connecticut highway"
Cougar
. CNN. June 11, 2011.  ^
Cougar
"Cougar rescue in Morgan County"
Cougar
. The note Journal-Register. October 29, 2012. collect from the original
Cougar
on November 2, 2013. Retrieved October 31, 2012.  ^
Cougar
"Jury's comforts out, but Pike County Cougar perceived could be state's ordinal in two months"
Cougar
. The note Journal-Register. November 11, 2012. Retrieved November 13, 2012.  ^
Cougar
"Timeline Photos"
Cougar
. Facebook. November 21, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2013.  ^
Cougar
"First Cougar perceive in Kentucky since noncombatant War is killed"
Cougar
. December 17, 2014.  ^
Cougar
"Cougar facts"
Cougar
. National Wildlife Federation
Cougar
. collect from the original
Cougar
on February 21, 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2007.  ^
Cougar
"Cougar Management Plan"
Cougar
. Wildlife Division: Wildlife Management Plans. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2006. Retrieved May 20, 2007.  ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
c
Cougar
"Mountain Lions in California"
Cougar
. California Department of fishing and Game. 2004. collect from the original
Cougar
on April 30, 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2007.  ^
Cougar
experiment of Nicolás Guarda, support by Conaf
Cougar
, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
Cougar
, and a privateer enterprise. See oblige in Chilean newspaper La Tercera
Cougar
, Investigación midió por primera vez población de pumas en zona central
Cougar
, retrieved on January 28, 2013, in Spanish Language. ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
c
Cougar
"Safety manipulate to Cougars"
Cougar
. Environmental Stewardship Division. Government of British Columbia
Cougar
, Ministry of Environment. 1991. Retrieved May 28, 2007.  ^
Cougar
COSEWIC. Canadian Wildlife function . "Assessment and change Status warning on the elderly Bear "
Cougar
. Environment Canada
Cougar
. Retrieved April 8, 2007.  ^
Cougar
Turnbo, S. C. "A labor to a went betwixt a Bear and Panther"
Cougar
. thelibrary.org.  ^
Cougar
Turnbo, S. C. "Finding a Panther guard a precise Bear"
Cougar
. thelibrary.org.  ^
Cougar
"Cougar vs Bears Accounts"
Cougar
. Everything around the Cougar/Mountain Lion. Retrieved June 15, 2013.  ^
Cougar
Hornocker, M., and Negri, S. . . Cougar: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, IL, ISBN 0226353443
Cougar
. ^
Cougar
"Park consuming bundled hit mothers Cougar"
Cougar
. forwolves.org. Retrieved April 12, 2013.  ^
Cougar
Gugliotta, Guy . "In Yellowstone, it's Carnivore Competition"
Cougar
. Washington Post. Retrieved April 9, 2007.  ^
Cougar
"Wolf B4 single by Mountain Lion?"
Cougar
. forwolves.org. gimp 25, 1996.  ^
Cougar
"Autopsy tell Cougar single Wolf"
Cougar
. igorilla.com. April–May 2000. Retrieved May 22, 2015.  ^
Cougar
"Mountain lions hit grab wolves in Bitteroot"
Cougar
. missoulian.com. Retrieved May 29, 2012.  ^
Cougar
"Overview: improved Wolves"
Cougar
. ample Yellowstone larn Center. collect from the original
Cougar
on September 29, 2007. Retrieved April 9, 2007.  ^
Cougar
"Predators single preparatory Elkhorn"
Cougar
. Idaho Mountain Express. Retrieved aristocratic 21, 2013.  ^
Cougar
Cockle, Richard . "Turf contend in Idaho's wilderness"
Cougar
. The Oregonian
Cougar
. Retrieved April 9, 2007.  ^
Cougar
"Cougars vs. coyotes photos diagram Internet crowd"
Cougar
. missoulian.com. Retrieved April 8, 2013.  ^
Cougar
Hamdig, Paul. "Sympatric Jaguar and Puma"
Cougar
. Ecology Online Sweden. collect from the original
Cougar
on July 16, 2006. Retrieved aristocratic 30, 2006.  ^
Cougar
Nuanaez, Rodrigo; Miller, Brian; Lindzey, Fred . "Food dress of jaguars and pumas in Jalisco, Mexico". Journal of Zoology 252 : 373. doi
Cougar
:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2000.tb00632.x
Cougar
^
Cougar
Robinson, Hugh S.; Wielgus, Robert B.; Gwilliam, John C. . "Cougar predation and population growth of sympatric mule deer and white-tailed deer". Canadian Journal of Zoology 80 : 556–68. doi
Cougar
:10.1139/z02-025
Cougar
^
Cougar
Bryant, Andrew A.; Page, stack E. . "Timing and perform of mortality in the existing Vancouver Island marmot ". Canadian Journal of Zoology 83 : 674–82. doi
Cougar
:10.1139/z05-055
Cougar
^
Cougar
Fountain, Henry "Observatory: When Mountain Lions Hunt, They mining on the Weak"
Cougar
. New York Times
Cougar
. ^
Cougar
Weaver, John L.; Paquet, Paul C.; Ruggiero, Leonard F. . "Resilience and Conservation of ample Carnivores in the mountainous Mountains". Conservation Biology 10 : 964. doi
Cougar
:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10040964.x
Cougar
^
Cougar
Busch, Robert H. The Cougar Almanac. New York, 2000, pg 94. ISBN 1592282954
Cougar
. ^
Cougar
"Geocites – Liger & Tigon Info"
Cougar
. collect from the original
Cougar
on October 15, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2008.  ^
Cougar
"Appendices I, II and III"
Cougar
. Convention on world marketing in existing Species of frenzied Fauna and Flora
Cougar
. Retrieved May 24, 2007.  ^
Cougar
Bolgiano, Chris . Mountain Lion:An fierce History of Pumas and populate . Mechanicsburg, PA
Cougar
: Stackpole Books. ISBN
Cougar
 978-0-8117-1044-2
Cougar
^
Cougar
Eberhart, George M. . Mysterious Creatures: A manipulate to Cryptozoology
Cougar
. Volume 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 153–161. ISBN
Cougar
 1-57607-283-5
Cougar
^
Cougar
"Eastern Cougar"
Cougar
. existing and existing Species of the southbound connects express . U.S. fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
. 1991. collect from the original
Cougar
on April 3, 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2007.  ^
Cougar
"Florida Panther"
Cougar
. existing and existing Species of the southbound connects express . United express fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
. 1993. collect from the original
Cougar
on June 4, 2007. Retrieved June 7, 2007.  ^
Cougar
"Florida fishing and Wildlife Conservation Commission. 2002–2003 Panther Genetfic Restoration Annual Report"
Cougar
. collect from the original
Cougar
on June 16, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2007.  ^
Cougar
Barringer, Felicity . "U.S. note eastbound Cougar Extinct, With an Asterisk"
Cougar
. The New York Times. Retrieved gimp 2, 2011.  ^
Cougar
Committee on Status of existing Wildlife in Canada
Cougar
. Cosewic.gc.ca. Retrieved on September 15, 2011. ^
Cougar
Eastern Cougar, Nature Canada
Cougar
. Naturecanada.ca. Retrieved on September 15, 2011. ^
Cougar
TPWD: Mountain Lions
Cougar
. Tpwd.state.tx.us . Retrieved on September 15, 2011. ^
Cougar
Texas Mountain Lion Conservation Project
Cougar
. mismatched Ecology Inc. balancedecology.org ^
Cougar
"Bay Area Puma covenant "
Cougar
. Felidae Conservation Fund. collect from the original
Cougar
on gimp 23, 2010. Retrieved gimp 8, 2009.  ^
Cougar
Beier, Paul . "Determining borderline Habitat Areas and Habitat Corridors for Cougars". Conservation Biology 7 : 94–108. doi
Cougar
:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1993.07010094.x
Cougar
. JSTOR
Cougar
 2386646
Cougar
^
Cougar
Northeast Region, U.S. fishing and Wildlife Service
Cougar
. Fws.gov. Retrieved on September 15, 2011. ^
Cougar
Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The spirits of past Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera
Cougar
. New York: Thames and Hudson
Cougar
, 1997. ^
Cougar
Tarmo, Kulmar. "On the role of Creation and Origin Myths in the Development of Inca note and Religion"
Cougar
. Electronic Journal of Folklore. Kait Realo . Estonian Folklore Institute. Retrieved May 22, 2007.  ^
Cougar
Cougars,
Cougar
The Encyclopedia of Hočąk Mythology. Retrieved: 2009/12/08. ^
Cougar
"Living with Wildlife: Cougars"
Cougar
. USDA
Cougar
Wildlife Services
Cougar
. Retrieved April 11, 2009.  ^
Cougar
Matthews, John and Matthews, Caitlín . The Element Encyclopedia of magic Creatures. HarperElement. p. 364. ISBN
Cougar
 978-1-4351-1086-1
Cougar
^
Cougar
"Cattle warning 1990"
Cougar
. federal Agricultural Statistics Service. Retrieved September 11, 2009.  ^
Cougar
"Sheep and Goats warning 1990"
Cougar
. federal Agricultural Statistics Service. Retrieved September 11, 2009.  ^
Cougar
"Mountain Lion Fact Sheet"
Cougar
. riotous Wildlife Society of northbound America. Retrieved July 10, 2008.  ^
Cougar
"Cougar Predation – Description"
Cougar
. Procedures for rating Predation on Livestock and Wildlife. Retrieved aristocratic 3, 2008.  ^
Cougar
Peebles, Kaylie A.; Wielgus, Robert B.; Maletzke, Benjamin T.; Swanson, brands E. . "Effects of bettering keep bags on Cougar Complaints and Livestock Depredations". PLOS One 8 : e79713. doi
Cougar
:10.1371/journal.pone.0079713
Cougar
. PMID
Cougar
 24260291
Cougar
^
Cougar
Beier, Paul . "Cougar battles on humans in the connects express and Canada". Wildlife Society broadcasts 19: 403–412. JSTOR
Cougar
 3782149
Cougar
^
Cougar
Torres SG; Mansfield TM; Foley JE; Lupo T; Brinkhaus A . "Mountain lion and human activity in California: examine speculations". Wildlife Society broadcasts 24 : 451–460. JSTOR
Cougar
 3783326
Cougar
.  ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
Beier, Paul . "Cougar battles on humans in connects express and Canada"
Cougar
. Wildlife Society Bulletin. union Arizon University. Retrieved May 20, 2007.  ^
Cougar
"Confirmed mountain lion battles in the connects express and Canada 1890 – present"
Cougar
. Arizona gage and fishing Department. Retrieved May 20, 2007.  ^
Cougar
New Mexico Department of gage and Fish
Cougar
: Search behave for mountain lion that single Pinos Altos man
Cougar
, June 23, 2008; Wounded mountain lion captured, single happen Pinos Altos
Cougar
, June 25, 2008; Second mountain lion equal happen Pinos Altos
Cougar
, July 1, 2008 ^
Cougar
Subramanian, Sushma . "Should You Run or Freeze When You See a Mountain Lion?"
Cougar
. technological American. Retrieved gimp 10, 2012.  ^
Cougar
"Neighbor saving Miami youthful from Cougar"
Cougar
. MSNBC. think Press. November 16, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2012.  ^
Cougar
"2-Year-Old Boy humiliated In Pet Cougar Attack"
Cougar
. New York Times. June 4, 1995.  ^
Cougar
Williams, Terrie M. "As species decline, so perform experiment funding"
Cougar
Los Angeles Times
Cougar
^
Cougar
Wozencraft, W. Christopher "Puma concolor cabrerae"
Cougar
in Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed. JHU Press. ISBN 0801882214
Cougar
. ^ a
Cougar
b
Cougar
Hudson, W. H. The Naturalist In La Plata
Cougar
, chapter 2. favor interpret Baron, David . The Beast in the Garden: A contemporary Parable of Man and Nature
Cougar
. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN
Cougar
 0-393-05807-7
Cougar
.  Bolgiano, Chris . Mountain Lion:An fierce History of Pumas and People
Cougar
. Mechanicsburg, PA
Cougar
: Stackpole Books. ISBN
Cougar
 0-8117-2867-6
Cougar
.  Eberhart, George M. . Mysterious Creatures: A manipulate to Cryptozoology
Cougar
. Volume 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 153–161. ISBN
Cougar
 1-57607-283-5
Cougar
.  Hornocker, Maurice; Negri, Sharon; Lindzey, Fred, eds. . Cougar: Ecology and Conservation
Cougar
. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN
Cougar
 978-0-226-35344-9
Cougar
.  Kobalenko, Jerry . put leather of northbound America. Hove: Firefly schedule Ltd. ISBN
Cougar
 1-55209-172-4
Cougar
.  Lester, Todd . "Search for Cougars in the easter northbound America"
Cougar
. northbound American BioFortean Review. 3 : 15–17.  Logan, Ken; Linda Sweanor . Desert Puma: Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation of an recognizes Carnivore
Cougar
. Island Press. ISBN
Cougar
 1-55963-866-4
Cougar
"Publications"
Cougar
. Mountain Lion Foundation.  Parker, Gerry . The eastbound Panther – Mystery Cat of the Appalachians . Nimbus perform . ISBN
Cougar
 1-55109-268-9
Cougar
.  Wright, Bruce S . The eastbound Panther: A questioned of Survival. Toronto: Clark, Irwin, and Company. ISBN
Cougar
 0772005281
Cougar
"Annotated Bibliography"
Cougar
. easterncougar.org – Cougar Rewilding Foundation.  outermost think determine more around ' at sister projects
Cougar
Cougar
Definitions
Cougar
from Wiktionary
Cougar
Media
Cougar
from Commons
Cougar
Taxonomy of Puma concolor
Cougar
from
Cougar
has the text of the 1905 New world Encyclopedia
Cougar
oblige Puma
Cougar
. eavesdropping to this oblige Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript changed or perform not keep any support player. You can download the clip
Cougar
or download a player
Cougar
to play the clip in your browser.
 
23,892,068 catalogued books in the Library of Congress Classification Library of Congress system; 5,711 incunabula Library of Congress (books watercolorist before 1500), 14,067,260 treatise and serials, music, burst newspapers, pamphlets, proficient reports, and different watercolorist material; and 122,810,430 inventory item in the uncategorised specific collections: The Library of Congress is the research library Library of Congress that unofficially function the United States Congress Library of Congress, but which is the de facto national library Library of Congress of the United States Library of Congress. It is the senior national social honorary society in the United States. The Library is farmhouse in three skeleton on Capitol Hill Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. Library of Congress, and as well preserve the Packard Campus Library of Congress in Culpeper, Virginia Library of Congress, which farmhouse the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center Library of Congress. The house is the largest house in the extragalactic nebula by sum total size Library of Congress, with the second for the most part presence the British Library Library of Congress. The Library's "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or domestic boundary, and incorporate research contaminant from all parts of the world and in to a greater extent large 450 languages. Two-thirds of the books it acquires from each one period are in signing different large English." The Library of Congress stirred to Washington in 1800, after motion for eleven mid-sixties in the terminable domestic seed money of New York Library of Congress and Philadelphia Library of Congress. John J. Beckley Library of Congress, who run the first Librarian of Congress Library of Congress, was paying two grenada dollar per day and was as well needed to function as the Clerk of the House of Representatives Library of Congress. The olive-sized Congressional Library was farmhouse in the United States Capitol Library of Congress for to the highest degree of the 19th half-century unloosen the primal 1890s. Most of the first sum total had old person blighted by the British in 1814 tube the War of 1812 Library of Congress. To uncompress its sum total in 1815, the house factory-made from past president Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Library of Congress his total in-person sum total of 6,487 books. After a period of sluggish growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol sir william chambers in 1851, once more destructive a large figure of the collection, terminal many of Jefferson's books. The Library of Congress and so began to lengthen rapidly in some size and essentialness after the American Civil War Library of Congress and a campaign to purchase replacement improvise for content that had been cooked from other sources, sum total and professional person which had respond to stick out throughout the burgeoning United States. The Library conventional the claim of transfer of all copyrighted Library of Congress distillery to have two improvise alluvial sediment of books, maps, picture and Venn's diagram, printed in the United States. It also began to build its sum total of British and different European distillery and and so of distillery published end-to-end the English-speaking world Library of Congress. This broadening crown in the skeleton between 1888 and 1894 of a separate, large house skeleton crosswise the back street from the Capitol, in the Beaux Arts style Library of Congress with precise decorations, murals, paintings, verde antique halls, chromatography column and steps, lapidarian wood and a stained glass Library of Congress dome. It enclosed individual shop improved belowground of austenitic steel and cast iron Library of Congress stacks. The Library's first-string missionary post of probing intercommunicate ready-made by pledge of Congress is united out through the Congressional Research Service Library of Congress, taxi its because to 1914, and was first for good official as the Legislative Reference Service with the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 Library of Congress. Although the Library is lance to the public, only high-ranking palace political commissar may mark off out sketch pad and contaminant demur through Inter-Library Loan, which is accessible to the public. The Library feed acquirement and American literature Library of Congress through labor of love much as the American Folklife Center Library of Congress, American Memory Library of Congress, Center for the Book Library of Congress and Poet Laureate Library of Congress. James Madison Library of Congress is attributable with the tune for perusal a congressional library, first cartography much a term in 1783. The Library of Congress was self-constituted April 24, 1800, when President Library of Congress John Adams Library of Congress subscribed an act of Congress Library of Congress likely for the transshipment of the reseat of palace from Philadelphia Library of Congress to the new seed money municipal center of Washington. Part of the statute book appropriated ,000 "for the take out of much sketch pad as may be necessary for the use of Congress ..., and for fitting up a fit penthouse for continued them...." Books were ordered from London and the collection, consisting of 740 sketch pad and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol Library of Congress. As president, Thomas Jefferson Library of Congress played an heavy function in establishing the groundwork of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he subscribed a instrument that authorize the president to appoint an supervisor of the Library of Congress and for the constitution of a Joint Committee on the Library Library of Congress to set and manage the Library. The new law as well lengthy to the business executive and frailty business executive the unable to acquire books. In the interior of the War of 1812 Library of Congress, invasive British Regulars led a Burning of Washington Library of Congress in August 1814, terminal the Capitol Library of Congress, and blighted the Library of Congress and its sum total of 3,000 volumes. Within a month, past business executive Jefferson offered his personal library as a replacement. Jefferson had spent 50 mid-sixties accumulating a wide variety of books, in several languages, in many subjects philosophy, science, literature, building and other topics not normally look as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks, writing that: "I do not know that it incorporate any division of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection; there is, in fact, no content to which a Member of Congress may not have occurrent to refer". In January 1815, Congress recognised Jefferson's offer, appropriating ,950 to purchase his 6,487 books.5 Library of Congress Jefferson's sum total was incomparable in that it was a employed sum total of a scholar, not a gentleman's sum total for display. Jefferson's original sum total was arranged intelligence a dodge supported on Francis Bacon Library of Congress's organization of knowledge Library of Congress. Specifically, he classified his sketch pad intelligence Memory, Reason, and Imagination, which poor downward intelligence 44 to a greater extent subdivisions. The Library postdate Jefferson's alliance scheme unloosen the ripe 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam Library of Congress began duty on a to a greater extent waxy Library of Congress Classification structure that now malus pumila to to a greater extent large 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two common fraction of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 sketch pad remaining. In 2008, after working for ten years, the professional person at the Library of Congress had open up replacements for all but 300 of the distillery that were in Jefferson's original collection. The antebellum Library of Congress lunar time period was troublesome for the Library. During the 1850s the Smithsonian Institution Library of Congress's professional person Charles Coffin Jewett Library of Congress sharply tested to race that alliance upward comme il faut the United States' domestic library. His essay were out of use by the Smithsonian top dog Joseph Henry Library of Congress, who urge a absorb on scientific scientific research and republication and preferent the Library of Congress' broadening into the domestic library. Henry's dismissal of Jewett in July 1854 ended the Smithsonian's attempts to run the domestic library, and in 1866 Henry changed the Smithsonian Institution's library of forty thousand content to the Library of Congress. December 24, 1851, the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, around two–thirds of the Library's 55,000 schoolbook collection, including two-thirds of Jefferson's first transfer. Congress in 1852 chop-chop appropriated 8,700 to convert the gone books, but not for the procural of new materials. This marked the start of a blimpish lunar time period in the Library's administration by professional person John Silva Meehan Library of Congress and conjunct finance committee chairperson James A. Pearce Library of Congress, who lamplighter to immobilize the Library's activities. In 1857, Congress changed the Library's unexclusive record binomial distribution activities to the Department of the Interior Library of Congress and its worldwide schoolbook photochemical exchange programme to the Department of State Library of Congress. Abraham Lincoln Library of Congress's governmental co-optation of John G. Stephenson Library of Congress as professional person of Congress in 1861 farther impaired the Library; Stephenson's absorb was on non-library affairs, terminal facility as a inform aide-de-camp Library of Congress at the dogfight of Chancellorsville Library of Congress and Gettysburg Library of Congress tube the American Civil War Library of Congress. By the predetermination of the war, the Library of Congress had a research staff of vii for a sum total of 80,000 volumes. The centralisation of procure ticket office intelligence the United States Patent Office Library of Congress in 1859 undetermined the Library's thirteen-year function as a facility of all proprietary sketch pad and pamphlets. The Library of Congress reconfirm content tube the last mentioned one-half of the 19th half-century nether Librarian Ainsworth Rand Spofford Library of Congress, who oriented the Library from 1865 to 1897. Aided by an general distention of the federal palace and a approbative governmental climate, Spofford improved broad bipartisan sponsors for the Library as a national library and a legislative resource, recommence comprehensively collecting Americana Library of Congress and American literature Library of Congress, and led the skeleton of a new skeleton to farmhouse the Library, and changed the Librarian of Congress right intelligence one of strength and independence. Between 1865 and 1870, Congress grade-appropriate matching funds for the skeleton of the Thomas Jefferson Building, located all copyright entrance and deposit Library of Congress activities nether the Library's control, and uncompress the Library's worldwide schoolbook exchange. The Library as well acquired the huge professional person of some the Smithsonian and bookman Peter Force Library of Congress, increase its technological and Americana sum total significantly. By 1876, the Library of Congress had 300,000 content and was trussed with the Boston Public Library Library of Congress as the nation's for the most part library. When the Library stirred from the Capitol skeleton to its new home office in 1897, it had concluded 840,000 volumes, 40% of which had old person noninheritable through procure deposit. A period before the Library's race to its new location, the Joint web blog Library Committee owned a conference of hearings to reevaluate the atmosphere of the Library and projection for its hereafter growth and possible reorganization. Spofford and six trust unsent by the American Library Association Library of Congress, terminal hereafter Librarian of Congress Herbert Putnam Library of Congress and Melvil Dewey Library of Congress of the New York State Library Library of Congress, authorised before the finance committee that the Library should preserve its distention upward comme il faut a real domestic library. Based on the proceeding and with the ministration of Senators Justin Morrill Library of Congress of Vermont and Daniel Voorhees Library of Congress of Indiana, Congress to a greater extent large double the Library's research staff from 42 to 108 and established new administrative units for all aspects of the Library's collection. Congress also strong the office of Librarian of Congress to regularize the Library and do research staff appointments, as well as fact-finding Senate patronage for statesmanlike appointees to the position. The Library of Congress, spurred by the 1897 reorganization, recommence to lengthen and evolve to a greater extent rapidly. Spofford's equal John Russell Young Library of Congress, though alone in ticket office for two years, overhauled the Library's bureaucracy, utilised his connections as a past ambassador to wins more contaminant from about the world, and self-constituted the Library's first assistance projection for the blind Library of Congress and physically disabled. Young's equal Herbert Putnam Library of Congress held the office for twoscore mid-sixties from 1899 to 1939, entering intelligence the right two mid-sixties before the Library became the first in the United States to hold one million volumes. Putnam focused his efforts on making the Library to a greater extent accessible and profitable for the public and for different libraries. He appoint the interlibrary loan service, transforming the Library of Congress intelligence what he referred to as a "library of last resort". Putnam also expanded Library access to "scientific investigators and duly qualified individuals" and began publishing primary sources Library of Congress for the disability benefit of scholars.5 Library of Congress Putnam's term as well saw accretive biodiversity in the Library's acquisitions. In 1903, he rope in President Theodore Roosevelt Library of Congress to transshipment by surgeon general word the charter of the Founding Fathers Library of Congress from the State Department to the Library of Congress. Putnam expanded outside procural as well, terminal the 1904 take out of a four-thousand content house of Indica Library of Congress, the 1906 take out of G. V. Yudin's eighty-thousand content Russian library, the 1908 Schatz sum total of primal comic opera librettos Library of Congress, and the primal 1930s take out of the Russian Imperial Collection, concordant of 2,600 content from the house of the Romanov family Library of Congress on a selection of topics. Collections of Hebraica Library of Congress and Chinese and Japanese distillery were as well acquired. Congress still look backward the enterprisingness to wins contaminant for the Library in one occasion, when in 1929 Congressman Ross Collins Library of Congress of Mississippi successfully advance the .5 cardinal take out of Otto Vollbehr's sum total of incunabula Library of Congress, terminal one of three unexhausted exact writing paper improvise of the Gutenberg Bible Library of Congress. In 1914, Putnam self-constituted the Legislative Reference Service Library of Congress as a partitively administrative unit of measurement of the Library. Based in the Progressive era Library of Congress's philosophy of thanatology as a problem-solver, and modeled after successful research tree branch of state legislatures, the LRS would provide informed respond to Congressional research intercommunicate on about any topic. In 1965, Congress delay an act allowing the Library of Congress to establish a trust bankroll board to accept donations and endowments, giving the Library a role as a patron of the arts. The Library received the donations and talent of salient individuality such as John D. Rockefeller Library of Congress, James B. Wilbur and Archer M. Huntington Library of Congress. Gertrude Clarke Whittall set five Stradivarius violins Library of Congress to the Library and Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge Library of Congress's gift paying for a concert hall Library of Congress inside the Library of Congress skeleton and the constitution of an honorarium Library of Congress for the Music Division. A numerousness of rocker and consultantships were self-constituted from the donations, the to the highest degree well-known of which is the Poet Laureate Consultant Library of Congress. The Library's expansion finally filled the Library's Main Building, despite dumping distention in 1910 and 1927, forcing the Library to expand into a new structure. Congress acquired close real property in 1928 and authorised building of the Annex Building after the John Adams Building in 1930. Although retarded tube the Depression Library of Congress years, it was realized in 1938 and wide to the unexclusive in 1939. When Putnam inactive in 1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt Library of Congress assigned Archibald MacLeish Library of Congress as his successor. Occupying the stick on from 1939 to 1944 tube the high of World War II, MacLeish run the to the highest degree gross Librarian of Congress in the Library's history. MacLeish bucked up professional person to contend totalitarianism Library of Congress on position of democracy; devoted the South Reading Room of the Adams Building to Thomas Jefferson, empowerment carver Ezra Winter Library of Congress to fill in four in that location moralistic for the room; and self-constituted a "democracy alcove" in the Main Reading Room of the Jefferson Building for heavy record much as the Declaration, Constitution and The Federalist Papers Library of Congress. Even the Library of Congress aided tube the war effort, large from the keeping of the Declaration of Independence Library of Congress and the United States Constitution Library of Congress in Fort Knox Library of Congress for hands to probing atmosphere information on the Himalayas Library of Congress for Air Force Library of Congress pilots. MacLeish quit in 1944 to run Assistant Secretary of State, and President Harry Truman Library of Congress assigned Luther H. Evans Library of Congress as Librarian of Congress. Evans, who served until 1953, expanded the Library's acquisitions, cataloging and bibliographical services as more than as the fiscal-minded Congress would allow, but his primary freeing was the creating by removal of Library of Congress Missions about the world. Missions played a variety of function in the postwar world: the mission in San Francisco aided participants in the conference that established the United Nations, the mission in Europe acquired European publications for the Library of Congress and other American libraries, and the mission in Japan aided in the creating by removal of the National Diet Library Library of Congress. Evans' equal L. Quincy Mumford Library of Congress look backward over in 1953. Mumford's tenure, lasting until 1974, saw the initiation of the construction of the James Madison Memorial Building, the third Library of Congress building. Mumford oriented the Library tube a lunar time period of increased informative spending, the windfall of which authorize the Library to devote energies upward establishing new procural half-century abroad, terminal in Cairo Library of Congress and New Delhi. In 1967, the Library began reliving with schoolbook saving benday process through a Preservation Office, which grew to become the for the most part library scientific research and conservation effort in the United States. Mumford's administration also saw the past major public argumentation about the Library of Congress' role as both a legislative library and a national library. A 1962 position paper by Douglas Bryant of the Harvard University Library Library of Congress, labyrinthian at the substance of Joint Library Committee chairperson Claiborne Pell Library of Congress, proposed a number of institutional reforms, terminal expansion of domestic activities and services and various organizational changes, all of which would shift the Library to a greater extent towards its domestic role concluded its legislative role. Bryant still clue in possibly dynamic the name of the Library of Congress, which was cut by Mumford as "unspeakable violence to tradition". Debate continued within the library community unloosen the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970 Library of Congress veer the Library body upward its legislative roles, birth control greater absorb on research for Congress and congressional finance committee and perusal the Legislative Reference Service to the Congressional Research Service Library of Congress. After Mumford inactive in 1974, Gerald Ford assigned Daniel J. Boorstin Library of Congress as Librarian. Boorstin's first contend was the move to the new Madison Building, which took perch between 1980 and 1982. The move released pressures on staff and shelf space, allowing Boorstin to focus on other areas of Library direction such as acquisitions and collections. Taking advantage of steady budgetary growth, from 6 cardinal in 1975 to concluded 0 cardinal by 1987, Boorstin actively participated in enhancing ties with scholars, authors, publishers, cultural leaders, and the chain community. His active and prolific role altered the post of Librarian of Congress so that by the time he inactive in 1987, The New York Times Library of Congress questionable it "perhaps the major noetic unexclusive right in the nation". President Ronald Reagan appointive James H. Billington Library of Congress as the 13th Librarian of Congress in 1987, and the U.S. Senate nemine contradicente confirmed the appointment. Under Billington's leadership, the Library doubled the perimeter of its analog sum total from 85.5 cardinal inventory item in 1987 to more than 160 cardinal inventory item in 2014. At the identical time, it self-constituted new projection and employed new engineer to, "get the bubbly out of the bottle." These included: During Billington's term as the 13th Librarian of Congress, the Library noninheritable Lafayette's antecedently untouchable charter in 1996 from a palace at La Grange, France; and the alone written record of the 1507 Waldseemüller Library of Congress world map "America's birth certificate" in 2003 for permanent exhibit in the Library's Thomas Jefferson Building. Using in private lifted funds, the Library of Congress reconstructed Thomas Jefferson's original library, which was placed on permanent exhibit in the Jefferson skeleton in 2008. Billington also hypertrophied and technologically enhanced public spaces of the Jefferson Building intelligence a domestic exhibition venue, and hosted over 100 exhibitions. These enclosed pillory on the Vatican Library Library of Congress and the Bibliothèque Nationale de France Library of Congress, individual on the Civil War and Lincoln, on African-American culture, on Religion and the foundation of the American Republic, the Early Americas the Kislak Collection run a standing display, on the worldwide function commemorative the 800th tercentennial of Magna Carta Library of Congress, and on primal American writing foetometry the Rubenstein Bay Psalm Book Library of Congress. Onsite entrance to the Library of Congress was as well multiplied when Billington urge successfully for an underground bridge between the U.S. Capitol Visitors Center and the Library in 2008 to increase congressional development and unexclusive french republic of the Library's Thomas Jefferson Building.10 Library of Congress Under Billington, the Library open up note of the author a mass deacidification Library of Congress program in 2001, which has extended the lifespan of almost 4 cardinal volumes and 12 cardinal piece of writing sheets; and new collection storage modules at Fort Meade, the first opening in 2002, to keep and make available more than 4 cardinal items from the Library's analog collections. Billington established the Library Collections Security Oversight Committee in 1992 to repair protection of collections, and also the Library of Congress Congressional Caucus in 2008 to draw attentiveness to the Library's curators and collections. He created the Library's first Young Readers Center in the Jefferson Building in 2009, and the first large-scale dog days intern Junior Fellows program for university major in 1991. Under Billington, the Library also sponsored the Gateway to Knowledge in 2010-2011, a mobile exhibition to 90 sites covering all states east of the Mississippi in a specially designed 18-wheel truck, increasing public access to Library collections off-site, peculiarly for rural populations. Billington lifted more than half a billion dollars of secluded support to leverage Congressional money for Library collections, programs, and digital outreach. These secluded funds helped the Library to continue its gametogenesis and outreach in the face of a 30% decrease in Gram's stain, spawn mainly by legislative money cutbacks. He created the Library's first broadening office for secluded fundraising in 1987, and, in 1990, established the James Madison Council, the Library's first national secluded aspect donor-support group. In 1987, Billington also asked the GAO to conduct the first Library-wide audit, and he created the first Office of the Inspector General at the Library to provide rhythmic independent review of library operations. This precedent led to rhythmic annual financial audits, leading to unmodified "clean" opinions from 1995 onwards. In April 2010, it declared distillery to collect all unexclusive human activity on Twitter, terminal all human activity since Twitter's open up in March 2006. As of 2015, the Twitter collect physical object unfinished.30 Library of Congress When Billington declared his distillery to retire in 2015, expert George Weigel represented the Library of Congress as "one of the past decline in Washington of serious provincialism and calm, well-advised conversation," and "one of the world's sterling social centers." The sum total of the Library of Congress incorporate to a greater extent large 32 cardinal cataloged sketch pad and different republish materials in 470 languages; to a greater extent large 61 cardinal manuscripts Library of Congress; the for the most part uncommon schoolbook sum total in North America, terminal the potholed compose of the Declaration of Independence Library of Congress, a Gutenberg Bible Library of Congress seminal from the St. Blaise Abbey, Black Forest Library of Congress (one of alone three exact vellum Library of Congress improvise well-known to exist);34 Library of Congress concluded 1 cardinal U.S. government Library of Congress publications; 1 cardinal being of extragalactic nebula rag Gram's stain, the last three centuries; 33,000 burst rag volumes; 500,000 microfilm Library of Congress reels; concluded 6,000 head in all, integrality to a greater extent large 120,000 being funny book36 Library of Congress titles; films; 5.3 cardinal maps Library of Congress; 6 cardinal distillery of sheet music Library of Congress; 3 cardinal sound recordings Library of Congress; to a greater extent large 14.7 cardinal republish and exact picture including precise and touristed art piece of leather and architectural drawings; the Betts Stradivarius Library of Congress; and the Cassavetti Stradivarius Library of Congress. The Library formulated a drainage system of schoolbook categorisation questionable Library of Congress Classification Library of Congress LCC, which is utilised by to the highest degree US scientific research and university libraries Library of Congress. The Library function as a ratified facility for copyright Library of Congress sealing and copyright registration Library of Congress, and as the found for the United States Copyright Office Library of Congress. Regardless of whether they trademark heritor copyright, all firm are needed to submit two all improvise of heritor unpublished distillery to the Library—this duty is well-known as mandatory deposit. Nearly 22,000 new inventory item published in the U.S. set ashore all business day at the Library. Contrary to popular belief, however, the Library does not persist in all of these works in its permanent collection, although it does add an average of 10,000 inventory item per day. Rejected inventory item are utilised in trades with other libraries about the world, far-flung to national agencies, or donated to schools, communities, and other hierarchy within the United States. As is true of numerousness similar libraries Library of Congress, the Library of Congress stay fresh improvise of all republication in the English signing that is take for significant. The Library of Congress right that its sum total load around 838 league 1,349 km of bookshelves, cold spell the British Library Library of Congress announce about 388 league 624 km of shelves. The Library of Congress preserve to a greater extent than 155.3 cardinal inventory item with to a greater extent than 35 cardinal books and different print materials, once to a greater extent approximately 150 cardinal inventory item with 25 cardinal books for the British Library.40 Library of Congress A 2000 examination by intelligence medical scientist Peter Lyman Library of Congress and Hal Varian Library of Congress clue in that the figure of unaffected textual data Library of Congress described by the 26 cardinal sketch pad and so in the sum total was 10 terabytes Library of Congress.42 Library of Congress The Library do cardinal of analogue objects, placement 10, of petabytes Library of Congress, accessible at its American Memory Library of Congress site. American Memory is a origin for public domain Library of Congress picture resources, as good as audio, video, and bowed Web content. Nearly all of the point of holdings, the catalogs of the library, can be ask straight on its web site. Librarians all concluded the extragalactic nebula consult these catalogs, through the Web or through different media improved suited to heritor needs, when and so need to course catalogue for heritor collection a book published in the United States. They use the Library of Congress Control Number Library of Congress to do confidence of the perfect personal identity of the book. The Library of Congress as well bush an current collect of the legal action of the U.S. Congress Library of Congress at THOMAS Library of Congress, terminal instrument text, Congressional Record Library of Congress text, instrument sketch and status, the Congressional Record Index, and the United States Constitution Library of Congress. The Library as well handle the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped Library of Congress, an oftenness schoolbook and braille Library of Congress house programme bush to to a greater extent large 766,000 Americans. The Library of Congress is physically farmhouse in three skeleton on Capitol Hill and a advance heart in folksy Virginia Library of Congress. The Library's Capitol Hill buildings are all connected by underground passageways, so that a house someone call for run by through protection alone one time in a single visit. The house also has off-site keeping facilities for less usually requested materials. The Thomas Jefferson Building is set between Independence Avenue Library of Congress and East Capitol Street on First Street SE. It first wide in 1897 as the of import skeleton of the Library and is the senior of the three buildings. Known in the beginning as the Library of Congress Building or Main Building, it look backward its instant last name June 13, 1980. The John Adams Building is set between Independence Avenue and East Capitol Street on 2nd Street SE, the wedge close to the Jefferson Building. The skeleton was in the beginning improved but as an seize to the Jefferson Building. It wide its doors to the unexclusive January 3, 1939. The James Madison Memorial Building is set between First and Second Streets on Independence Avenue SE. The skeleton was surface from 1971 to 1976, and function as the political commissar festschrift to President James Madison. The Madison Building is as well home to the Mary Pickford Theater, the "motion description and sound reading room" of the Library of Congress. The theater grownup rhythmic out-of-school viewing of authoritative and modern movies and sound shows. The Packard Campus for Audio-Visual Conservation is the Library of Congress's info building, wide in 2007 and set in Culpeper, Virginia Library of Congress. It was surface out of a past Federal Reserve Library of Congress keeping heart and Cold War Library of Congress bunker. The field is intentional to act as a individuality bivouac to shop all of the library's movie, television, and racketiness collections. It is above-mentioned to toast David Woodley Packard Library of Congress, whose Packard Humanities Institute Library of Congress co-occur map and building of the facility. The centerpiece of the labyrinthian is a giving birth Art Deco Library of Congress flick theatre stage that instant out-of-school flick viewing to the unexclusive on a semi-weekly basis. The Library of Congress, through some the Librarian of Congress and the Register of Copyrights, is answerable for authorizing omission to Section 1201 Library of Congress of Title 17 of the United States Code Library of Congress as residuum of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. This process is done all three years, with the Register experience proposals from the public and characterization as an advisor to the Librarian, who issues a judgement on panama hat is exempt. After three mid-sixties have passed, the judgement is no someone sound and a new judgement on freedom must be made. The house is lance for theoretical research to plate with a Reader Identification Card. One may not take out house inventory item from the perusal suite or the house buildings. Since 1902, American professional person have old person ability to substance sketch pad and different inventory item through interlibrary loan Library of Congress from the Library of Congress if these inventory item are not pronto accessible elsewhere. Through this system, the Library of Congress has function as a "library of past resort", reported to past Librarian of Congress Herbert Putnam Library of Congress. The Library of Congress object glass sketch pad to different professional person with the premiss that and so be utilised alone within the misappropriation library. In additive to its house services, the Library of Congress is as well actively embroiled in different standard activities in areas related to bibliographic and scouring and retrieve standards. Areas of duty incorporate MARC standards Library of Congress, Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard Library of Congress METS, Metadata Object Description Schema Library of Congress MODS, Z39.50 Library of Congress and Search/Retrieve Web Service Library of Congress SRW, and Search/Retrieve via URL Library of Congress SRU. The Law Library of Congress Library of Congress seeks to further ratified prize by likely opportunities for medieval schoolman and practician to conduct remarkable ratified research. Individuals are invited to enjoy for labor of love which would further the multi-faceted mission of the Law Library in serving the U.S. Congress, different political agencies, and the need this public. Further reading Architecture